Abstract

Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is one form of multi-channel imaging that combines high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with mechanical tissue stimulation. This combination of structural and functional imaging can require additional space to integrate imaging capabilities with additional functional elements (e.g., optical, mechanical, or acoustic modulators) either at or near the imaging axis. We address this challenge by designing a novel scan lens based on a modified Schwarzchild objective lens, comprised of a pair of concentric mirrors with potential space to incorporate additional functional elements and minimal compromise to the available scan field. This scan objective design allows perpendicular tissue-excitation and response recording. The optimized scan lens design results in a working distance that is extended to ~140 mm (nearly 2x the focal length), an expanded central space suitable for additional functional elements (>15 mm in diameter) and diffraction-limited lateral resolution (19.33 μm) across a full annular scan field ~ ± 7.5 mm to ± 12.7 mm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

S. Vantipalli, J. Li, M. Singh, S. R. Aglyamov, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Effects of Thickness on Corneal Biomechanical Properties Using Optical Coherence Elastography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 95(4), 299–308 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, C. Wu, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Investigating elastic anisotropy of the porcine cornea as a function of intraocular pressure with optical coherence elastography,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(8), 562–567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, S. Wang, Z. Han, A. Nair, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography for evaluating changes in corneal elasticity due to crosslinking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 266–276 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Akca, E. W. Chang, S. Kling, A. Ramier, G. Scarcelli, S. Marcos, and S. H. Yun, “Observation of sound-induced corneal vibrational modes by optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3313–3319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. Li, S. Wang, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. Twa, and K. Larin, “Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Twa, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1419–1427 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Han, M. Singh, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Differentiating untreated and cross-linked porcine corneas of the same measured stiffness with optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 110502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

J. Y. Hwang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, V. K. Ramanujan, J. Ljubimova, Z. Gross, H. B. Gray, L. K. Medina-Kauwe, and D. L. Farkas, “A multimode optical imaging system for preclinical applications in vivo: technology development, multiscale imaging, and chemotherapy assessment,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 431–442 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, J. Li, R. K. Manapuram, F. M. Menodiado, D. R. Ingram, M. D. Twa, A. J. Lazar, D. C. Lev, R. E. Pollock, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact measurement of elasticity for the detection of soft-tissue tumors using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography combined with a focused air-puff system,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5184–5186 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Dorronsoro, D. Pascual, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Kling, and S. Marcos, “Dynamic OCT measurement of corneal deformation by an air puff in normal and cross-linked corneas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3), 473–487 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, Z. Huang, M. Johnstone, and R. K. Wang, “Noncontact all-optical measurement of corneal elasticity,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1625–1627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Determining elastic properties of skin by measuring surface waves from an impulse mechanical stimulus using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(70), 831–841 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

C. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Elastic properties of soft tissue-mimicking phantoms assessed by combined use of laser ultrasonics and low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10153–10163 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sarvazyan, T. J. Hall, M. W. Urban, M. Fatemi, S. R. Aglyamov, and B. S. Garra, “An overview of elastography-an emerging branch of medical imaging,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 7(4), 255–282 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Ruberti, A. Sinha Roy, and C. J. Roberts, “Corneal biomechanics and biomaterials,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 13(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

K. Nariai and H. Iwamoto, “A variation of Schwarzschild telescope: golden section solution with two concentric spheres and its extension to finite distance solutions,” Opt. Rev. 12(3), 190–195 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Terebizh, “Two-mirror Schwarzschild aplanats: Basic relations,” Astron. Lett. 31(2), 129–139 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chan, A. Chau, W. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. Tearney, M. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nightingale, S. McAleavey, and G. Trahey, “Shear-wave generation using acoustic radiation force: in vivo and ex vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1715–1723 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

J. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express 3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. de Korte, A. F. van der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Baranne and F. Launay, “Cassegrain: a famous unknown of instrumental astronomy,” J. Opt. 28(4), 158–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Kingslake, “WHO? DISCOVERED CODDINGTON’S Equations?” Opt. Photonics News 5(8), 20–23 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

M. Born, “E. Wolf Principles of optics,” Pergamon Press 6, 188–189 (1980).

1969 (1)

C. Wynne, “Two-mirror anastigmats,” JOSA B 59(5), 572–578 (1969).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

Aglyamov, S.

J. Li, S. Wang, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. Twa, and K. Larin, “Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Twa, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1419–1427 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S. R.

S. Vantipalli, J. Li, M. Singh, S. R. Aglyamov, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Effects of Thickness on Corneal Biomechanical Properties Using Optical Coherence Elastography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 95(4), 299–308 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Vantipalli, J. Li, M. Singh, S. R. Aglyamov, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Effects of Thickness on Corneal Biomechanical Properties Using Optical Coherence Elastography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 95(4), 299–308 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, C. Wu, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Investigating elastic anisotropy of the porcine cornea as a function of intraocular pressure with optical coherence elastography,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(8), 562–567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, S. Wang, Z. Han, A. Nair, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography for evaluating changes in corneal elasticity due to crosslinking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 266–276 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Han, M. Singh, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Differentiating untreated and cross-linked porcine corneas of the same measured stiffness with optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 110502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Wang, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. Twa, and K. Larin, “Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Twa, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1419–1427 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
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J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
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M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
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J. Y. Hwang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, V. K. Ramanujan, J. Ljubimova, Z. Gross, H. B. Gray, L. K. Medina-Kauwe, and D. L. Farkas, “A multimode optical imaging system for preclinical applications in vivo: technology development, multiscale imaging, and chemotherapy assessment,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 431–442 (2012).
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R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
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Nair, A.

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R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
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A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
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J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
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Pascual, D.

Pasterkamp, G.

