Abstract

After briefly recalling the issue of OAM mode purity in strongly-guiding ring-core fibers, this paper provides a methodology to calculate the coupling strength between OAM mode groups due to fiber perturbations. The cases of stress birefringence and core ellipticity are theoretically and numerically investigated. It is found that both perturbations produce the same coupling pattern among mode groups, although with different intensities. The consequence is that birefringence causes the highest modal crosstalk because it strongly couples groups with a lower propagation-constant mismatch. The power coupling to parasitic TE and TM modes is also quantified for both perturbations and is found to be non-negligible. Approximate modal crosstalk formulas valid for weakly-guiding multi-core fibers, but whose parameters are adapted to the present case of strongly guiding OAM fibers, are found to provide a reasonable fit to numerical results. Finally, the effect that modal coupling has on OAM transmission is assessed in terms of SNR penalty.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Birefringence effects in multi-core fiber: coupled local-mode theory

Andrés Macho, Carlos García-Meca, F. Javier Fraile-Peláez, Maria Morant, and Roberto Llorente
Opt. Express 24(19) 21415-21434 (2016)

Orbital-angular-momentum mode-group multiplexed transmission over a graded-index ring-core fiber based on receive diversity and maximal ratio combining

Junwei Zhang, Guoxuan Zhu, Jie Liu, Xiong Wu, Jiangbo Zhu, Cheng Du, Wenyong Luo, Yujie Chen, and Siyuan Yu
Opt. Express 26(4) 4243-4257 (2018)

Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes

Guoxuan Zhu, Ziyang Hu, Xiong Wu, Cheng Du, Wenyong Luo, Yujie Chen, Xinlun Cai, Jie Liu, Jiangbo Zhu, and Siyuan Yu
Opt. Express 26(2) 594-604 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Coupling Effects Among Degenerate Modes in Multimode Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1–8 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.
  11. A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, Science Paperbacks (Springer, 1983).
  12. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Royal Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 470, 20140633 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Golowich, “Asymptotic theory of strong spin–orbit coupling in optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 92–95 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Wang, A. Corsi, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Investigation of orbital angular momentum mode purity in air-core optical fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 203–204.
  18. R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Marcuse, “Coupled-mode theory for anisotropic optical waveguides,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 985–995 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. Palmieri, “Coupling mechanism in multimode fibers,” in Photonics West, Proc. SPIE 9009, Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems III, (2014), p. 90090G.
  21. C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Chowdhury and D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” J. Light. Technol. 14, 148–157 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” PNAS 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Linear Propagation Effects in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 614–628 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Intramodal Dispersion Properties of Step-Index Few-Mode Spun Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 303–313 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization decorrelation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1517–1519 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. Marcuse, “Derivation of coupled power equations,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229–237 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore Fiber Technology,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 55–66 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.
  34. J. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill series in electrical and computer engineering : communications and signal processing (McGraw-Hill, 2007).
  35. A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express 20, 11673–11678 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20, 23436–23441 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Intramodal Dispersion Properties of Step-Index Few-Mode Spun Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 303–313 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore Fiber Technology,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 55–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Royal Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 470, 20140633 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Golowich, “Asymptotic theory of strong spin–orbit coupling in optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 92–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Coupling Effects Among Degenerate Modes in Multimode Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Linear Propagation Effects in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 614–628 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express 20, 11673–11678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20, 23436–23441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” PNAS 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chowdhury and D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” J. Light. Technol. 14, 148–157 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization decorrelation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1517–1519 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Coupled-mode theory for anisotropic optical waveguides,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 985–995 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Derivation of coupled power equations,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229–237 (1972).
[Crossref]

Allahverdyan, K.

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amiralizadeh, S.

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

Antonelli, C.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express 20, 11673–11678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20, 23436–23441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernier, E.

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bononi, A.

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Brunet, C.

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brüning, R.

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, E. C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatigny, S.

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D.

D. Chowdhury and D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[Crossref]

Corsi, A.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, A. Corsi, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Investigation of orbital angular momentum mode purity in air-core optical fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 203–204.

