Abstract

Abstract: In single input state polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with high resolution, the imperfections of quarter-wave plate (QWP) and the sensitivity roll-off mismatch between the two detection channels cause unpredictable polarization distortion. We present a correction method based on the Jones matrix modeling of the system. In a single input PS-OCT system working at 840 nm with an axial resolution of ~2.3 μm, the method yielded better estimation of retardation and optic axis orientation with significantly reduced noise level, especially in weakly birefringent samples. Numerical simulations and quantitative imaging of a sample of known birefringence were performed to validate the performance. We further demonstrate the advantages of our approach with birefringence imaging of swine retina, rat aortic wall, and rat esophageal mucosa for potential clinical applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2018 (1)

2017 (5)

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Ahn, C.-S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “Calibration and characterization protocol for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (5)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2000 (2)

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

M. L. Beauchemin, “The fine structure of the pig’s retina,” Albrecht Von Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 190(1), 27–45 (1974).
[PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

Ahn, Y.-C.

T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Ahn, C.-S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “Calibration and characterization protocol for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Albanese, A.

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Qaisi, M. K.

Augustin, M.

Baumann, B.

S. Fialová, M. Augustin, M. Glösmann, T. Himmel, S. Rauscher, M. Gröger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Polarization properties of single layers in the posterior eyes of mice and rats investigated using high resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1479–1495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fialová, M. Augustin, C. Fischak, L. Schmetterer, S. Handschuh, M. Glösmann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 298–314 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Trasischker, S. Zotter, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, R. Haindl, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single input state polarization sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography based on an all single mode fiber interferometer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2798–2809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beauchemin, M. L.

M. L. Beauchemin, “The fine structure of the pig’s retina,” Albrecht Von Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 190(1), 27–45 (1974).
[PubMed]

Beaudette, K.

Bhatia, S. N.

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D.

Boppart, S. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

M. Villiger, B. Braaf, N. Lippok, K. Otsuka, S. K. Nadkarni, and B. E. Bouma, “Optic axis mapping with catheter-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Optica 5(10), 1329–1337 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, K. Beaudette, X. Wang, L. Liu, B. E. Bouma, and M. Villiger, “Tissue-like phantoms for quantitative birefringence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4454–4465 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, C. Jun, and B. E. Bouma, “Single input state, single-mode fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging by eigenpolarization referencing,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2025–2028 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bu, Y.

Cense, B.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Park, M. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(7), 782–793 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, S.

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chung, K.

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cramer, A.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

J. F. de Boer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography - a review [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1838–1873 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2736–2758 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Groot, M.

Ding, Z.

Duan, L.

Dubb, J.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Eom, T. J.

T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Ahn, C.-S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “Calibration and characterization protocol for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, C.

Fialová, S.

Fischak, C.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, S.

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

Glösmann, M.

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Gröger, M.

Guo, S.

Haindl, R.

Handschuh, S.

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Himmel, T.

Himori, N.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

J. F. de Boer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography - a review [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1838–1873 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fialová, M. Augustin, C. Fischak, L. Schmetterer, S. Handschuh, M. Glösmann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 298–314 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Fialová, M. Augustin, M. Glösmann, T. Himmel, S. Rauscher, M. Gröger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Polarization properties of single layers in the posterior eyes of mice and rats investigated using high resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1479–1495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Trasischker, S. Zotter, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, R. Haindl, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single input state polarization sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography based on an all single mode fiber interferometer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2798–2809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hyle Park, B.

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, C.

Jung, W.

Kaji, Y.

Kemp, N.

Kemp, N. J.

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-S.

T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Ahn, C.-S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “Calibration and characterization protocol for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiuchi, T.

Kokubun, T.

Kostis, W. J.

Kunikata, H.

Kunimatsu-Sanuki, S.

Lan, G.

G. Lan and G. Li, “Design of a k-space spectrometer for ultra-broad waveband spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42353 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, G.

G. Lan and G. Li, “Design of a k-space spectrometer for ultra-broad waveband spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42353 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Liang, C.-P.

Lim, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Lippok, N.

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

Magnain, C.

Makihira, T.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Maruyama, K.

Marvdashti, T.

Meijer, E. F. J.

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

Milner, T.

Milner, T. E.

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Mujat, M.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

Nakazawa, T.

Nan, N.

