Abstract

Here, we report on a packaging method for silver nanodots (SNDs) by using high-silicate porous glass. Millions of nanopores, which are randomly distributed in porous glass, are used as cells for SND nucleation and growth during the initial chemical-reduction process. Then, the sample is annealed at a high-temperature in a reducing atmosphere to impel the further SND growth and nanopore collapse. The compact SND-embedded transparent glass is synthesized in the end. Morphology characterization shows that the SNDs that are encapsulated in the sample have a uniform size of 1.5 to 4.5 nm. Both the sample’s saturable and reverse saturable absorptions are observed under the irradiation of 100 fs laser pulses at 800 nm. Saturable absorption’s threshhold is characterized to be 1.4 × 1011 W/cm2, which is much lower than what was ever reported. Furthermore, the SNDs-embedded silica as a saturable absorber (SA) has been demonstrated in the Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. The pulse duration as short as 53 nanoseconds is obtained. To our knowledge, it is the first time that SNDs are used as a SA in the passively Q-switched all solid-state laser.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (1)

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Ajami, W. Husinsky, B. Svecova, S. Vytykacova, and P. Nekvindova, “Saturable absorption of silver nanoparticles in glass for femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 426, 159–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules [Invited],” Photon. Res. 1(1), 22–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Shen, L. Qiao, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Application of the nonlinear optical properties of platinum nanoparticles for the mode locking of Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 647–651 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

C. Zheng, Y. Du, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143108 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 259–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Šileikaitė, I. Prosyčevas, J. Puišo, A. Juraitis, and A. Guobienė, “Analysis of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction of silver salt solution,” Mater. Sci. 12, 1320–1392 (2006).

A. Moores and F. Goettmann, “The plasmon band in noble metal nanoparticles: an introduction to theory and applications,” New J. Chem. 30(8), 1121–1132 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” ChemInform 34(16), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. J. G. Zarbin, R. Bertholdo, and M. A. F. C. Oliveira, “Preparation, characterization and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/porous silica glass nanocomposites: novel route to carbon template,” Carbon 40(13), 2413–2422 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P. Levitz, G. Ehret, S. K. Sinha, and J. M. Drake, “Porous vycor glass: The microstructure as probed by electron microscopy, direct energy transfer, small‐angle scattering, and molecular adsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(8), 6151–6161 (1991).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ajami, A.

A. Ajami, W. Husinsky, B. Svecova, S. Vytykacova, and P. Nekvindova, “Saturable absorption of silver nanoparticles in glass for femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 426, 159–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akkara, J.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aranda, F.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertholdo, R.

A. J. G. Zarbin, R. Bertholdo, and M. A. F. C. Oliveira, “Preparation, characterization and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/porous silica glass nanocomposites: novel route to carbon template,” Carbon 40(13), 2413–2422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blanco, E.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brooks, E.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bubb, D. M.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, Q.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Chen, X.

Cheng, G.

Cheng, Y.

Cho, S.-G.

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Commandré, M.

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” ChemInform 34(16), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Drake, J. M.

P. Levitz, G. Ehret, S. K. Sinha, and J. M. Drake, “Porous vycor glass: The microstructure as probed by electron microscopy, direct energy transfer, small‐angle scattering, and molecular adsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(8), 6151–6161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Drazdys, R.

Du, Y.

C. Zheng, Y. Du, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ehlers, H.

Ehret, G.

P. Levitz, G. Ehret, S. K. Sinha, and J. M. Drake, “Porous vycor glass: The microstructure as probed by electron microscopy, direct energy transfer, small‐angle scattering, and molecular adsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(8), 6151–6161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

El-Sayed, I. H.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zheng, Y. Du, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallais, L.

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Application of the nonlinear optical properties of platinum nanoparticles for the mode locking of Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 647–651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geddes, C. D.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goettmann, F.

A. Moores and F. Goettmann, “The plasmon band in noble metal nanoparticles: an introduction to theory and applications,” New J. Chem. 30(8), 1121–1132 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Guo, H.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guobiene, A.