Delbue, R.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duparré, M.

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupuy, J.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.

Esmaeelpour, M.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I.

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galtarossa, A.

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Intramodal Dispersion Properties of Step-Index Few-Mode Spun Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 303–313 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Coupling Effects Among Degenerate Modes in Multimode Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Gan, J.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.

Golowich, S.

S. Golowich, “Asymptotic theory of strong spin–orbit coupling in optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 92–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” PNAS 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregg, P.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

Guerra, G.

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Heng, X.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. P.

K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Linear Propagation Effects in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 614–628 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imoto, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jorge, F.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.

Kahn, J. M.

K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Linear Propagation Effects in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 614–628 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” PNAS 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konczykowska, A.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.

Kristensen, P.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

LaRochelle, S.

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, A. Corsi, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Investigation of orbital angular momentum mode purity in air-core optical fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 203–204.

Li, Q.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lonardi, M.

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Love, J.

A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, Science Paperbacks (Springer, 1983).

Luo, W.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcon, L.

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Coupled-mode theory for anisotropic optical waveguides,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 985–995 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Derivation of coupled power equations,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229–237 (1972).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore Fiber Technology,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 55–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

McCurdy, A.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

McCurdy, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

McLaren, M.

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mecozzi, A.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express 20, 11673–11678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20, 23436–23441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menyuk, C. R.

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” J. Light. Technol. 14, 148–157 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization decorrelation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1517–1519 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messaddeq, Y.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mestre, M. A.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mumtaz, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ndagano, B.

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nejad, R. M.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Royal Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 470, 20140633 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palmieri, L.

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Intramodal Dispersion Properties of Step-Index Few-Mode Spun Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 303–313 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Coupling Effects Among Degenerate Modes in Multimode Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Palmieri, “Coupling mechanism in multimode fibers,” in Photonics West, Proc. SPIE 9009, Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems III, (2014), p. 90090G.

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Peckham, D. W.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proakis, J.

J. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill series in electrical and computer engineering : communications and signal processing (McGraw-Hill, 2007).

Pupalaikis, P.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qian, Q.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rad, M.

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rubano, A.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

Rusch, L.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rusch, L. A.

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

L. Wang, A. Corsi, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Investigation of orbital angular momentum mode purity in air-core optical fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 203–204.

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore Fiber Technology,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 55–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sakai, J.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Santagiustina, M.

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

Schiano, M.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shtaif, M.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20, 23436–23441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express 20, 11673–11678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sierra, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, Science Paperbacks (Springer, 1983).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sureka, A.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tambosso, T.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, H.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Vaity, P.

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wai, P. K. A.

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” J. Light. Technol. 14, 148–157 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization decorrelation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1517–1519 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, A. Corsi, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Investigation of orbital angular momentum mode purity in air-core optical fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 203–204.

Wilcox, D.

D. Chowdhury and D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshizawa, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

L. A. Rusch, M. Rad, K. Allahverdyan, I. Fazal, and E. Bernier, “Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56, 219–224 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1267–1271 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Chowdhury and D. Wilcox, “Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress anisotropy and geometric deformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 227–232 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Coupling Effects Among Degenerate Modes in Multimode Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, A. H. Gnauck, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed Transmission Over a 209-km DGD-Compensated Hybrid Few-Mode Fiber Span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1965–1968 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (8)

R. M. Nejad, K. Allahverdyan, P. Vaity, S. Amiralizadeh, C. Brunet, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Mode Division Multiplexing Using Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Over 1.4-km Ring Core Fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4252–4258 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. Nejad, L. Wang, J. Lin, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “The Impact of Modal Interactions on Receiver Complexity in OAM Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 4692–4699 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” J. Light. Technol. 14, 148–157 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. Vaity, S. Chatigny, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Orbital-Angular-Momentum Polarization Mode Dispersion in Optical Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1661–1671 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Linear Propagation Effects in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 614–628 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Palmieri and A. Galtarossa, “Intramodal Dispersion Properties of Step-Index Few-Mode Spun Fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 303–313 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6×6 MIMO Processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh and S. Matsuo, “Multicore Fiber Technology,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 55–66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, and P. J. Winzer, “Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission,” Opt. Express 20, 11718–11733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express 20, 11673–11678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Coupled Manakov equations in multimode fibers with strongly coupled groups of modes,” Opt. Express 20, 23436–23441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, J. Gan, X. Heng, Y. Wu, Q. Li, Q. Qian, D. Chen, and Z. Yang, “Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9%,” Opt. Express 23, 29331–29341 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26, 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23, 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: Enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25, 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22, 26117 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