Nassif, N.

Neel, V.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W.-Y.

Omodaka, K.

Oshika, T.

Otsuka, K.

Padera, T. P.

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, L.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander Iii, and T. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

S. Fialová, M. Augustin, C. Fischak, L. Schmetterer, S. Handschuh, M. Glösmann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 298–314 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Fialová, M. Augustin, M. Glösmann, T. Himmel, S. Rauscher, M. Gröger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Polarization properties of single layers in the posterior eyes of mice and rats investigated using high resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1479–1495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Trasischker, S. Zotter, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, R. Haindl, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single input state polarization sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography based on an all single mode fiber interferometer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2798–2809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rauscher, S.

Rylander, H. G.

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rylander Iii, H. G.

Ryu, M.

Saito, K.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakadžic, S.

Sato, M.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C. E.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schmoll, T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Shiga, Y.

Southern, J. F.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Strasswimmer, J.

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugita, M.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Tang, J. Y.

Tang, Q.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

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M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
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Torzicky, T.

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
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Villiger, M.

Villiger, M. L.

Wang, H.

Wang, R.

Wang, X.

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
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Yamanari, M.

Yao, G.

Yaseen, M. A.

Yasuno, Y.

Yokoyama, Y.

Yu, X.

Yun, S. H.

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Zaatari, H. N.

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
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Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

Zotter, S.

M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
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W. Trasischker, S. Zotter, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, R. Haindl, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single input state polarization sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography based on an all single mode fiber interferometer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2798–2809 (2014).
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M. L. Beauchemin, “The fine structure of the pig’s retina,” Albrecht Von Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 190(1), 27–45 (1974).
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Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (10)

J. F. de Boer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography - a review [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1838–1873 (2017).
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Z. Ding, C.-P. Liang, Q. Tang, and Y. Chen, “Quantitative single-mode fiber based PS-OCT with single input polarization state using Mueller matrix,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1828–1843 (2015).
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S. Fialová, M. Augustin, M. Glösmann, T. Himmel, S. Rauscher, M. Gröger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Polarization properties of single layers in the posterior eyes of mice and rats investigated using high resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1479–1495 (2016).
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S. Fialová, M. Augustin, C. Fischak, L. Schmetterer, S. Handschuh, M. Glösmann, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and B. Baumann, “Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 298–314 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Duan, T. Marvdashti, A. Lee, J. Y. Tang, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Automated identification of basal cell carcinoma by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3717–3729 (2014).
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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, M. de Groot, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT of the human retina with correction of system polarization distortions,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2736–2758 (2014).
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M. Yamanari, S. Tsuda, T. Kokubun, Y. Shiga, K. Omodaka, Y. Yokoyama, N. Himori, M. Ryu, S. Kunimatsu-Sanuki, H. Takahashi, K. Maruyama, H. Kunikata, and T. Nakazawa, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive OCT for birefringence imaging of the anterior eye segment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 369–389 (2015).
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X. Liu, K. Beaudette, X. Wang, L. Liu, B. E. Bouma, and M. Villiger, “Tissue-like phantoms for quantitative birefringence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4454–4465 (2017).
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W. Trasischker, S. Zotter, T. Torzicky, B. Baumann, R. Haindl, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Single input state polarization sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography based on an all single mode fiber interferometer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2798–2809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, M. Yamanari, S. Fukuda, Y. Kaji, T. Kiuchi, M. Miura, T. Oshika, and Y. Yasuno, “Birefringence measurement of cornea and anterior segment by office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2392–2402 (2011).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

