Abstract

We report on the development and validation of a compact laser instrument using mid-IR direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) for high-precision measurements of ethanol in breath-like air mixtures. Leveraging the intermittent continuous wave (iCW) driving for conventional narrow-band distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting around 9.3 µm and using a 25 m path length multiple-pass absorption cell at reduced pressure, a precision of 9 ppb (amount fraction, nmol mol−1) at 60 s integration time is achieved even in the presence of 5% of H2O and CO2. Thus, the instrument is well suitable for metrological studies to investigate observed, but yet unquantified, discrepancies between different breath alcohol reference-generation methods. The approach can be generalized and applied for other organic molecules in a wide range of applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  21. C. Liu, B. Tuzson, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, B. Bereiter, M. Graf, M. Hundt, O. Aseev, D. Maas, and L. Emmenegger, “Laser driving and data processing concept for mobile trace gas sensing: Design and implementation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(6), 065107 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tuneable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys., B Photophys. Laser Chem. 57, 131–139 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. W. Jones, “Enforcement of drink-driving laws by use of “per se” legal limits; Blood and/or breath concentration of impairment,” Alcohol Drugs Driving 4(2), 99–112 (1988).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

C. Liu, B. Tuzson, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, B. Bereiter, M. Graf, M. Hundt, O. Aseev, D. Maas, and L. Emmenegger, “Laser driving and data processing concept for mobile trace gas sensing: Design and implementation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(6), 065107 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn, and V. Ebert, “Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 56(11), E84–E93 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Kang, “Human breath simulator using controlled evaporator mixer to test the performance of a breath alcohol analyzer,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 110, 363–368 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly selective volatile organic compounds breath analysis using a broadly-tunable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

R. J. Hwang, J. Beltran, C. Rogers, J. Barlow, and G. Razatos, “Measurement of Uncertainty for Aqueous Ethanol Wet-Bath Simulator Solutions Used with Evidential Breath Testing Instruments,” J. Forensic Sci. 61(5), 1359–1363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

J. S. Li, W. Chen, and H. Fischer, “Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometry Techniques: A New Trend in Atmospheric Chemistry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 523–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Stalder, D. Schwaller, B. Niederhauser, H. Andres, and S. Wunderli, “New calibration system for breath-alcohol analysers based on SI,” Chimia (Aarau) 67(12), 922 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Pratzler, P. Dorothea Knopf, P. Ulbig, and S. Scholl, “Preparation of calibration gas mixtures for the measurement of breath alcohol concentration,” J. Breath Res. 4(3), 036004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. G. Gullberg, “Determining the air/water partition coefficient to employ when calibrating forensic breath alcohol test instruments,” Canadian Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 38(4), 205–212 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, and S. W. Sharpe, “The PNNL quantitative infrared database for gas-phase sensing: A spectral library for environmental, hazmat and public safety standoff detection,” P. Soc. Photo.-Opt. Ins. 5269, 159–167 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

W. Richter and G. Dube, “Measurement standards and the general problem of reference points in chemical analysis,” Metrologia 34(1), 13–18 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. D. Silverman, K. Wong, and S. Miller, “Confirmation of ethanol compressed gas standard concentrations by an NIST-traceable, absolute chemical method and comparison with wet breath alcohol simulators,” J. Anal. Toxicol. 21(5), 369–372 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. W. Jones, “Measuring Alcohol in Blood and Breath for Forensic Purposes - A Historical Review,” Forensic Sci. Rev. 8(1), 13–44 (1996).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tuneable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys., B Photophys. Laser Chem. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

A. W. Jones, “Enforcement of drink-driving laws by use of “per se” legal limits; Blood and/or breath concentration of impairment,” Alcohol Drugs Driving 4(2), 99–112 (1988).

