Abstract

We report on the demonstration of an electrically injected AlGaN nanowire photonic crystal laser that can operate in the ultraviolet spectral range. The nanowire heterostructures were grown on sapphire substrate using a site-controlled selective area growth process. By exploiting the topological high-Q resonance of a defect-free nanowire photonic crystal, we have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers that can operate at 369.5 nm with a relatively low threshold current density of ~2.1 kA/cm2 under continuous wave operation at room-temperature. This work provides a promising approach for achieving low threshold semiconductor laser diodes operating in the UV spectral range that were previously difficult.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

S. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wu, and Z. Mi, “An electrically pumped 239 nm AlGaN nanowire laser operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. W. Eaton, A. Fu, A. B. Wong, C.-Z. Ning, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16028 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, A. Sugiyama, and H. Yoshida, “A 350-nm-band GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Couteau, A. Larrue, C. Wilhelm, and C. Soci, “Nanowire lasers,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 90–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425(1), 316–321 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

R. Merlin and S. M. Young, “Photonic crystals as topological high-Q resonators,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18579–18587 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Mi, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Zhang, A. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and I. Shih, “High power phosphor-free InGaN/GaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire white light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” ECS Trans. 61(5), 9–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, S. Rajan, and R. C. Myers, “Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 915–920 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mokkapati, D. Saxena, N. Jiang, P. Parkinson, J. Wong-Leung, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization tunable, multicolor emission from core-shell photonic III-V semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6428–6431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Consonni, M. Hanke, M. Knelangen, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and H. Riechert, “Nucleation mechanisms of self-induced GaN nanowires grown on an amorphous interlayer,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035310 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernandez-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26(17), 2127–2141 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2911–2915 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, F. Mori, Y. Ogiso, T. Ichikawa, K. Nonaka, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaN/AlGaN‐based multi quantum wells on different dislocation densities underlying layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7(7), 1916–1918 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, F. H. Teherani, D. J. Rogers, and V. E. Sandana, “Novel green light emitting diodes: exploring droop-free lighting solutions for a sustainable earth,” J. Light Emit. Dio. 2(0), 1–33 (2010).

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Hong, H. Ahn, C.-Y. Wu, and S. Gwo, “Strong green photoluminescence from InxGa1-xN/GaN nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17227–17233 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN‐based deep‐UV LEDs fabricated on high‐quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Combe, J. R. Huntzinger, and J. Morillo, “Surface loving and surface avoiding modes,” ‎,” Eur. Phys. J. B 68(1), 47–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Mayevsky and G. G. Rogatsky, “Mitochondrial function in vivo evaluated by NADH fluorescence: from animal models to human studies,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 292(2), C615–C640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Glas, “Critical dimensions for the plastic relaxation of strained axial heterostructures in free-standing nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(12), 121302 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Trigo, T. A. Eckhause, M. Reason, R. S. Goldman, and R. Merlin, “Observation of surface-avoiding waves: a new class of extended states in periodic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 124301 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3851–3879 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Nam, J. Li, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. T. Thurman and G. M. Morris, “Controlling the spectral response in guided-mode resonance filter design,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3225–3233 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. F. Krauss and M. Richard, “Photonic crystals in the optical regime—past, present and future,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23(2), 51–96 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Doping of AlxGa1− xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 459–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Katsuragawa, S. Sota, M. Komori, C. Anbe, T. Takeuchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Thermal ionization energy of Si and Mg in AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 189(190), 528–531 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H.

Akahane, Y.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, F. Mori, Y. Ogiso, T. Ichikawa, K. Nonaka, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaN/AlGaN‐based multi quantum wells on different dislocation densities underlying layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7(7), 1916–1918 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Katsuragawa, S. Sota, M. Komori, C. Anbe, T. Takeuchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Thermal ionization energy of Si and Mg in AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 189(190), 528–531 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, F. Mori, Y. Ogiso, T. Ichikawa, K. Nonaka, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaN/AlGaN‐based multi quantum wells on different dislocation densities underlying layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7(7), 1916–1918 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Katsuragawa, S. Sota, M. Komori, C. Anbe, T. Takeuchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Thermal ionization energy of Si and Mg in AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 189(190), 528–531 (1998).
[Crossref]

Anbe, C.

M. Katsuragawa, S. Sota, M. Komori, C. Anbe, T. Takeuchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Thermal ionization energy of Si and Mg in AlGaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 189(190), 528–531 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aoki, Y.

Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, A. Sugiyama, and H. Yoshida, “A 350-nm-band GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbagini, F.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernandez-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bayram, C.

M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, F. H. Teherani, D. J. Rogers, and V. E. Sandana, “Novel green light emitting diodes: exploring droop-free lighting solutions for a sustainable earth,” J. Light Emit. Dio. 2(0), 1–33 (2010).

Bengoechea-Encabo, A.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernandez-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benz, A.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertness, K. A.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2911–2915 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilenko, Y.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

X. Liu, B. H. Le, S. Y. Woo, S. Zhao, A. Pofelski, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Selective Area Epitaxy of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays Across Nearly the Entire Compositional Range For Deep Ultraviolet Photonics,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30494–30502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calleja, E.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernandez-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carnevale, S. D.

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Carnevale, T. F. Kent, P. J. Phillips, M. J. Mills, S. Rajan, and R. C. Myers, “Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 915–920 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combe, N.

