Abstract

We demonstrate the enhancement of femtosecond (fs) laser-induced filaments in air and nitrogen flow fields using a nanosecond (ns) laser. With the ns laser being imposed on the filaments, the length and the emission intensity of the filaments were largely increased. Temporally resolved spectra of the enhanced filaments were obtained. The results show that the ns laser enhanced the short-lifetime fluorescence of nitrogen, which comes from the transition processes of N2+(B2Σu+ - X2Σg+), N2(B3Пg - A3Σu+) and N2(C3Пu - B3Пg). However, it had little effect on the long-lifetime chemiluminescence, which mainly comes from reactions such as N2(A3Σu+) + N2(A3Σu+) → N2(X1Σg+, v = 0) + N2(B3Пg). A possible explanation of this phenomenon is given, and this phenomenon might have potential applications in instantaneous one-dimensional measurements of various species in gas flow fields.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(4R), 2011–2012 (1999).
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  6. D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(2), 146–158 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. Liu and S. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5750–5755 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  26. L. G. Piper, “State-to-state N2(A3Σu+) energy-pooling reactions. II. The formation and quenching of N2(B3Πg, v′=1-12),” J. Chem. Phys. 88(11), 6911–6921 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. G. Piper, “State-to-state N2(A3Σu+) energy-pooling reactions. I. The formation of N2(C3Πu) and the Herman infrared system,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(1), 231–239 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, “Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7(3), 363–378 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

N. G. Ivanov, V. F. Losev, V. E. Prokop’ev, K. A. Sitnik, and I. A. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431(15), 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. A. Ilyin, S. S. Golik, and K. A. Shmirko, “Absorption and emission characteristics of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in the air,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 112(1), 16–22 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond /nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, J. Daigle, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 655–658 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(7), 689–699 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(2), 146–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(4R), 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, “Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7(3), 363–378 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

L. G. Piper, “State-to-state N2(A3Σu+) energy-pooling reactions. II. The formation and quenching of N2(B3Πg, v′=1-12),” J. Chem. Phys. 88(11), 6911–6921 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. G. Piper, “State-to-state N2(A3Σu+) energy-pooling reactions. I. The formation of N2(C3Πu) and the Herman infrared system,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(1), 231–239 (1988).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

M. Jeunehomme, “Transition moment of the first positive band system of nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 45(5), 1805–1811 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akturk, S.

Amorim, J.

J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(7), 689–699 (2002).
[Crossref]

André, Y. B.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Botton, M.

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q. D.

Cheng, Y.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S.

Chin, S. L.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, J. Daigle, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 655–658 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(4R), 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

D’Amico, C.

Daigle, J.

H. Xu, J. Daigle, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 655–658 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dey, I.

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Diels, J.-C.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(2), 146–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

Edwards, M. R.

Ferber, Y.

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, C. M.

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, “Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7(3), 363–378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Franco, D.

J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(7), 689–699 (2002).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Q.

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golik, S. S.

A. A. Ilyin, S. S. Golik, and K. A. Shmirko, “Absorption and emission characteristics of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in the air,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 112(1), 16–22 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gordiets, B.

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, “Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7(3), 363–378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gordon, D.

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. Q.

Henis, Z.

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond /nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

Ilyin, A. A.

A. A. Ilyin, S. S. Golik, and K. A. Shmirko, “Absorption and emission characteristics of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in the air,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 112(1), 16–22 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, N. G.

N. G. Ivanov, V. F. Losev, V. E. Prokop’ev, K. A. Sitnik, and I. A. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431(15), 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

Izawa, Y.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jeunehomme, M.

M. Jeunehomme, “Transition moment of the first positive band system of nitrogen,” J. Chem. Phys. 45(5), 1805–1811 (1966).
[Crossref]

Kalkner, W.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, Z. I.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kumar, G. R.

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lascoux, N.

Levaton, J.

J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(7), 689–699 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. L.

Li, X.

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and S. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5750–5755 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Losev, V. F.

N. G. Ivanov, V. F. Losev, V. E. Prokop’ev, K. A. Sitnik, and I. A. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431(15), 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

Luo, Q.

H. Xu, J. Daigle, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 655–658 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marceau, C.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, P.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, K.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michael, J. B.

Miles, R. B.

Milikh, G.

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond /nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(4R), 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papadopoulos, K.

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond /nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Papeer, J.

J. Papeer, I. Dey, Z. Henis, M. Botton, Y. Ferber, G. R. Kumar, and A. Zigler, “Uniform lifetime prolongation of a high density plasma channel left in the wake of femtosecond filament,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(7), 074102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pinheiro, M. J.

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, “Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7(3), 363–378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Piper, L. G.

L. G. Piper, “State-to-state N2(A3Σu+) energy-pooling reactions. II. The formation and quenching of N2(B3Πg, v′=1-12),” J. Chem. Phys. 88(11), 6911–6921 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. G. Piper, “State-to-state N2(A3Σu+) energy-pooling reactions. I. The formation of N2(C3Πu) and the Herman infrared system,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(1), 231–239 (1988).
[Crossref]

Prade, B.

