Abstract

High harmonic generation in atomic or molecular targets stands as a robust mechanism to produce coherent ultrashort pulses with controllable polarization in the extreme-ultraviolet. However, the production of elliptically or circularly-polarized harmonics is not straightforward, demanding complex combinations of elliptically or circularly-polarized drivers, or the use of molecular alignment techniques. Nevertheless, recent studies show the feasibility of high-harmonic generation in solids. In contrast with atoms and molecules, solids are high-density targets and therefore more efficient radiation sources. Among solid targets, 2D materials are of special interest due to their particular electronic structure, which conveys special optical properties. In this paper, we present theoretical calculations that demonstrate an extraordinary complex light-spin conversion in single-layer graphene irradiated at non perturbative intensities. Linearly-polarized drivings result in the emission of elliptically-polarized harmonics, and elliptically-polarized drivings may result in linearly-polarized or ellipticity-reversed harmonics. In addition, we demonstrate the ultrafast temporal modulation of the harmonic ellipticity.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

K. M. Dorney, L. Rego, N. J. Brooks, J. San-Román, C.T. Liao, J. L. Ellis, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, Q. L. Nguyen, J. M. Shaw, A. Picón, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Controlling the polarization and vortex charge of attosecond high-harmonic beams via simultaneous spin-orbit momentum conservation,” Nat. Photonics 13, 123–130 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

P. C. Huang, C. Hernández-García, J. T. Huang, P. Y. Huang, C. H. Lu, L. Rego, D. D. Hickstein, J. L. Ellis, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, S. D. Yang, C. G. Durfee, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. H. Kung, and M. C. Chen, “Polarization control of isolated high-harmonic pulses,” Nat. Photonics 12, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, D. D. Hickstein, N. J. Brooks, C. Gentry, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, J. M. Shaw, Q. L. Nguyen, C. A. Mancuso, G. S. M. Jansen, S. Witte, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane,“High harmonics with spatially varying ellipticity,” Optica 5, 479–485 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Baudisch, A. Marini, J. D. Cox, T. Zhu, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Massicotte, F. Koppens, L. S. Levitov, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Biegert, “Petahertz optical response in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1018 (2018)
[Crossref]

O. Zurrón, A. Picón, and L. Plaja, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation for gapless graphene,” New J. Phys. 20053033 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, and R. Li, “Driving-laser ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation in graphene,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 063412 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Barreau, K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. J. Weber, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, F. Lepetit, B. Carré, J. C. Houver, D. Dowek, and P. Salières, Pascal, “Evidence of depolarization and ellipticity of high harmonics driven by ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized fields,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4727 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Zhou and W. Du, “The graphene Mach-Zehnder modulator based on sandwiched structure,” Res J Opt Photonics 2, 1000110 (2018).

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, A. G. Harvey, F. Légaré, Z. Masín, L. Nahon, A. F. Ordonez, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, O. Smirnova, and V. Blanchet, “Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecule,” Nat. Phys. 14, 484–489 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4, 9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356, 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Taucer, T. J. Hammond, P. B. Corkum, G. Vampa, C. Couture, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, H. Selvi, N. Unsuree, B. Hamilton, T. J. Echtermeyer, and M. A. Denecke, “Nonperturbative harmonic generation in graphene from intense midinfrared pulsed light,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 195420 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y.S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Heinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13, 262–265 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, C. P. Schmid, C. Poellmann, P. Nagler, T. Korn, C. Schüller, M. S. Sherwin, U. Huttner, J. T. Steiner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale,” Nature 533, 225–229 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Skantzakis, S. Chatziathanasiou, P. A. Carpeggiani, G. Sansone, A. Nayak, D. Gray, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, E. Hertz, and O. Faucher, “Polarization shaping of high-order harmonics in laser-aligned molecules,” Scientific Reports 6, 39295 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Lin and I. Jovanovic, “Single-Shot Measurement of Temporally-Dependent Polarization State of Femtosecond Pulses by Angle-Multiplexed Spectral-Spatial Interferometry,” Scientific Reports 6, 32839 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