V. I. Butkevich and V. E. Privalov, “Application of lasers in precision analytical measurements (review),” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 48(1), 1–16 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

B. A. Goldberger and Y. H. Caplan, “Infrared quantitative evidential breath-alcohol analyzers: in vitro accuracy and precision studies,” J. Forensic Sci. 31(1), 16–19 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

K. M. Dubowski, “Breath-alcohol simulators: Scientific basis and actual performance,” J. Anal. Toxicol. 3(5), 177–182 (1979).
[Crossref]

Andres, H.

M. Stalder, D. Schwaller, B. Niederhauser, H. Andres, and S. Wunderli, “New calibration system for breath-alcohol analysers based on SI,” Chimia (Aarau) 67(12), 922 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aseev, O.

C. Liu, B. Tuzson, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, B. Bereiter, M. Graf, M. Hundt, O. Aseev, D. Maas, and L. Emmenegger, “Laser driving and data processing concept for mobile trace gas sensing: Design and implementation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(6), 065107 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auwera, J. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barlow, J.

R. J. Hwang, J. Beltran, C. Rogers, J. Barlow, and G. Razatos, “Measurement of Uncertainty for Aqueous Ethanol Wet-Bath Simulator Solutions Used with Evidential Breath Testing Instruments,” J. Forensic Sci. 61(5), 1359–1363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltran, J.

R. J. Hwang, J. Beltran, C. Rogers, J. Barlow, and G. Razatos, “Measurement of Uncertainty for Aqueous Ethanol Wet-Bath Simulator Solutions Used with Evidential Breath Testing Instruments,” J. Forensic Sci. 61(5), 1359–1363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bereiter, B.

C. Liu, B. Tuzson, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, B. Bereiter, M. Graf, M. Hundt, O. Aseev, D. Maas, and L. Emmenegger, “Laser driving and data processing concept for mobile trace gas sensing: Design and implementation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(6), 065107 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. F.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

Boudon, V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brönnimann, R.

Butkevich, V. I.

V. I. Butkevich and V. E. Privalov, “Application of lasers in precision analytical measurements (review),” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 48(1), 1–16 (1988).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Caplan, Y. H.

B. A. Goldberger and Y. H. Caplan, “Infrared quantitative evidential breath-alcohol analyzers: in vitro accuracy and precision studies,” J. Forensic Sci. 31(1), 16–19 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, K. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

J. S. Li, W. Chen, and H. Fischer, “Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometry Techniques: A New Trend in Atmospheric Chemistry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 523–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

Császár, A. G.

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Rothman, L. S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sams, R. L.

T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, and S. W. Sharpe, “The PNNL quantitative infrared database for gas-phase sensing: A spectral library for environmental, hazmat and public safety standoff detection,” P. Soc. Photo.-Opt. Ins. 5269, 159–167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scheidegger, P.

C. Liu, B. Tuzson, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, B. Bereiter, M. Graf, M. Hundt, O. Aseev, D. Maas, and L. Emmenegger, “Laser driving and data processing concept for mobile trace gas sensing: Design and implementation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(6), 065107 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholl, S.

S. Pratzler, P. Dorothea Knopf, P. Ulbig, and S. Scholl, “Preparation of calibration gas mixtures for the measurement of breath alcohol concentration,” J. Breath Res. 4(3), 036004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwaller, D.

M. Stalder, D. Schwaller, B. Niederhauser, H. Andres, and S. Wunderli, “New calibration system for breath-alcohol analysers based on SI,” Chimia (Aarau) 67(12), 922 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, S. W.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, and S. W. Sharpe, “The PNNL quantitative infrared database for gas-phase sensing: A spectral library for environmental, hazmat and public safety standoff detection,” P. Soc. Photo.-Opt. Ins. 5269, 159–167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shine, K. P.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Silverman, L. D.

L. D. Silverman, K. Wong, and S. Miller, “Confirmation of ethanol compressed gas standard concentrations by an NIST-traceable, absolute chemical method and comparison with wet breath alcohol simulators,” J. Anal. Toxicol. 21(5), 369–372 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tuneable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys., B Photophys. Laser Chem. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Smith, M.-A. H.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stalder, M.