A. Šileikaitė, I. Prosyčevas, J. Puišo, A. Juraitis, and A. Guobienė, “Analysis of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction of silver salt solution,” Mater. Sci. 12, 1320–1392 (2006).

Gurudas, U.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, F.

Heiroth, S.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husinsky, W.

A. Ajami, W. Husinsky, B. Svecova, S. Vytykacova, and P. Nekvindova, “Saturable absorption of silver nanoparticles in glass for femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 426, 159–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, L.

Ji, W.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

Jia, Z.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiao, W.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ju, Y.

Jupé, M.

Juraitis, A.

A. Šileikaitė, I. Prosyčevas, J. Puišo, A. Juraitis, and A. Guobienė, “Analysis of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction of silver salt solution,” Mater. Sci. 12, 1320–1392 (2006).

Kang, Z.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” ChemInform 34(16), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kicas, S.

Kim, J.

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

Levitz, P.

P. Levitz, G. Ehret, S. K. Sinha, and J. M. Drake, “Porous vycor glass: The microstructure as probed by electron microscopy, direct energy transfer, small‐angle scattering, and molecular adsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(8), 6151–6161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 259–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

S. Li, P. Liu, and Q. Wang, “Study on the effect of surface modifier on self-aggregation behavior of Ag nano-particle,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 613–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Lippert, T.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Litrán, R.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, Z. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Wang, and G. Cheng, “Several nanosecond Nd:YVO4 lasers Q-switched by two dimensional materials: tungsten disulfide, molybdenum disulfide, and black phosphorous,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6244–6252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

S. Li, P. Liu, and Q. Wang, “Study on the effect of surface modifier on self-aggregation behavior of Ag nano-particle,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 613–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mangote, B.

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meisel, D.

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

Melninkaitis, A.

Mende, M.

Mi, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

Mirauskas, J.

Moores, A.

A. Moores and F. Goettmann, “The plasmon band in noble metal nanoparticles: an introduction to theory and applications,” New J. Chem. 30(8), 1121–1132 (2006).
[Crossref]

Narayana Rao, D.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nekvindova, P.

A. Ajami, W. Husinsky, B. Svecova, S. Vytykacova, and P. Nekvindova, “Saturable absorption of silver nanoparticles in glass for femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 426, 159–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, M. A. F. C.

A. J. G. Zarbin, R. Bertholdo, and M. A. F. C. Oliveira, “Preparation, characterization and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/porous silica glass nanocomposites: novel route to carbon template,” Carbon 40(13), 2413–2422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, T. J.

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Philip, R.

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prosycevas, I.

A. Šileikaitė, I. Prosyčevas, J. Puišo, A. Juraitis, and A. Guobienė, “Analysis of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction of silver salt solution,” Mater. Sci. 12, 1320–1392 (2006).

Puišo, J.

A. Šileikaitė, I. Prosyčevas, J. Puišo, A. Juraitis, and A. Guobienė, “Analysis of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction of silver salt solution,” Mater. Sci. 12, 1320–1392 (2006).

Qiao, L.

Qiao, Q.

Qin, G.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qin, W.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 259–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

Qu, S.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 259–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ramirez-del-Solar, M.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rao, D.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ren, A.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ristau, D.

Saha, J. K.

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” ChemInform 34(16), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Shi, Z.

Šileikaite, A.

A. Šileikaitė, I. Prosyčevas, J. Puišo, A. Juraitis, and A. Guobienė, “Analysis of silver nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction of silver salt solution,” Mater. Sci. 12, 1320–1392 (2006).

Sinha, S. K.

P. Levitz, G. Ehret, S. K. Sinha, and J. M. Drake, “Porous vycor glass: The microstructure as probed by electron microscopy, direct energy transfer, small‐angle scattering, and molecular adsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(8), 6151–6161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sirutkaitis, V.