R. Cireasa, A. E. Boguslavskiy, B. Pons, M. C. H. Wong, D. Descamps, S. Petit, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, A. Ferré, J. Suarez, J. Higuet, B. E. Schmidt, A. F. Alharbi, F. Légaré, V. Blanchet, B. Fabre, S. Patchkovskii, O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Probing molecular chirality on a sub-femtosecond timescale,” Nat. Phys. 11, 654–658 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. P. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, “Towards enabling femtosecond helicity-dependent spectroscopy with high-harmonic sources,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8, 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Vampa, C. R. McDonald, G. Orlando, D. D. Klug, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Theoretical analysis of High Harmonic Generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 073901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

N. Kumar, J. Kumar, C. Gerstenkorn, R. Wang, H.Y. Chiu, A.L. Smirl, and H. Zhao, “Third harmonic generation in graphene and few-layer graphite films,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 121406 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.Y. Hong, J.I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P.C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R.M. Osgood, “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 021014 (2013).

S. A. Sørngård, S. I. Simonsen, and J. P. Hansen, “High-order harmonic generation from graphene: Strong attosecond pulses with arbitrary polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053803 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Ghimire, A.D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L.F. DiMauro, and D.A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized molecular high-order harmonic generation in H2+ with intense laser pulses and static fields,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063422 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Roberts, D. Cormode, C. Reynolds, T. Newhouse-Illige, B. J. LeRoy, and A. S. Sandhu, “Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051912 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. López-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Durr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Etches, Ch. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. L. Ishikawa, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene in Time Domain,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 201402 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. J. Dean and H. M. van Driel, “Second harmonic generation from graphene and graphitic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261910 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and Th. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically Polarized High-Order Harmonic Emission from Molecules in Linearly Polarized Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
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2008 (1)

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “Nonlinear electromagnetic response of graphene: frequency multiplication and the self-consistent-field effects,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 384204 (2008).

2000 (1)

D. B. Milosevic, W. Becker, and R. Kopold, “Generation of circularly polarized high-order harmonics by two-color coplanar field mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063403 (2000).
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1994 (1)

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
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1993 (3)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
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K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
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K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’ Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,”, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3440 (1993).
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1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
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Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A.D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L.F. DiMauro, and D.A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
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Alharbi, A. F.

R. Cireasa, A. E. Boguslavskiy, B. Pons, M. C. H. Wong, D. Descamps, S. Petit, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, A. Ferré, J. Suarez, J. Higuet, B. E. Schmidt, A. F. Alharbi, F. Légaré, V. Blanchet, B. Fabre, S. Patchkovskii, O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Probing molecular chirality on a sub-femtosecond timescale,” Nat. Phys. 11, 654–658 (2015).
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Alisauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Amorim, B.

R. E. F. Silva, A. Jiménez-Galán, B. Amorim, O. Smirnova, and M. Ivanov, “Topological strong field physics on sub-laser cycle time scale,” arXiv:1806.11232v2 [physics.optics] (2018).

Andreev, A.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. P. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, “Towards enabling femtosecond helicity-dependent spectroscopy with high-harmonic sources,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Ardana-Lamas, F.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. P. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, “Towards enabling femtosecond helicity-dependent spectroscopy with high-harmonic sources,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Auguste, T.

L. Barreau, K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. J. Weber, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, F. Lepetit, B. Carré, J. C. Houver, D. Dowek, and P. Salières, Pascal, “Evidence of depolarization and ellipticity of high harmonics driven by ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized fields,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4727 (2018).
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Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Baltuska, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Bandrauk, A. D.

K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized molecular high-order harmonic generation in H2+ with intense laser pulses and static fields,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063422 (2011).
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Barreau, L.

L. Barreau, K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. J. Weber, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, F. Lepetit, B. Carré, J. C. Houver, D. Dowek, and P. Salières, Pascal, “Evidence of depolarization and ellipticity of high harmonics driven by ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized fields,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4727 (2018).
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Baudisch, M.

M. Baudisch, A. Marini, J. D. Cox, T. Zhu, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Massicotte, F. Koppens, L. S. Levitov, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Biegert, “Petahertz optical response in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1018 (2018)
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Beaulieu, S.

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, A. G. Harvey, F. Légaré, Z. Masín, L. Nahon, A. F. Ordonez, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, O. Smirnova, and V. Blanchet, “Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecule,” Nat. Phys. 14, 484–489 (2018).
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Beaurepaire, E.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. López-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Durr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
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Becker, A.

