Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) holds the potential of providing long-term integrity and confidentiality for data and communications. Currently, many fiber-based QKD systems have been commercialized and several QKD networks have been deployed. Given the high cost and complexity of QKD network deployment, QKD as a service (QaaS) becomes a promising pattern for future QKD networks. The QaaS concept is that multiple users can apply for QKD services to obtain their required secret-key rates (SKRs) from the same QKD network infrastructure instead of deploying their dedicated QKD networks. Accordingly, how to provide efficient and flexible QaaS for fulfilling the SKR requirements of multiple users over a QKD network infrastructure becomes a new challenge. This study introduces the software defined networking (SDN) technique to overcome this challenge, since SDN can add flexibility together with efficient QKD network management. A new framework of SDN for QaaS (SDQaaS) is proposed, where the QaaS functions are developed in the SDN controller. We present the protocol extension, intercommunication workflow, and routing and SKR assignment strategy for QaaS implementation in the SDQaaS framework. We also establish a SDQaaS experimental testbed and perform the numerical simulation to verify our presented approaches. Experimental results demonstrate that our presented approaches can achieve efficient and flexible QaaS over the QKD network. Moreover, simulation results indicate that the success probability of QKD service requests can be increased via lowering the flexibility of SKR requirements for QKD service creation, sacrificing more cost to produce higher SKR over the QKD network, or gradually reducing SKR requirements with the modification of QKD service.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (8)

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, Y. Wu, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Time-scheduled quantum key distribution (QKD) over WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(16), 3382–3395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Cao, W. Wang, H. Wang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, M. Tornatore, Y. Wu, and B. Mukherjee, “Resource allocation in optical networks secured by quantum key distribution,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56(8), 130–137 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. R. Schreiber and H. Bluhm, “Toward a silicon-based quantum computer,” Science 359(6374), 393–394 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, F. Xu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Large scale quantum key distribution: challenges and solutions [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24260–24273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Karinou, H. H. Brunner, C.-H. F. Fung, L. C. Comandar, S. Bettelli, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kuschnerov, S. Mikroulis, D. Wang, C. Xie, M. Peev, and A. Poppe, “Toward the integration of CV quantum key distribution in deployed optical networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(7), 650–653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Mao, B.-X. Wang, C. Zhao, G. Wang, R. Wang, H. Wang, F. Zhou, J. Nie, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, Q. Zhang, J. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Integrating quantum key distribution with classical communications in backbone fiber network,” Opt. Express 26(5), 6010–6020 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters,” Nature 557(7705), 400–403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Virtual network function deployment and service automation to provide end-to-end quantum encryption,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(4), 421–430 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

D. B. Rawat and S. R. Reddy, “Software defined networking architecture, security and energy efficiency: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 19(1), 325–346 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aguado, E. Hugues-Salas, P. A. Haigh, J. Marhuenda, A. B. Price, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, C. Erven, J. G. Rarity, M. G. Thompson, A. Lord, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Secure NFV orchestration over an SDN-controlled optical network with time-shared quantum key distribution resources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(8), 1357–1362 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and Y. Wu, “Resource assignment strategy in optical networks integrated with quantum key distribution,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(11), 995–1004 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, C. Colman-Meixner, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD),” Opt. Express 25(22), 26453–26467 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, T. Szyrkowiec, A. Autenrieth, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Hybrid conventional and quantum security for software defined and virtualized networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 819–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Dynamic optical resource allocation for mobile core networks with software defined elastic optical networking,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16659–16673 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, W. W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2009 (1)

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Grosshans and P. Grangier, “Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory of secrecy systems,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 28(4), 656–715 (1949).
[Crossref]

Aguado, A.

Autenrieth, A.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, 1984, pp. 175–179.

Bettelli, S.

F. Karinou, H. H. Brunner, C.-H. F. Fung, L. C. Comandar, S. Bettelli, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kuschnerov, S. Mikroulis, D. Wang, C. Xie, M. Peev, and A. Poppe, “Toward the integration of CV quantum key distribution in deployed optical networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(7), 650–653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bi, Y.

Y. Ou, E. Hugues-Salas, F. Ntavou, R. Wang, Y. Bi, S. Yan, G. Kanellos, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Field-trial of machine learning-assisted quantum key distribution (QKD) networking with SDN,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2018, Rome, Italy, Sept. 2018.
[Crossref]

Bluhm, H.

L. R. Schreiber and H. Bluhm, “Toward a silicon-based quantum computer,” Science 359(6374), 393–394 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, 1984, pp. 175–179.

Brunner, H. H.

F. Karinou, H. H. Brunner, C.-H. F. Fung, L. C. Comandar, S. Bettelli, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kuschnerov, S. Mikroulis, D. Wang, C. Xie, M. Peev, and A. Poppe, “Toward the integration of CV quantum key distribution in deployed optical networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(7), 650–653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.-Q.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, R. Lin, X. Yu, J. Zhang, and J. Chen, “Multi-tenant secret-key assignment over quantum key distribution networks,” Opt. Express 27(3), 2544–2561 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Multi-tenant provisioning over software defined networking enabled metropolitan area quantum key distribution networks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36(3), B31–B40 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, Y. Wu, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Time-scheduled quantum key distribution (QKD) over WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(16), 3382–3395 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Cao, W. Wang, H. Wang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, M. Tornatore, Y. Wu, and B. Mukherjee, “Resource allocation in optical networks secured by quantum key distribution,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56(8), 130–137 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, X. Yu, and Y. Wu, “Resource assignment strategy in optical networks integrated with quantum key distribution,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(11), 995–1004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, C. Colman-Meixner, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD),” Opt. Express 25(22), 26453–26467 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, Q.