Prokop’ev, V. E.

N. G. Ivanov, V. F. Losev, V. E. Prokop’ev, K. A. Sitnik, and I. A. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431(15), 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rambo, P.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(2), 146–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rethmeier, K.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ricard, A.

J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(7), 689–699 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Gordiets, C. M. Ferreira, M. J. Pinheiro, and A. Ricard, “Self-consistent kinetic model of low-pressure N2-H2 flowing discharges: I. Volume processes,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 7(3), 363–378 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roy, G.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salmon, E.

B. Zhou, S. Akturk, B. Prade, Y. B. André, A. Houard, Y. Liu, M. Franco, C. D’Amico, E. Salmon, Z. Q. Hao, N. Lascoux, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Revival of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in air by a nanosecond laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11450–11456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, J.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(2), 146–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shimada, Y.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shmirko, K. A.

A. A. Ilyin, S. S. Golik, and K. A. Shmirko, “Absorption and emission characteristics of femtosecond laser plasma filaments in the air,” Spectrochim. Acta. B 112(1), 16–22 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shneider, M. N.

M. N. Shneider, A. M. Zheltikov, and R. B. Miles, “Tailoring the air plasma with a double laser pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 18(6), 063509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simard, J. R.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Simard, P. T.

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Simokura, N.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sitnik, K. A.

N. G. Ivanov, V. F. Losev, V. E. Prokop’ev, K. A. Sitnik, and I. A. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431(15), 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sonoi, Y.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Souza, A. R.

J. Levaton, J. Amorim, A. R. Souza, D. Franco, and A. Ricard, “Kinetics of atoms, metastable, radiative and ionic species in the nitrogen pink afterglow,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(7), 689–699 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sprangle, P.

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Y.

Uchida, S.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ushio, T.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, J. Daigle, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 655–658 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu, Y. Kamali, C. Marceau, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, J. Bernhardt, G. Méjean, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, J. R. Simard, and S. L. Chin, “Simultaneous detection and identification of multigas pollutants using filament-induced nonlinear spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, C.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z. I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yamanouchi, K.

H. Li, W. Chu, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27340 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Wei, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: A comparative study,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, B. S.

Yu, J.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

Zheltikov, A. M.

M. N. Shneider, A. M. Zheltikov, and R. B. Miles, “Tailoring the air plasma with a double laser pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 18(6), 063509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

Zhu, Z.

B. Li, D. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Gao, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Femtosecond laser-induced cyano chemiluminescence in methane-seeded nitrogen gas flows for near-wall velocimetry,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(29), 295102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, Y. Tian, Q. Gao, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Zhu, and Z. Li, “Filamentary anemometry using femtosecond laser-extended electric discharge - FALED,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21132–21140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Opt. Commun. (1)

N. G. Ivanov, V. F. Losev, V. E. Prokop’ev, K. A. Sitnik, and I. A. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431(15), 120–125 (2019).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic of the experimental setup: a. imaging measurements; b. spectral measurements.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The relationship between the emission intensity of the filament and the delay time of the ns-laser relative to the fs-laser. The laser energy was 325 mJ/pulse for the ns-laser and 150 μJ/pulse for the fs-laser. (b) The relationship between the emission intensity of the filament and the pulse energy of the ns-laser. The fs-laser energy was 100 μJ/pulse. The left axis of the two graphs represents the actual emission intensity, and the right axis represents the emission intensity ratio between the filament enhanced by the ns-laser and the filament without being enhanced.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Images obtained by the ICCD camera in air with only the fs-laser being turned on a1, with both the fs and ns-lasers on a2, and with only the ns-laser on a3. (b)The relationship between the length of the filament and the ns-laser energy. (c) The relationship between the diameter of the filament and the ns-laser energy.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The spectra of the filament with nanosecond (ns) laser at different delay times in air, ns-laser energy: 300 mJ/pulse; fs-laser energy: 150 μJ/pulse.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The spectra of the filament with different nanosecond (ns) laser energies in air, fs-laser energy: 150 μJ/pulse.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The spectra of the filament with different nanosecond (ns) laser energies in pure N2, fs-laser energy: 150 μJ/Pulse. (a) Temporally resolved spectra obtained in pure N2; (b) The spectrum of component with long lifetime; (c) The spectrum of component with short lifetime.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A schematic of N2 luminescence.

Equations (6)

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N( S 4 )+N( S 4 ) N 2 ( Σ 5 g + )+M
N 2 ( Σ 5 g + )+M N 2 (B 3 Π g )+M
N 2 (B 3 Π g ) N 2 (A 3 Σ u + )+hν
N 2 (A 3 Σ u + )+N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) N 2 ( X 1 Σ g + ,ν=0 )+ N 2 (B 3 Π g )
N 2 (A 3 Σ u + )+N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) N 2 ( X 1 Σ g + ,ν=0 )+ N 2 (C 3 Π u )
N 2 (A 3 Σ u + )+N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) N 2 ( X 1 Σ g + ,ν=0 )+N( S 4 )+N( S 4 )

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