Song, F.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sridharan, K.

K. Sridharan, T. Endo, S.-G. Cho, J. Kim, T. J. Park, and R. Philip, “Single step synthesis and optical limiting properties of Ni–Ag and Fe–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 35(5), 860–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

Sun, Z.

Svecova, B.

A. Ajami, W. Husinsky, B. Svecova, S. Vytykacova, and P. Nekvindova, “Saturable absorption of silver nanoparticles in glass for femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 426, 159–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tolenis, T.

Tripathy, S.

E. Blanco, D. Narayana Rao, F. Aranda, D. Rao, S. Tripathy, J. Akkara, R. Litrán, and M. Ramirez-del-Solar, “Dispersion of the nonlinear absorption of copper phthalocyanine in a silica xerogel matrix through the visible spectrum,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3441–3443 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tugushev, R. I.

R. A. Ganeev, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Application of the nonlinear optical properties of platinum nanoparticles for the mode locking of Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 647–651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Application of the nonlinear optical properties of platinum nanoparticles for the mode locking of Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 647–651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1057–1062 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vytykacova, S.

A. Ajami, W. Husinsky, B. Svecova, S. Vytykacova, and P. Nekvindova, “Saturable absorption of silver nanoparticles in glass for femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 426, 159–163 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, Q.

S. Li, P. Liu, and Q. Wang, “Study on the effect of surface modifier on self-aggregation behavior of Ag nano-particle,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 613–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wei, X.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wokaun, A.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

Xu, W.

Xu, X.

H. Guo, M. Feng, F. Song, H. Li, A. Ren, X. Wei, Y. Li, X. Xu, and J. Tian, “Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Based on Silver Nanoparticles as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 135–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zarbin, A. J. G.

A. J. G. Zarbin, R. Bertholdo, and M. A. F. C. Oliveira, “Preparation, characterization and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/porous silica glass nanocomposites: novel route to carbon template,” Carbon 40(13), 2413–2422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhan, H.

C. Zheng, Y. Du, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Z. Kang, Q. Li, X. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(3), 035102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, X.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 259–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” ChemInform 34(16), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

C. Zheng, Y. Du, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

S. Qu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, J. Qiu, and C. Zhu, “Nanosecond nonlinear absorption in Au and Ag nanoparticles precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. 28(3), 259–265 (2006).
[Crossref]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. A. Ganeev, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Application of the nonlinear optical properties of platinum nanoparticles for the mode locking of Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 647–651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Zheng, Y. Du, M. Feng, and H. Zhan, “Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143108 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Li, P. Liu, and Q. Wang, “Study on the effect of surface modifier on self-aggregation behavior of Ag nano-particle,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 613–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

A. J. G. Zarbin, R. Bertholdo, and M. A. F. C. Oliveira, “Preparation, characterization and pyrolysis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/porous silica glass nanocomposites: novel route to carbon template,” Carbon 40(13), 2413–2422 (2002).
[Crossref]

ChemInform (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Procedure for packaging SNDs with using porous glass.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Element analysis of the SNDs-embedded glass by EDS.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM images of the SNDs-embedded glass: (a) bright-field image, (b) dark-field image, (c) and (d) high-resolution images of the crystal lattice.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 XRD patterns of the sample with and without embedding SNDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorption spectra of SNDs dispersing in ethyl alcohol and glass sample with and without embedding SNDs. Multi-peak fitting was made for absorption curve of sample with embedding SNDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Open aperture Z-scan results of the glass sample with and without embedding SNDs. (b) Saturable absorption property of the sample with embedding SNDs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic experimental setup of passively Q-switched laser with encapsulated SNDs. (b) The pulse train of Q-switched laser. The inset shows the temporal profile of a single pulse. (c) Spectrum of pulsed laser measured by spectrometer. The inset shows the intensity profile of output laser. (d) The relationship between pulse duration and pump power.

Equations (2)

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D= 0.9λ βcosθ
D= 2 ν f Δω

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