J. Strasswimmer, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, V. Neel, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of invasive basal cell carcinoma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 292–298 (2004).
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M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
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T. J. Eom, Y.-C. Ahn, C.-S. Kim, and Z. Chen, “Calibration and characterization protocol for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030501 (2011).
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M. Sugita, M. Pircher, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, K. Saito, T. Makihira, N. Tomatsu, M. Sato, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Analysis of optimum conditions of depolarization imaging by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. De Boer, “Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 287–291 (2004).
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J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Lippok, M. Villiger, A. Albanese, E. F. J. Meijer, K. Chung, T. P. Padera, S. N. Bhatia, and B. E. Bouma, “Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 583–588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22704–22717 (2009).
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J. Zhang, S. Guo, W. Jung, J. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Determination of birefringence and absolute optic axis orientation using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with PM fibers,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3262–3270 (2003).
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B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
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N. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander Iii, and T. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005).
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X. Yu, X. Liu, S. Chen, Y. Luo, X. Wang, and L. Liu, “High-resolution extended source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26399–26413 (2015).
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Y. Chen, Z. Li, N. Nan, Y. Bu, X. Wang, L. Pan, and X. Wang, “Automatic spectral calibration for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23605–23618 (2017).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
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E. Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Oh, M. L. Villiger, L. Chen, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Numerical compensation of system polarization mode dispersion in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1163–1180 (2013).
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M. Villiger, E. Z. Zhang, S. K. Nadkarni, W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectral binning for mitigation of polarization mode dispersion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16353–16369 (2013).
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B. Park, M. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. de Boer, “Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(7), 782–793 (2003).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
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S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Generalized Jones matrix optical coherence tomography: performance and local birefringence imaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 854–876 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (7)

C. Fan and G. Yao, “Mapping local retardance in birefringent samples using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1415–1417 (2012).
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H. Wang, M. K. Al-Qaisi, and T. Akkin, “Polarization-maintaining fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in spectral domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 154–156 (2010).
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C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
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C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
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N. Lippok, M. Villiger, C. Jun, and B. E. Bouma, “Single input state, single-mode fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging by eigenpolarization referencing,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2025–2028 (2015).
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Optica (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(15), 3759–3767 (2006).
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Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Lan and G. Li, “Design of a k-space spectrometer for ultra-broad waveband spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42353 (2017).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al.., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of single input polarization state PS-OCT system. BS, beam splitter; DC, dispersion compensator; HWP, half-wave plate; L1-9, lenses; LS, linear stage; M1-2, mirrors; P1-2, polarizers; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PM, power meter; PMF, polarization-maintaining fiber; QWP, quarter-wave plate; SCL, supercontinuum laser; SMF, single-mode fiber; SP, spectrometer, TG, transmission grating. (b)-(e) Process of k-space linearization. (b) the mapping function k=Φ( n ) from CCD pixel index n to the k-space. (c) Raw interferogram. (d) Remapped interferogram in linear k-space. (e) Normalized point spread function (PSF) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2.3 μm in air after dispersion calibration. (f)-(h) Spectral alignment process after k-space resampling. Normalized profiles of the horizontal channel (red line) and vertical channel (blue line) with reflector optical path length difference of Δ z 1 (dashed line), Δ z 2 (solid line) before (f) and after (g) the spectral alignment, respectively. The spectrum rescaling factor a was determined by the ratio of the distances between the signal peaks’ positions of each channel. After spectrum rescaling, the peak positions of reflection surfaces of both channels were aligned together. (h) Determination of k-space pixel shift by drawing the functions of cross-correlation between interferograms of two channels against the amount of k-space shift at different path length differences.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Polarization distortion compensation process and measurement of a polarizer and a QWP. (a). Measured phase difference versus the k-space index, the compensated values were obtained by point to point subtraction between the measured values and theoretical values. (b). PSF peak ratios between two spectrometers at different imaging depths. (c). Measured polarization states from the sample mirror with a series of OPDs, with (red points) and without (blue points) distortion correction. (d). The measured orientation of linear polarizer. The asterisk points are the measured data, the blue line is the linear-least-square fit of the measurements, and the red dashed line is the theoretical relation. (e). Measured phase retardation of QWP when placed at different orientations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation of the accumulative retardation and optic axis measurement without (blue box plot) and with (red box plot) calibration when imaging a two-layer phantom positioned at different orientation angles. (a-b). Demonstration of the effect of polarization distortion correction on accumulative retardation (a) and optic axis (b) measurement when the accumulative retardation of the first layer is set to be 0.15 rad; (c-d) Demonstration of the effect of polarization distortion correction on accumulative retardation and optic axis measurement when the accumulative retardation of the first layer is set to be 1.5 rad.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A demonstration of polarization distortion removal on a designed phantom. (a). Intensity image, scale bar 100 µm; MS: microsphere solution (non-birefringent sample); AP: ABS phantom (birefringent sample made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)). (b) Accumulative retardation image without the polarization distortion correction; (c). Accumulative retardation image with polarization distortion correction; (d) Differential retardance image, which was obtained by point-to-point differentiation of the accumulative retardation presented in image (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A comparison of birefringence imaging of swine retina near the macular with and without the polarization distortion correction. (a). Intensity image, scale bar: vertical 100 µm, horizontal 500 µm. RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer, RPE; retinal pigment epithelium. (b) Accumulative retardation with polarization distortion correction. (c) Differential retardance with polarization distortion correction. (d) Accumulative optic axis image. (e) DOPU image. (f)-(h) Accumulative retardation, differential retardance, accumulative optic axis image without polarization distortion correction, respectively. The white arrows indicate the area where RNFL is not highlighted as high birefringence area.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Birefringence imaging of swine retina near the optical nerve head. (a) Intensity image, scale bar: vertical 100 µm, horizontal 500 µm. (b) Accumulative retardation with polarization distortion correction. (c). Differential retardance with polarization distortion correction. (d) Accumulative optic axis image. (e) DOPU image. (f). Intensity projection, scale bar 400 um. (g) The en face projection accumulative retardation at the bottom of the retinal nerve fiber layer. (h). En face projection of optic axis without polarization distortion correction. (i). En face image of optic axis after polarization distortion correction
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Birefringence imaging of rat esophagus. (a) Intensity image; (b) Optic axis orientation image; (c) Accumulative retardation image. (d) Differential retardance image. (e). Histology of rat esophagus (transverse section). KL: keratinized layer; EP: epithelium; LP; lamina propria; MM: muscularis mucosa; SM: submucosa; MP: muscularis propria; ICL; internal circular layer; OLL: outer longitudinal layer; AD: adventitia. Scale bar: vertical 100 µm, horizontal 200 µm.

