Abstract

In this paper, a mid-infrared perfect absorber based on the dual gratings-coupled graphene-dielectric multilayer structures (DGC-GDM) is proposed, in which GDM is sandwiched between two Au gratings. The DGC-GDM absorber shows advantages of dual-band and tunable absorption, insensitive to polarization, ultrathin thickness and wide angle range absorption. Two kinds of SPPs in the GDM layer can be excited by the upper and lower Au gratings, respectively, which confine the incident light into the GDM and thus contribute to the dual-band absorption. The wavelength of the absorption peak can be effectively changed by varying the Fermi level of graphene. Most importantly, an analytic formulas describing the relationships between the parameters of the absorber and the absorption spectra is derived. And the accuracy of the theoretical formulas is verified by comparing the simulation results with the theoretically calculated ones. Therefore, the exact values of parameters of the structure for an absorption peak as required can be obtained. The proposed structure can be applied to absorbers that are working at other frequencies.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (3)

2016 (8)

J. Y. Tang, Z. Y. Xiao, K. K. Xu, and D. J. Liu, “A polarization insensitive and broadband metamaterial absorber based on three-dimensional structure,” Opt. Commun. 372, 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Cheng, R. Z. Gong, and Z. Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “A wide-angle broadband polarization-dependent absorber with stacked metal-dielectric grating,” Opt. Commun. 370, 245–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Z. Zhao, H. Yu, L. Yang, P. Gou, J. Cao, Y. Zou, J. Qian, T. Shi, Q. Ren, and Z. An, “Design of triple-band metamaterial absorbers with refractive index sensitivity at infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25742–25751 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, Q. Huang, Y. Zhao, H. Cai, R. J. Knize, and Y. Lu, “Giant frequency tunability enabled by external magnetic and a gate electric fields in graphene devices,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6606–6618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

2014 (4)

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 1 (2014).

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Based on Graphene Nanostructures,” IEEE T Thz. Sci. Techn. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. K. Othman, C. Guclu, and F. Capolino, “Graphene-based tunable hyperbolic metamaterials and enhanced near-field absorption,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7614–7632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Graphene-based tunable broadband hyperlens for far-field subdiffraction imaging at mid-infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20888–20899 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Negative refraction in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 23107 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, G. Ren, S. Zheng, Z. Lin, and S. Jian, “Nanoscale dielectric-graphene-dielectric tunable infrared waveguide with ultrahigh refractive indices,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17089–17096 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete Optical Absorption in Periodically Patterned Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 47401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic Metamaterials as an Analog of a Blackbody in the Near Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(10), 104301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Alaee, R.

Alexander, R. W.

Alu, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Based on Graphene Nanostructures,” IEEE T Thz. Sci. Techn. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bell, R. J.

Belov, P. A.

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ben-Abdallah, P.

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic Metamaterials as an Analog of a Blackbody in the Near Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(10), 104301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benes, L.

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biehs, S. A.

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic Metamaterials as an Analog of a Blackbody in the Near Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(10), 104301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boidin, R.

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

Cao, J.

Cao, X.

Capolino, F.

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Chen, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Based on Graphene Nanostructures,” IEEE T Thz. Sci. Techn. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, R. Z. Gong, and Z. Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, R. Z. Gong, and Z. Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, M. T.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Luca, A.

K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Negative refraction in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 23107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dorfmüller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Farhat, M.

Ferrari, L.

L. Ferrari, C. H. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. W. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, S. M.

Fullerton, E. E.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, Q.

Gao, J.

García de Abajo, F. J.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete Optical Absorption in Periodically Patterned Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 47401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, J.

Giessen, H.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, R. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, R. Z. Gong, and Z. Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gou, P.

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guclu, C.

Guo, W.

Halenkovic, T.

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, T.

Hao, Y.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

Huang, H.

Huang, J. Y. W.

Huang, Q.

Huang, W.

Huang, W. Q.

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iorsh, I. V.

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.-H.

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 1 (2014).

Jian, S.

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, R.

Jokerst, N. M.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kan, J. J.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, S.

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. W.

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 1 (2014).

Kim, H.-D.

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.-S.

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 1 (2014).

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knize, R. J.

Koppens, F. H. L.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete Optical Absorption in Periodically Patterned Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 47401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepage, D.

L. Ferrari, C. H. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. W. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, S.

Li, X.

Li, X. F.

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

Liao, Y. L.

Y. L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “A wide-angle broadband polarization-dependent absorber with stacked metal-dielectric grating,” Opt. Commun. 370, 245–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, A.

Lin, Z.

Liu, C. H.

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.-H.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D. J.

J. Y. Tang, Z. Y. Xiao, K. K. Xu, and D. J. Liu, “A polarization insensitive and broadband metamaterial absorber based on three-dimensional structure,” Opt. Commun. 372, 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q. H.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, K. Fan, I. V. Shadrivov, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental realization of a terahertz all-dielectric metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 25(1), 191–201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

L. Ferrari, C. H. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. W. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

Long, L. L.