M. Stalder, D. Schwaller, B. Niederhauser, H. Andres, and S. Wunderli, “New calibration system for breath-alcohol analysers based on SI,” Chimia (Aarau) 67(12), 922 (2013).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tappy, L.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly selective volatile organic compounds breath analysis using a broadly-tunable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tashkun, S. A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Toon, G. C.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tran, H.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tuzson, B.

C. Liu, B. Tuzson, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, B. Bereiter, M. Graf, M. Hundt, O. Aseev, D. Maas, and L. Emmenegger, “Laser driving and data processing concept for mobile trace gas sensing: Design and implementation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(6), 065107 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly selective volatile organic compounds breath analysis using a broadly-tunable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fischer, B. Tuzson, A. Hugi, R. Brönnimann, A. Kunz, S. Blaser, M. Rochat, O. Landry, A. Müller, and L. Emmenegger, “Intermittent operation of QC-lasers for mid-IR spectroscopy with low heat dissipation: tuning characteristics and driving electronics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7014–7027 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyuterev, V. G.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ulbig, P.

S. Pratzler, P. Dorothea Knopf, P. Ulbig, and S. Scholl, “Preparation of calibration gas mixtures for the measurement of breath alcohol concentration,” J. Breath Res. 4(3), 036004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, G.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wcislo, P.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wehr, R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Werhahn, O.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tuneable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys., B Photophys. Laser Chem. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wilzewski, J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wong, K.

L. D. Silverman, K. Wong, and S. Miller, “Confirmation of ethanol compressed gas standard concentrations by an NIST-traceable, absolute chemical method and comparison with wet breath alcohol simulators,” J. Anal. Toxicol. 21(5), 369–372 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, E. C.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wunderli, S.

M. Stalder, D. Schwaller, B. Niederhauser, H. Andres, and S. Wunderli, “New calibration system for breath-alcohol analysers based on SI,” Chimia (Aarau) 67(12), 922 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulated mid-IR transmission spectra of 25 ppm ethanol, 5.4% water, and 5.0% CO2 at gas pressure of 100 hPa, room temperature, and absorption path length of 25 m. The inset shows the spectral window selected for precise measurement of ethanol. The H2O and CO2 absorption lines are simulated based on HITRAN database, while ethanol data were taken from the PNNL database and rescaled according to Eq. (1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3D CAD drawing of the QCLAS for the ethanol measurement (without the cover); the red line represents the path of the IR laser beam. The enclosure beneath the optical bread-board contains the entire electronics hardware. The dimensions of the instrument with the cover are 33 × 30 × 63 cm3.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Generation of high-resolution ethanol reference spectra. The required steps and their corresponding raw signals on the detector are: a) zero absorption baseline, b) transmission signal of the ethanol, c) etalon fringes for the relative laser tuning determination, and d) a ro-vibrational transition of water, indicated by (*), for the absolute wavenumber calibration.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 High-resolution transmission spectrum (black) of 100 ppm ethanol in synthetic air recorded by a DFB-QCL at 100 hPa pressure at room temperature and for 25 m absorption path together with the fitted template (red). The residual shows a very good agreement between measured data and fitting template.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Time series of ethanol concentration measurement with (purple) and without (red) addition of CO2 at varying concentration (green) and associated Allan deviation plots.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured ethanol concentration as a function of sampled ethanol concentration in the range of interest.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) Response of the retrieved ethanol concentration on changing water concentration in the gas mixture. b) Linearity of H2O measurements in the absence of ethanol. c) Ethanol concentration corrected for dry conditions as a function of H2O concentration. The error bars correspond to ± 1σ.

Equations (1)

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T( ν, T 296 )=  10 A( ν, T 296 ) C L  P 1 atm

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