P. C. Huang, C. Hernández-García, J. T. Huang, P. Y. Huang, C. H. Lu, L. Rego, D. D. Hickstein, J. L. Ellis, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, S. D. Yang, C. G. Durfee, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. H. Kung, and M. C. Chen, “Polarization control of isolated high-harmonic pulses,” Nat. Photonics 12, 349–354 (2018).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milosevic, W. Becker, and R. Kopold, “Generation of circularly polarized high-order harmonics by two-color coplanar field mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063403 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

R. Cireasa, A. E. Boguslavskiy, B. Pons, M. C. H. Wong, D. Descamps, S. Petit, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, A. Ferré, J. Suarez, J. Higuet, B. E. Schmidt, A. F. Alharbi, F. Légaré, V. Blanchet, B. Fabre, S. Patchkovskii, O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Probing molecular chirality on a sub-femtosecond timescale,” Nat. Phys. 11, 654–658 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

M. Baudisch, A. Marini, J. D. Cox, T. Zhu, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Massicotte, F. Koppens, L. S. Levitov, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Biegert, “Petahertz optical response in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1018 (2018)
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Bigot, J.-Y.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. López-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Durr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
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Blanchet, V.

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, A. G. Harvey, F. Légaré, Z. Masín, L. Nahon, A. F. Ordonez, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, O. Smirnova, and V. Blanchet, “Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecule,” Nat. Phys. 14, 484–489 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Cireasa, A. E. Boguslavskiy, B. Pons, M. C. H. Wong, D. Descamps, S. Petit, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, A. Ferré, J. Suarez, J. Higuet, B. E. Schmidt, A. F. Alharbi, F. Légaré, V. Blanchet, B. Fabre, S. Patchkovskii, O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Probing molecular chirality on a sub-femtosecond timescale,” Nat. Phys. 11, 654–658 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
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Blonsky, A.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4, 9744 (2018).
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Boeglin, C.

C. Boeglin, E. Beaurepaire, V. Halté, V. López-Flores, C. Stamm, N. Pontius, H. A. Durr, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Distinguishing the ultrafast dynamics of spin and orbital moments in solids,” Nature 465, 458–461 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boguslavskiy, A. E.

R. Cireasa, A. E. Boguslavskiy, B. Pons, M. C. H. Wong, D. Descamps, S. Petit, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, A. Ferré, J. Suarez, J. Higuet, B. E. Schmidt, A. F. Alharbi, F. Légaré, V. Blanchet, B. Fabre, S. Patchkovskii, O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Probing molecular chirality on a sub-femtosecond timescale,” Nat. Phys. 11, 654–658 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

G. Vampa, C. R. McDonald, G. Orlando, D. D. Klug, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Theoretical analysis of High Harmonic Generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 073901 (2014).
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Breusing, M.

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and Th. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102086809 (2009).
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Brooks, N. J.

K. M. Dorney, L. Rego, N. J. Brooks, J. San-Román, C.T. Liao, J. L. Ellis, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, Q. L. Nguyen, J. M. Shaw, A. Picón, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. Hernández-García, “Controlling the polarization and vortex charge of attosecond high-harmonic beams via simultaneous spin-orbit momentum conservation,” Nat. Photonics 13, 123–130 (2019).
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J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, D. D. Hickstein, N. J. Brooks, C. Gentry, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, J. M. Shaw, Q. L. Nguyen, C. A. Mancuso, G. S. M. Jansen, S. Witte, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane,“High harmonics with spatially varying ellipticity,” Optica 5, 479–485 (2018).
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Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budil, K. S.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’ Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,”, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3440 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgy, F.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burnett, N. H.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
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Carpeggiani, P. A.

E. Skantzakis, S. Chatziathanasiou, P. A. Carpeggiani, G. Sansone, A. Nayak, D. Gray, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, E. Hertz, and O. Faucher, “Polarization shaping of high-order harmonics in laser-aligned molecules,” Scientific Reports 6, 39295 (2016).
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Carr, A.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carré, B.

L. Barreau, K. Veyrinas, V. Gruson, S. J. Weber, T. Auguste, J. F. Hergott, F. Lepetit, B. Carré, J. C. Houver, D. Dowek, and P. Salières, Pascal, “Evidence of depolarization and ellipticity of high harmonics driven by ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized fields,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4727 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chacón, A.

A. Chacón, W. Zhu, Sh. P. Kelly, A. Dauphin, E. Pisanty, A. Picón, Ch. Ticknor, M. F. Ciappina, A. Saxena, and M. Lewenstein “Observing Topological Phase Transitions with High Harmonic Generation,” arXiv:1807.01616 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (2018).