Lu, D.

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Lu, Y.

Marder, S. R.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milne, W. I.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, B.

S. H. Lee, J. Choi, H.-D. Kim, H. Choi, and B. Min, “Ultrafast refractive index control of a terahertz graphene metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukhin, I. S.

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naeem, M.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazabal, V.

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nemec, P.

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Norris, T. B.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ordal, M. A.

Othman, M. A. K.

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, K. Fan, I. V. Shadrivov, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental realization of a terahertz all-dielectric metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 25(1), 191–201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parashar, P.

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Premaratne, M.

Qian, J.

Querry, M. R.

Ren, G.

Ren, Q.

Rockstuhl, C.

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Rung, D.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shadrivov, I. V.

X. Liu, K. Fan, I. V. Shadrivov, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental realization of a terahertz all-dielectric metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 25(1), 191–201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, T.

Shi, X.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, Z.

Sreekanth, K. V.

K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Negative refraction in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 23107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strangi, G.

K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Negative refraction in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 23107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, Z.

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. Y.

J. Y. Tang, Z. Y. Xiao, K. K. Xu, and D. J. Liu, “A polarization insensitive and broadband metamaterial absorber based on three-dimensional structure,” Opt. Commun. 372, 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

Taubert, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete Optical Absorption in Periodically Patterned Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 47401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tschikin, M.

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic Metamaterials as an Analog of a Blackbody in the Near Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(10), 104301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuncer, H. M.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

S. Ke, B. Wang, H. Huang, H. Long, K. Wang, and P. Lu, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in periodic cross-shaped graphene arrays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8888–8900 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B. X.

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. Z.

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wang, L. L.

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, J. M.

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 1 (2014).

Wu, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C. H.

L. Ferrari, C. H. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. W. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, F.

Xiao, Z. Y.

J. Y. Tang, Z. Y. Xiao, K. K. Xu, and D. J. Liu, “A polarization insensitive and broadband metamaterial absorber based on three-dimensional structure,” Opt. Commun. 372, 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Xu, K. K.

J. Y. Tang, Z. Y. Xiao, K. K. Xu, and D. J. Liu, “A polarization insensitive and broadband metamaterial absorber based on three-dimensional structure,” Opt. Commun. 372, 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yi, S.

Yin, J.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Yu, Z.

Yuan, X.

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, X.

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, X.

L. Ferrari, C. H. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. W. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, X.

Zhao, Y.

X. Hu, Q. Huang, Y. Zhao, H. Cai, R. J. Knize, and Y. Lu, “Giant frequency tunability enabled by external magnetic and a gate electric fields in graphene devices,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6606–6618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “A wide-angle broadband polarization-dependent absorber with stacked metal-dielectric grating,” Opt. Commun. 370, 245–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Zheng, S.

Zheng, Y.

Zhong, Y. K.

Zhong, Z.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z. H.

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, W.

Zi, J.

Zou, Y.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. V. Sreekanth, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, “Negative refraction in graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 23107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, C. H. Liu, C. H. Liu, Z. H. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Woo, M.-S. Kim, H. W. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Graphene based salisbury screen for terahertz absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 1 (2014).

Ceram. Int. (1)

R. Boidin, T. Halenkovic, V. Nazabal, L. Benes, and P. Nemec, “Pulsed laser deposited alumina thin films,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1177–1182 (2016).
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IEEE T Thz. Sci. Techn. (1)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Based on Graphene Nanostructures,” IEEE T Thz. Sci. Techn. 3(6), 748–756 (2013).
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IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. (1)

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “Theoretical Investigation of Broadband and Wide-Angle Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 26(2), 111–114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 267 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, S. Zhang, S. R. Marder, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “A wide-angle broadband polarization-dependent absorber with stacked metal-dielectric grating,” Opt. Commun. 370, 245–249 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Tang, Z. Y. Xiao, K. K. Xu, and D. J. Liu, “A polarization insensitive and broadband metamaterial absorber based on three-dimensional structure,” Opt. Commun. 372, 64–70 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Cheng, R. Z. Gong, and Z. Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (15)