N. Combe, J. R. Huntzinger, and J. Morillo, “Surface loving and surface avoiding modes,” ‎,” Eur. Phys. J. B 68(1), 47–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Connie, A.

Z. Mi, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Zhang, A. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and I. Shih, “High power phosphor-free InGaN/GaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire white light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” ECS Trans. 61(5), 9–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Connie, A. T.

H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consonni, V.

V. Consonni, M. Hanke, M. Knelangen, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and H. Riechert, “Nucleation mechanisms of self-induced GaN nanowires grown on an amorphous interlayer,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Couteau, C.

C. Couteau, A. Larrue, C. Wilhelm, and C. Soci, “Nanowire lasers,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 90–107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, S.

T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Djavid, M.

Z. Mi, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. Djavid, S. Zhang, A. Connie, S. Sadaf, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and I. Shih, “High power phosphor-free InGaN/GaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire white light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” ECS Trans. 61(5), 9–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S. W.

S. W. Eaton, A. Fu, A. B. Wong, C.-Z. Ning, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16028 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eckhause, T. A.

M. Trigo, T. A. Eckhause, M. Reason, R. S. Goldman, and R. Merlin, “Observation of surface-avoiding waves: a new class of extended states in periodic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 124301 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elhamri, S.

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, and W. C. Mitchel, “Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(4), 1832–1835 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fernandez-Garrido, S.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernandez-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frost, T.

T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, A.

S. W. Eaton, A. Fu, A. B. Wong, C.-Z. Ning, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16028 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN‐based deep‐UV LEDs fabricated on high‐quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fukui, T.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26(17), 2127–2141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, Q.

S. Mokkapati, D. Saxena, N. Jiang, P. Parkinson, J. Wong-Leung, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization tunable, multicolor emission from core-shell photonic III-V semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6428–6431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[Crossref]

Geelhaar, L.

V. Consonni, M. Hanke, M. Knelangen, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and H. Riechert, “Nucleation mechanisms of self-induced GaN nanowires grown on an amorphous interlayer,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Glas, F.

F. Glas, “Critical dimensions for the plastic relaxation of strained axial heterostructures in free-standing nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(12), 121302 (2006).
[Crossref]

Goldman, R. S.

M. Trigo, T. A. Eckhause, M. Reason, R. S. Goldman, and R. Merlin, “Observation of surface-avoiding waves: a new class of extended states in periodic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 124301 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandal, J.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernandez-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gwo, S.

Haller, E. E.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hanke, M.

V. Consonni, M. Hanke, M. Knelangen, L. Geelhaar, A. Trampert, and H. Riechert, “Nucleation mechanisms of self-induced GaN nanowires grown on an amorphous interlayer,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035310 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hara, S.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26(17), 2127–2141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harris, J.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harvey, T. E.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(17), 2911–2915 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hazari, A.

T. Frost, S. Jahangir, E. Stark, S. Deshpande, A. Hazari, C. Zhao, B. S. Ooi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4535–4541 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN‐based deep‐UV LEDs fabricated on high‐quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hiruma, K.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26(17), 2127–2141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, C.-C.

Hu, X.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1815–1818 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huntzinger, J. R.

N. Combe, J. R. Huntzinger, and J. Morillo, “Surface loving and surface avoiding modes,” ‎,” Eur. Phys. J. B 68(1), 47–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, T.

K. Takeda, F. Mori, Y. Ogiso, T. Ichikawa, K. Nonaka, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaN/AlGaN‐based multi quantum wells on different dislocation densities underlying layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7(7), 1916–1918 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ide, K.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ikejiri, K.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26(17), 2127–2141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, F. Mori, Y. Ogiso, T. Ichikawa, K. Nonaka, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaN/AlGaN‐based multi quantum wells on different dislocation densities underlying layers,” Phys. Status Solidi C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7(7), 1916–1918 (2010).
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Jagadish, C.

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H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
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Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. T. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
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H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
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H. P. T. Nguyen, S. Zhang, A. T. Connie, M. G. Kibria, Q. Wang, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Breaking the carrier injection bottleneck of phosphor-free nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5437–5442 (2013).
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B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
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W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
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S. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wu, and Z. Mi, “An electrically pumped 239 nm AlGaN nanowire laser operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191106 (2016).
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S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 043101 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Band structure of the designed photonic crystal structure targeted to operate at a/λ = 1.08 (red). (b) Schematic of the topological nanowire photonic crystal high-Q resonator represented by hexagons and the intensity profile of one of the calculated modes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic illustration of GaN/AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum disk nanowire structure. (b) Titled view SEM image of GaN/AlxGa1-xN nanowire arrays grown by selective area epitaxy. (c) Room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of GaN/AlxGa1-xN nanowire arrays.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of GaN/AlxGa1-xN nanowire photonic crystal laser grown by selective area epitaxy. (b) Current-voltage characteristics of GaN/AlxGa1-xN nanowire photonic crystal laser. Inset: I-V characteristics plotted in semi-log scale.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Room-temperature electroluminescence spectra of GaN/AlxGa1-xN photonic crystal laser below (red) and above (blue) threshold current density. The spectra are vertically shifted for display purpose. (b) Estimated output power of the photonic crystal laser as a function of current density. Inset: Variation of output power vs. current density in log scale. (c) EL spectral linewidth vs. current density. (d) Variation of lasing peak position vs. current density.

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