Charalambidis, D.

E. Skantzakis, S. Chatziathanasiou, P. A. Carpeggiani, G. Sansone, A. Nayak, D. Gray, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, E. Hertz, and O. Faucher, “Polarization shaping of high-order harmonics in laser-aligned molecules,” Scientific Reports 6, 39295 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatziathanasiou, S.

E. Skantzakis, S. Chatziathanasiou, P. A. Carpeggiani, G. Sansone, A. Nayak, D. Gray, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, E. Hertz, and O. Faucher, “Polarization shaping of high-order harmonics in laser-aligned molecules,” Scientific Reports 6, 39295 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4, 9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M. C.

P. C. Huang, C. Hernández-García, J. T. Huang, P. Y. Huang, C. H. Lu, L. Rego, D. D. Hickstein, J. L. Ellis, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, S. D. Yang, C. G. Durfee, L. Plaja, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. H. Kung, and M. C. Chen, “Polarization control of isolated high-harmonic pulses,” Nat. Photonics 12, 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Chen, Z.Y.

Z.Y. Chen and R. Qin,“Circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonic generation in graphene,” arXiv:1808.07346v2 (2018).

Chiu, H.Y.

N. Kumar, J. Kumar, C. Gerstenkorn, R. Wang, H.Y. Chiu, A.L. Smirl, and H. Zhao, “Third harmonic generation in graphene and few-layer graphite films,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 121406 (2013).
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Ciappina, M. F.

A. Chacón, W. Zhu, Sh. P. Kelly, A. Dauphin, E. Pisanty, A. Picón, Ch. Ticknor, M. F. Ciappina, A. Saxena, and M. Lewenstein “Observing Topological Phase Transitions with High Harmonic Generation,” arXiv:1807.01616 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (2018).

Cireasa, R.

R. Cireasa, A. E. Boguslavskiy, B. Pons, M. C. H. Wong, D. Descamps, S. Petit, H. Ruf, N. Thiré, A. Ferré, J. Suarez, J. Higuet, B. E. Schmidt, A. F. Alharbi, F. Légaré, V. Blanchet, B. Fabre, S. Patchkovskii, O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Probing molecular chirality on a sub-femtosecond timescale,” Nat. Phys. 11, 654–658 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8, 543–549 (2014).
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Comby, A.

S. Beaulieu, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, A. G. Harvey, F. Légaré, Z. Masín, L. Nahon, A. F. Ordonez, S. Petit, B. Pons, Y. Mairesse, O. Smirnova, and V. Blanchet, “Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecule,” Nat. Phys. 14, 484–489 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, “A table-top ultrashort light source in the extreme ultraviolet for circular dichroism experiments,” Nat. Photonics 9, 93–98 (2015).
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Corkum, P. B.

M. Taucer, T. J. Hammond, P. B. Corkum, G. Vampa, C. Couture, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, H. Selvi, N. Unsuree, B. Hamilton, T. J. Echtermeyer, and M. A. Denecke, “Nonperturbative harmonic generation in graphene from intense midinfrared pulsed light,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 195420 (2017).
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T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356, 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scientific Reports (2)

M. W. Lin and I. Jovanovic, “Single-Shot Measurement of Temporally-Dependent Polarization State of Femtosecond Pulses by Angle-Multiplexed Spectral-Spatial Interferometry,” Scientific Reports 6, 32839 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Other (6)

Z.Y. Chen and R. Qin,“Circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonic generation in graphene,” arXiv:1808.07346v2 (2018).

S. Reich, Ch. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, Carbon Nanotubes: Basic Concepts and Physical Properties (Wiley-Vch Verlag, 2004).

L. Plaja, R. Torres, and A. Zaïr, Attosecond Physics. Attosecond Measurements and Control of Physical Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2013).

A. Chacón, W. Zhu, Sh. P. Kelly, A. Dauphin, E. Pisanty, A. Picón, Ch. Ticknor, M. F. Ciappina, A. Saxena, and M. Lewenstein “Observing Topological Phase Transitions with High Harmonic Generation,” arXiv:1807.01616 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (2018).

R. E. F. Silva, A. Jiménez-Galán, B. Amorim, O. Smirnova, and M. Ivanov, “Topological strong field physics on sub-laser cycle time scale,” arXiv:1806.11232v2 [physics.optics] (2018).

