Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate low-cost and low-loss conversion of OM3 to OM4 MMFs using strong mode mixing by simple LPGs for datacenter applications. OM3 MMFs can be converted to OM4 MMFs (error-free transmission at 10 Gb/s over 400 m) with only 0.2 dB loss. Error-free transmission can be extended to 530 m with a larger loss. With suitably designed index profiles, the proposed method’s fabrication tolerance exceeds that for OM4 MMFs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  3. D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2012 (1)

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1971 (1)

S. Personick, “Time dispersion in dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50(3), 843–859 (1971).
[Crossref]

Achten, F.

. Molin, M. Bigot, F. Achten, A. Amezcua-Correa, and P. Sillard, “850-950nm wideband OM4 multimode fiber for next-generation WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), M3B. 1.
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

. Molin, M. Bigot, F. Achten, A. Amezcua-Correa, and P. Sillard, “850-950nm wideband OM4 multimode fiber for next-generation WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), M3B. 1.
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Arik, S. O.

S. O. Arık, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “MIMO DSP Complexity in Mode-Division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), Th1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Askarov, D.

S. O. Arık, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “MIMO DSP Complexity in Mode-Division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), Th1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Askins, C. G.

Bigot, M.

. Molin, M. Bigot, F. Achten, A. Amezcua-Correa, and P. Sillard, “850-950nm wideband OM4 multimode fiber for next-generation WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), M3B. 1.
[Crossref]

Bigot-Astruc, M.

D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
[Crossref]

Castro, J. M.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Correa, R. A.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

Friebele, E. J.

Giles, A.

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giles, F.

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gustavsson, J. S.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Johnson, C.

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), OTuH2.

Kahn, J. M.

S. O. Arık, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “MIMO DSP Complexity in Mode-Division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), Th1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Kose, B.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Kuyt, G.

D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
[Crossref]

Lane, B.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Larsson, A.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Lengyel, T.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Li, A.

Li, G.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), OTuH2.

Mélin, G.

D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
[Crossref]

Molin, .

. Molin, M. Bigot, F. Achten, A. Amezcua-Correa, and P. Sillard, “850-950nm wideband OM4 multimode fiber for next-generation WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), M3B. 1.
[Crossref]

Molin, D.

D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
[Crossref]

Obeysekara,

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Personick, S.

S. Personick, “Time dispersion in dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50(3), 843–859 (1971).
[Crossref]

Pimpinella, R.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Poletti,

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Putnam, M. A.

Richardson, D.

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rongsheng Chen, D.

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shieh, W.

Sillard, P.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

. Molin, M. Bigot, F. Achten, A. Amezcua-Correa, and P. Sillard, “850-950nm wideband OM4 multimode fiber for next-generation WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), M3B. 1.
[Crossref]

D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
[Crossref]

Szczerba, K.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Vahdat, A.

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), OTuH2.

Wen, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westbergh, P.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

Williams, G. M.

Zhao, X.

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), OTuH2.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

S. Personick, “Time dispersion in dielectric waveguides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50(3), 843–859 (1971).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Giles, Obeysekara, D. Rongsheng Chen, F. Giles, Poletti, and D. Richardson, “Fiber LPG mode converters and mode selection technique for multimode SDM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1922–1925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Liu, H. Wen, B. Huang, R. A. Correa, P. Sillard, H. Chen, Z. Li, and G. Li, “Reducing group delay spread using uniform long-period gratings,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 3882 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

M.-J. Li, “Novel optical fibers for data center applications,” in Broadband Access Communication Technologies X, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), 977205.

. Molin, M. Bigot, F. Achten, A. Amezcua-Correa, and P. Sillard, “850-950nm wideband OM4 multimode fiber for next-generation WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), M3B. 1.
[Crossref]

J. Abbott, S. Bickham, P. Dainese, and M.-J. Li, “Fibers for short-distance applications,” Optical Fiber Telecommunications (2013), Chap. 7, pp. 243–282.

S. O. Arık, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “MIMO DSP Complexity in Mode-Division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), Th1D. 1.
[Crossref]

S. Miller, Optical fiber telecommunications (Elsevier, 2012).

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2011), OTuH2.

D. M. Kuchta, C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, J. Proesel, F. Doany, C. Baks, B. Hamel-Bissell, C. Kocot, L. Graham, and R. Johnson, “A 56.1 Gb/s NRZ modulated 850nm VCSEL-based optical link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC),2013, (IEEE, 2013), 1–3.

D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, G. Kuyt, G. Mélin, and P. Sillard, “Multimode fibers for cost-effective high-speed, short-range networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (Optical Society of America, 2012), Th. 1. B. 3.
[Crossref]

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “50 Gb/s 4-PAM over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using a 850 nm VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), W1D. 1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup. BERT: bit error rate tester, Scope: oscilloscope, LPG: long-period grating. (b) Measured refractive index profile and calculated effective indices of the 18 mode groups of the OM3 MMF at a wavelength of 850 nm. (c) Computed effective index differences between neighboring mode group pairs, and corresponding phase-matched LPG periods at a wavelength of 850 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Eye diagrams (a) without LPGs and (b) with 2 LPGs, for 400 m MMF. Eye diagrams (c) without LPGs and (d) with 4 LPGs, for 530 m MMF. The width and height of eye openings as functions of the LPG-induced loss, for (e) 400 m MMF and (f) 530 m MMF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) BER as a function of the received power for back-to-back, 300 m (without or with LPGs) and 400 m MMFs (without or with LPGs). (b) BER as a function of the loss induced by LPGs, for 400 m MMF and 530 m MMF. (c) BERs for different lengths of MMF, without, and with 2 or 4 LPGs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Refractive index profiles without or with trench shift. (b) Effective index differences between neighboring mode group pairs for 3 different αvalues, for the index profile without trench shift. (c) Range of effective index differences or corresponding matched LPG periods as a function of the α value, without or with trench shift. (d) Coupling efficiency between two modes, as a function of effective index difference or corresponding matched LPG period, for κ=50/m, with perfect phase-matched index difference at 7.6× 10 4 .

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