Chen, T.-Y.

Chen, W.

S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Virtual network function deployment and service automation to provide end-to-end quantum encryption,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(4), 421–430 (2018).
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A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, T. Szyrkowiec, A. Autenrieth, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Hybrid conventional and quantum security for software defined and virtualized networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 819–825 (2017).
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A. Aguado, V. Martin, D. Lopez, M. Peev, J. Martinez-Mateo, J. L. Rosales, F. de la Iglesia, M. Gomez, E. Hugues-Salas, A. Lord, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Quantum-aware software defined networks,” in Proceedings of QCrypt 2016, Washington, DC, USA, Sept. 2016.

A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “GMPLS network control plane enabling quantum encryption in end-to-end services,” in Proceedings of ONDM 2017, Budapest, Hungary, May 2017.
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Lopez, V.

Lord, A.

A. Aguado, E. Hugues-Salas, P. A. Haigh, J. Marhuenda, A. B. Price, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, C. Erven, J. G. Rarity, M. G. Thompson, A. Lord, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Secure NFV orchestration over an SDN-controlled optical network with time-shared quantum key distribution resources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(8), 1357–1362 (2017).
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M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters,” Nature 557(7705), 400–403 (2018).
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Mao, Y.

Marhuenda, J.

Martin, V.

A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Virtual network function deployment and service automation to provide end-to-end quantum encryption,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(4), 421–430 (2018).
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A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, T. Szyrkowiec, A. Autenrieth, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Hybrid conventional and quantum security for software defined and virtualized networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 819–825 (2017).
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A. Aguado, V. Martin, D. Lopez, M. Peev, J. Martinez-Mateo, J. L. Rosales, F. de la Iglesia, M. Gomez, E. Hugues-Salas, A. Lord, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Quantum-aware software defined networks,” in Proceedings of QCrypt 2016, Washington, DC, USA, Sept. 2016.

A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “GMPLS network control plane enabling quantum encryption in end-to-end services,” in Proceedings of ONDM 2017, Budapest, Hungary, May 2017.
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A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Virtual network function deployment and service automation to provide end-to-end quantum encryption,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(4), 421–430 (2018).
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A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, T. Szyrkowiec, A. Autenrieth, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Hybrid conventional and quantum security for software defined and virtualized networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 819–825 (2017).
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A. Aguado, V. Martin, D. Lopez, M. Peev, J. Martinez-Mateo, J. L. Rosales, F. de la Iglesia, M. Gomez, E. Hugues-Salas, A. Lord, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Quantum-aware software defined networks,” in Proceedings of QCrypt 2016, Washington, DC, USA, Sept. 2016.

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Q. Zhang, F. Xu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Large scale quantum key distribution: challenges and solutions [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24260–24273 (2018).
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A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, T. Szyrkowiec, A. Autenrieth, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Hybrid conventional and quantum security for software defined and virtualized networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 819–825 (2017).
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A. Aguado, V. Martin, D. Lopez, M. Peev, J. Martinez-Mateo, J. L. Rosales, F. de la Iglesia, M. Gomez, E. Hugues-Salas, A. Lord, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Quantum-aware software defined networks,” in Proceedings of QCrypt 2016, Washington, DC, USA, Sept. 2016.

Pelc, J. S.

S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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Q. Zhang, F. Xu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Large scale quantum key distribution: challenges and solutions [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24260–24273 (2018).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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Price, A. B.

Radig, C.

J. F. Dynes, W. W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35149 (2016).
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Sanguinetti, B.

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 163–168 (2015).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Shields, A. J.

M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters,” Nature 557(7705), 400–403 (2018).
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J. F. Dynes, W. W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35149 (2016).
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Simeonidou, D.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, C. Colman-Meixner, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD),” Opt. Express 25(22), 26453–26467 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 An example of QaaS for fulfilling the SKR requirements of two users.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The SDQaaS framework.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The extended OFP v1.3.0 messages for QKD service (a) creation request, (b) creation response, (c) modification request, (d) modification response, (e) deletion request, and (f) deletion response.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The intercommunication workflow for successful QKD service creation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The routing and SKR assignment strategy for QKD service creation and modification.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The SDQaaS experimental testbed.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 HTTP message capture of QKD service creation, modification, and deletion request/response between QKD network operator and SDN controller.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 OFP message capture of QKD service creation (a) request and (b) response between SDN controller and OF-QUNs/OF-TRNs.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 OFP message capture of QKD service modification (a) request and (b) response between SDN controller and OF-QUNs/OF-TRNs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 OFP message capture of QKD service deletion (a) request and (b) response between SDN controller and OF-QUNs/OF-TRNs.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The success probability of QKD service requests versus traffic load with different (a) |K| and (b) kc.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The success probability of QKD service requests versus traffic load with different (a) m and (b) km.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 QKD service creation, modification, and deletion latencies.

Metrics