Y. S. You, J. Lu, E. Cunningham, Ch. Roedel, and S. Ghimire, “Crystal orientation-dependent polarization state of high-order harmonics,” arXiv:1810.11567v1 (2018).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scheme of graphene’s first Brillouin Zone in the reciprocal space. (b) Graphene’s band structure within the nearest-neighbor tight-binding approximation. The Fermi level is set to zero. The conduction and valence bands correspond to positive and negative values of energy, respectively. Dirac points K and K′ are degenerated in energy at the Fermi level.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Total harmonic yield from SLG for different angles of linear polarization of the driving laser, measured from the vertical axis, as shown in the inset. The total yield for each angle is obtained by the addition of the spectral components ��x(θ, ω) and ��y(θ, ω) and it is given in units of the driver’s intensity I0. (b) Intensities of the harmonic yield of SLG as a function of θ. For each harmonic, intensities are normalized to the value at θ = 0. (c) Ellipticity of the harmonic yield as a function of θ. Positive values of the ellipticity indicate left handed polarization. (d) Harmonic tilt angle shift with respect to the driver’s tilt, as a function of θ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Time dependent ellipticity for a tilt angle θ = 15° of the input beam. Panels (a) and (c) show the time dependence of the ellipticity parameter εq and relative tilt angle θqθ for the fifth and eleventh harmonics, respectively. The blue line in the background of each panel represents the intensity profile of the harmonic emission. Panels (b) and (d) show the 3D plots of the electric field for the fifth and eleventh harmonic pulses along with their ortogonal X and Y components.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Harmonic yield from SLG for three different values of the ellipticity of the input beam. The total yield is obtained by the addition of the spectral components ��x and ��y parallel to the axes of the laser polarization ellipse and it is given in units of the driver’s intensity I0. (b) Normalized intensities for the harmonic yield as a function of the laser ellipticity. (c) Tilt angle of the harmonic response as a function of εIR. The tilt angle of the input laser is always zero. (d) Ellipticity of the harmonic yield from SLG as a function of εIR. Positive values of the ellipticity indicate left handed polarization. The lines connecting graphics (b) and (d) are eye guides. In (b), (c) and (d) the highest harmonics are not plotted for the largest ellipticities because they are not resolved in the spectra.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Panels (a) and (c) show the time dependence of the ellipticity for εIR = 0.3 and 1.0, respectively. The blue line in the background of each panel represents the intensity profile of the harmonic emission within the laser pulse. Panels (b) and (d) show the 3D plots of the electric field for the harmonic pulses along with its ortogonal X and Y components.

Equations (12)

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H 0 = ( 0 γ f ( k ) γ f * ( k ) 0 )
f ( k ) = e i a k x / 3 ( 1 + 2 e i 3 a k x / 2 cos a k y 2 ) .
Φ ± ( k ; r ) = 1 2 e i k r ( ± 1 e i ϕ ( k ) ) ,
Ψ ( r , t ) = Ψ ( k ; r , t ) d k = [ C + ( k , t ) Φ + ( k ; r ) + C ( k , t ) Φ ( k ; r ) ] d k .
i d d t C M ( κ t , t ) = E + ( κ t ) + E ( κ t ) 2 C M ( κ t , t ) + E + ( κ t ) E ( κ t ) 2 e i ϕ ( κ t ) C ˜ P ( κ t , t )
i d d t C ˜ P ( κ t , t ) = E + ( κ t ) + E ( κ t ) 2 C ˜ P ( κ t , t ) + E + ( κ t ) E ( κ t ) 2 e i ϕ ( κ t ) C M ( κ t , t )
C M ( κ t , t ) = C + ( κ t , t ) C ( κ t , t )
C P ( κ t , t ) = e i ϕ ( κ t ) [ C + ( κ t , t ) + C ( κ t , t ) ] ,
d ( t ) = Ψ ( r , t ) | q e r | Ψ ( r , t ) = i q e 2 [ C M * κ t C M + C P * κ t C P ] d k .
F ( t ) = sin 2 ( π t / 8 T ) [ F x sin ( ω 0 t ) e x + F y sin ( ω 0 t + Δ ϕ ) e y ]
ε q = tan [ 1 2 arctan ( S 3 q S 1 q 2 + S 2 q 2 ) ] ,
θ q = π 2 1 2 arctan S 2 q S 1 q .

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