Equations (13)

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FT( I( ak ) )= 1 | a | FT( I( k a ) )= 1 | a | Γ( z a )
[ I ( k ) I ( k ) ]=[ E ref E ref E ref E ref ]+[ E sam E sam E sam E sam ]+[ E ref E sam E ref E sam ]+[ E sam E ref E sam E ref ]
E ( k )= [ E ref E sam E ref E sam ] Τ = I ( k )+iH( I ( k ) )
E ref ( k )=[ η ( k ) 0 0 η ( k ) ][ cos 2 ϕ 1 2 sin2ϕ 1 2 sin2ϕ sin 2 ϕ ] E in ( k ) c ref ( k )S( k ) e ik z ref
E sam ( k )=[ η ( k ) 0 0 η ( k ) ] J sam ( k ) E in ( k ) c sam ( k )S( k ) e ik z sam
E ( k )=[ E ( k ) E ( k ) ]=[ R ( k ) 0 0 R ( k ) ] J sam E in e ikΔz
E ( k )=[ E ( k ) E ( k ) ]=[ R β ( Δz ) 0 0 R β ( Δz ) ] J sam E in e ikΔz
E surf ( k )=[ E ( k ) E ( k ) ]=[ R β ( Δz ) 0 0 R β ( Δz ) ] 1 2 [ 1 e iΨ( k ) ] e ikΔz
J sam = R 1 PR=[ e iδ/2 cos 2 θ+ e iδ/2 sin 2 θ ( e iδ/2 e iδ/2 )cosθsinθ ( e iδ/2 e iδ/2 )cosθsinθ e iδ/2 cos 2 θ+ e iδ/2 sin 2 θ ]
E ( k )= R( z ) J sam 1 2 [ 1 i ] Τ e i2kΔz
[ A ( z ) A ( z ) ]= R( z ) 2 [ cosδ( z )sinδ( z )sin( 2θ( z ) )+isinδ( z )cos( 2θ( z ) ) sinδ( z )cos( 2θ( z ) )+i( sinδ( z )sin( 2θ( z ) )+cosδ( z ) ) ]
S=[ I Q U V ]=[ A 2 + A 2 A 2 A 2 2 A A cosΔΦ 2 A A sinΔΦ ]=R( z )[ 1 sinδ( z )sin2θ( z ) sinδ( z )cos2θ( z ) cosδ( z ) ]
I(z)= | A ( z ) | 2 + | A ( z ) | 2 δ( z )= cos 1 ( V I ) θ( z )= 1 2 tan 1 ( Q U ) DOPU(z)= ( Q/I ) 2 + ( U/I ) 2 + ( V/I ) 2

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