S. Golowich, “Asymptotic theory of strong spin–orbit coupling in optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 92–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, “Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long, single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 962–964 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. K. A. Wai and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization decorrelation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1517–1519 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8190 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” PNAS 97, 4541–4550 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Royal Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Royal Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 470, 20140633 (2014).
[Crossref]

The Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

D. Marcuse, “Coupled-mode theory for anisotropic optical waveguides,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 985–995 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Derivation of coupled power equations,” The Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229–237 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and J. Dupuy, “Penalties from in-band crosstalk for advanced optical modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2011), pp. 1–3.

J. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill series in electrical and computer engineering : communications and signal processing (McGraw-Hill, 2007).

L. Palmieri, “Coupling mechanism in multimode fibers,” in Photonics West, Proc. SPIE 9009, Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems III, (2014), p. 90090G.

L. Wang, A. Corsi, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Investigation of orbital angular momentum mode purity in air-core optical fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (IEEE, 2016), pp. 203–204.

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, S. Golowich, L. Marrucci, and S. Ramachandran, “Spin-Orbit Coupled, Non-Integer OAM Fibers: Unlocking a New Eigenbasis for Transmitting 24 Uncoupled Modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (OSA, San Jose, California, 2016), p. JTh4C.7.
[Crossref]

M. Lonardi, G. Guerra, L. Marcon, R. M. Nejad, M. Santagiustina, A. Galtarossa, L. A. Rusch, A. Bononi, and L. Palmieri, “Mode coupling analysis of hollow ring-core fibers for oam transmission,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (2017), pp. 1–3.

A. W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, Science Paperbacks (Springer, 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Hollow ring-core fiber index profile with h = 4 rings.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effective refractive indexes for the groups of degenerate modes. Symbols • and ▪ refer to OAM ± , p ±and OAM ± , p respectively, while TE and TM modes are depicted with ⋆ and * symbols. Colors indicate different OAM orders.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Coupling coefficients computed numerically from the overlap integral in Eq. (7), for stress birefringence and core ellipticity, each normalized to their corresponding absolute maximum. Marks indicate the strongest interaction that contribute to the coefficient: “□” represents interactions between dominant components, “○” refers to dominant-secondary mixed interactions, and “⋄” indicate interactions between secondary components. All the elements are real except those marked with a black dot, which are purely imaginary.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Average power on each group of degenerate modes OAM ± , p ±and OAM ± , p when the power is launched on that group, represented as a function of distance for birefringence- and ellipticity-induced coupling and fiber correlation length LF = 1m.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Crosstalk generated by each degenerate mode group OAM ± , p ± and OAM ± , p at 1 km length, represented as a function of Lβ/Lκ in case of birefringence- and ellipticity-induced coupling, with fiber correlation length of either LF = 1 m or LF = 10 m.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Difference between the crosstalk (in dB) at 1 km evaluated from theory (Eqs. (22) and (23)) and the one obtained from numerical simulations (Fig. 5).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 SNR penalty at 1 km length for OAM transmission, represented as a function of Lβ/Lκ in case of stress birefringence and core ellipticity of LF = 1 m. Results are represented for different modulation formats: QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Components of OAM, TE and TM modes. Shaded cells indicate the secondary component (or polarization). For example, OAM , p has dominant RCP component of order −, secondary LCP component of order −( + 2), and longitudinal component of order −( + 1).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Selection rules for the birefringence-induced coupling; integers n and m are either ≥ 0 or ≥ 2 as specified in Eq. (3). Lack of coupling is due to polarization orthogonality (−) or Eq. (11) not being met (--). Shaded circular polarizations indicate secondary components. The lower triangular part of the table is obtained from the upper one simply by swapping n with m. TE and TM modes never couple to one another so these are not included.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Selection rules for the ellipticity-induced coupling among OAM, TE and TM modes, where they are reported once for each mode combination. Integers n and m are either ≥ 0 or ≥ 2, as specified in Eq. (3). Symbol -- means that the corresponding condition in Eq. (13) is never verified by the specific mode orders. Shaded circular polarizations indicate secondary components. The lower triangular part of the table is obtained from the upper one simply by swapping n with m.