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, Z. Zhang, Y. Zheng, and C. Zhang, “Multiband and broadband polarization-insensitive perfect absorber devices based on a tunable and thin double split-ring metamaterial,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3523–3533 (2015).
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J. Xu, Z. Zhao, H. Yu, L. Yang, P. Gou, J. Cao, Y. Zou, J. Qian, T. Shi, Q. Ren, and Z. An, “Design of triple-band metamaterial absorbers with refractive index sensitivity at infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25742–25751 (2016).
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Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
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W. Zhu, F. Xiao, I. D. Rukhlenko, J. Geng, X. Liang, M. Premaratne, and R. Jin, “Wideband visible-light absorption in an ultrathin silicon nanostructure,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5781–5786 (2017).
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Y. K. Zhong, S. M. Fu, W. Huang, D. Rung, J. Y. W. Huang, P. Parashar, and A. Lin, “Polarization-selective ultra-broadband super absorber,” Opt. Express 25(4), A124–A133 (2017).
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W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
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X. Liu, K. Fan, I. V. Shadrivov, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental realization of a terahertz all-dielectric metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 25(1), 191–201 (2017).
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R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ke, B. Wang, H. Huang, H. Long, K. Wang, and P. Lu, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in periodic cross-shaped graphene arrays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8888–8900 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yi, M. Zhou, X. Shi, Q. Gan, J. Zi, and Z. Yu, “A multiple-resonator approach for broadband light absorption in a single layer of nanostructured graphene,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10081–10090 (2015).
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Z. Su, J. Yin, and X. Zhao, “Terahertz dual-band metamaterial absorber based on graphene/MgF2 multilayer structures,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1679–1690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hu, Q. Huang, Y. Zhao, H. Cai, R. J. Knize, and Y. Lu, “Giant frequency tunability enabled by external magnetic and a gate electric fields in graphene devices,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6606–6618 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, G. Ren, S. Zheng, Z. Lin, and S. Jian, “Nanoscale dielectric-graphene-dielectric tunable infrared waveguide with ultrahigh refractive indices,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17089–17096 (2013).
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M. A. K. Othman, C. Guclu, and F. Capolino, “Graphene-based tunable hyperbolic metamaterials and enhanced near-field absorption,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7614–7632 (2013).
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T. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Graphene-based tunable broadband hyperlens for far-field subdiffraction imaging at mid-infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20888–20899 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (2)

I. V. Iorsh, I. S. Mukhin, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Hyperbolic metamaterials based on multilayer graphene structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 87(7), 75416 (2013).
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M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
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X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
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B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 73901 (2012).
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L. Ferrari, C. H. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. W. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).
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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J Phys-Condens Mat 19(2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic diagram of the absorber. (b) The sectional view of the absorber, and a potential scheme to electrically gate the graphene layers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The absorption spectra of our DGC-GDM structure (red line), the absorption spectra of the structure with only upper grating (grey solid line) and the absorption spectra of the structure with only lower gratings (grey dotted line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The Poynting vector distribution at 7.2 μm. (b) The Poynting vector distribution at 8.6 μm. (c) The electric field distribution at 7.2 μm. (d) The electric field distribution at 8.6 μm. And θ is an angle between the direction of propagation of electromagnetic waves (in GDM) and the horizontal direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of GDM and diffraction relation of SPPs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The relationship between absorption peak and the Fermi level. (b) The comparison of simulated results and calculated results. (c) Electric field distribution at λ1 when Ef = 280meV. (d) electric field distribution at λ2 when Ef = 280meV.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The relationship between absorption peak and the number of graphene/Al2O3 bilayers. (b) The comparison of simulated results and calculated results. (c) Electric field distribution at λ1 when number of bilayers is 9. (d) Electric field distribution at λ2 when number of bilayers is 9.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The relationship between absorption peak and the period of structure P. (b) The comparison of simulated results and calculated results. (c) Electric field distribution at λ1 when P = 900nm. (d) Electric field distribution at λ2 when P = 900nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The absorption spectra as a function of incident angle.

Equations (24)

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σ G = i e 2 k B T π 2 ( ω+ i τ ) ( μ k B T +2ln( e E f k B T +1 ) )+ i e 2 4π ln| 2μ( ω+ i τ ) 2μ+( ω+ i τ ) |
C gc e ( V G V 0 )= n c = 2sgn( E f ) π 2 v F 2 0 ε[ f d (ε E f ) f d (ε+ E f )] dε
ε G =1+ i σ G ε 0 ω d G
H z ={ A + e κ(y+ d m ) + A e κy d m <y<0 B + e κy + A e κ(y d m ) 0<y< d m
B ± = A ± e(i k y d m )
E y = i η 0 k 0 ε m H z x
E y + = E y
H z + H z = σ G E y
cos( φ )=cosh( κ d m ) κξ 2 sinh( κ d m )
cos(φ)1 φ 2 2
cosh(κ d m )1+ (κ d m ) 2 2
sinh(κ d m )κ d m
k x 2 φ 2 d m ( ξ d m ) = ε m k 0 2
θ=arctan( d m k x φ )| φ0
θ=arctan( d m ξ d m )( d m <ξ )
θ 1 =arctan( 2 t GDM w 1 )
θ 2 =arctan( 2 t GDM w 2 )
d m ξ 1 d m = 2 t GDM w 1
d m ξ 2 d m = 2 t GDM w 2
ξ 1 =( P 2 16 t GDM 2 +1 )· d m
ξ 2 =( P 2 64 t GDM 2 +1 )· d m
λ Peak =2π πξ ε m 2 c η 0 e 2 E f
λ 1 =2π π( P 2 +16 t GDM 2 ) d m ε m 2 c 16 t GDM 2 η 0 e 2 E f
λ 2 =2π π( P 2 +64 t GDM 2 ) d m ε m 2 c 64 t GDM 2 η 0 e 2 E f

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