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ν { e o ( r , φ ) = f ν ( r ) { cos ( ν φ ) sin ( ν φ ) r ^ + g ν ( r ) { sin ( ν φ ) cos ( ν φ ) φ ^ + j h ν ( r ) { cos ( ν φ ) sin ( ν φ ) z ^ ,
E ± ν ( r , φ ) = 1 2 [ f ν ( r ) ± g ν ( r ) ] exp [ ± j ( ν 1 ) φ ] L ^ + 1 2 [ f ν ( r ) g ν ( r ) ] exp [ ± j ( ν ± 1 ) φ ] R ^ + j h ν ( r ) exp ( ± j ν φ ) z ^ ,
OAM ± , p ± HE ( + 1 ) , p e ± j HE ( + 1 ) , p o = HE ± ( + 1 ) , p with 0 ,
OAM ± , p EH ( 1 ) , p e ± j EH ( 1 ) , p o = EH ± ( 1 ) , p with 2 ,
E { TE TM ( r , φ ) = { 0 d ( r ) r ^ + { d ( r ) 0 φ ^ + j { 0 e ( r ) z ^ ,
E { TE TM ( r , φ ) = 1 2 { j d ( r ) d ( r ) exp ( j φ ) L ^ + 1 2 { j d ( r ) d ( r ) exp ( j φ ) R ^ + j { 0 e ( r ) z ^ ,
d c d z = j ( D + K ( z ) ) c ( z ) ,
K μ ν = ω 4 P 0 0 2 π r E μ * δ E ν d φ d r ,
0 0 2 π r ( E ν × H μ * + E μ * × H ν ) z ^ d φ d r = δ μ ν P ,
q μ , i q ν , j = k ,
δ h ( r , φ ) = 0 n h Δ n h ( 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ) , r h 1 r r h , h = 1 , 2 ,
q μ , i = q ν , j ,
δ ( r , φ ) = 0 cos 2 φ h 1 R 1 γ h ( n h 2 n h + 1 2 ) δ ( r r h ) ,
q μ , i q ν , i = 2 or q ν , i q μ , i = 2
c ( z ) = U ( z ) c ( z 0 ) ,
d U d z = j ( D + K ( z ) ) U ( z ) = j B ( z ) U ( z ) ,
Δ β = max β i min β i and Δ κ = max κ i min κ i ,
T ( ν θ ) = 1 2 ( exp ( j ν θ ) exp ( j ν θ ) j exp ( j ν θ ) j exp ( j ν θ ) ) .
B ( z ) = D + ξ α ξ ( z ) M ( θ ξ ( z ) ) K ξ 0 M T ( θ ξ ( z ) ) ,
B ( z ) = D + M ( θ ( z ) ) [ α B K B 0 + α E K E 0 ] M T ( θ ( z ) ) ,
d θ d z = σ η ( z ) ,
B k = D + M ( θ k ) [ α B K B 0 + α E K E 0 ] M T ( θ k ) ,
d P μ ( z ) d z = ν μ h μ ν ( z ) ( P ν ( z ) P μ ( z ) ) ,
h μ ν = 2 K μ ν 2 L F 1 + [ Δ β μ ν L F ] 2 ,
Δ SNR = 1 ( 1 ( SNR BER ) 𝒳 )
SNR BER = M 1 3 ( Q 1 ( 1 1 BER log 2 M 2 ( 1 1 M ) ) ) 2

Metrics