C. L. de Korte, A. F. van der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
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J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
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Pérez-Merino, P.

Pollock, R. E.

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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R. Aglyamov, S.

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M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
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J. Y. Hwang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, V. K. Ramanujan, J. Ljubimova, Z. Gross, H. B. Gray, L. K. Medina-Kauwe, and D. L. Farkas, “A multimode optical imaging system for preclinical applications in vivo: technology development, multiscale imaging, and chemotherapy assessment,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 431–442 (2012).
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Reif, R.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Determining elastic properties of skin by measuring surface waves from an impulse mechanical stimulus using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(70), 831–841 (2012).
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J. W. Ruberti, A. Sinha Roy, and C. J. Roberts, “Corneal biomechanics and biomaterials,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 13(1), 269–295 (2011).
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J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
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M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005 (2011).
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R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
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J. W. Ruberti, A. Sinha Roy, and C. J. Roberts, “Corneal biomechanics and biomaterials,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 13(1), 269–295 (2011).
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S. Garra, B.

A. Sarvazyan, T. J. Hall, M. W. Urban, M. Fatemi, S. R. Aglyamov, and B. S. Garra, “An overview of elastography-an emerging branch of medical imaging,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 7(4), 255–282 (2011).
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Sarvazyan, A.

A. Sarvazyan, T. J. Hall, M. W. Urban, M. Fatemi, S. R. Aglyamov, and B. S. Garra, “An overview of elastography-an emerging branch of medical imaging,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 7(4), 255–282 (2011).
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Scarcelli, G.

Schmitt, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Singh, M.

S. Vantipalli, J. Li, M. Singh, S. R. Aglyamov, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Effects of Thickness on Corneal Biomechanical Properties Using Optical Coherence Elastography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 95(4), 299–308 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lan, M. Singh, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Common-path phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography provides enhanced phase stability and detection sensitivity for dynamic elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5253–5266 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, S. Wang, Z. Han, A. Nair, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography for evaluating changes in corneal elasticity due to crosslinking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 266–276 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, C. Wu, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Investigating elastic anisotropy of the porcine cornea as a function of intraocular pressure with optical coherence elastography,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(8), 562–567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Han, M. Singh, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Differentiating untreated and cross-linked porcine corneas of the same measured stiffness with optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 110502 (2014).
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J. Li, S. Wang, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. Twa, and K. Larin, “Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065601 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Twa, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1419–1427 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinha Roy, A.

J. W. Ruberti, A. Sinha Roy, and C. J. Roberts, “Corneal biomechanics and biomaterials,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 13(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Twa, M.

J. Li, S. Wang, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, M. Twa, and K. Larin, “Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Twa, M. D.

S. Vantipalli, J. Li, M. Singh, S. R. Aglyamov, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Effects of Thickness on Corneal Biomechanical Properties Using Optical Coherence Elastography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 95(4), 299–308 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lan, M. Singh, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Common-path phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography provides enhanced phase stability and detection sensitivity for dynamic elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5253–5266 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, C. Wu, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Investigating elastic anisotropy of the porcine cornea as a function of intraocular pressure with optical coherence elastography,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(8), 562–567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, S. Wang, Z. Han, A. Nair, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography for evaluating changes in corneal elasticity due to crosslinking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 266–276 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Han, M. Singh, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Differentiating untreated and cross-linked porcine corneas of the same measured stiffness with optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 110502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Twa, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1419–1427 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, J. Li, R. K. Manapuram, F. M. Menodiado, D. R. Ingram, M. D. Twa, A. J. Lazar, D. C. Lev, R. E. Pollock, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact measurement of elasticity for the detection of soft-tissue tumors using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography combined with a focused air-puff system,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5184–5186 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F.

C. L. de Korte, A. F. van der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vantipalli, S.

S. Vantipalli, J. Li, M. Singh, S. R. Aglyamov, K. V. Larin, and M. D. Twa, “Effects of Thickness on Corneal Biomechanical Properties Using Optical Coherence Elastography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 95(4), 299–308 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, Z. Han, S. Vantipalli, C.-H. Liu, C. Wu, R. Raghunathan, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Evaluating the effects of riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/green light cross-linking of the rabbit cornea by noncontact optical coherence elastography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, S. Wang, Z. Han, A. Nair, S. R. Aglyamov, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Noncontact elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography for evaluating changes in corneal elasticity due to crosslinking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 266–276 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Twa, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, M. Singh, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and K. V. Larin, “Spatial characterization of corneal biomechanical properties with optical coherence elastography after UV cross-linking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1419–1427 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Urban, M.

A. Sarvazyan, T. J. Hall, M. W. Urban, M. Fatemi, S. R. Aglyamov, and B. S. Garra, “An overview of elastography-an emerging branch of medical imaging,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 7(4), 255–282 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

J. Y. Hwang, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, V. K. Ramanujan, J. Ljubimova, Z. Gross, H. B. Gray, L. K. Medina-Kauwe, and D. L. Farkas, “A multimode optical imaging system for preclinical applications in vivo: technology development, multiscale imaging, and chemotherapy assessment,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 431–442 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Determining elastic properties of skin by measuring surface waves from an impulse mechanical stimulus using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(70), 831–841 (2012).
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R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056005 (2010).
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Z. Han, S. R. Aglyamov, J. Li, M. Singh, S. Wang, S. Vantipalli, C. Wu, C. H. Liu, M. D. Twa, and K. V. Larin, “Quantitative assessment of corneal viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography and a modified Rayleigh-Lamb equation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 20501 (2015).
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S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

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S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of a classic Schwarzschild objective that consists of two mirrors. The object distance is demonstrated in a finite distance. The potential space (yellow shaded region) can be used to include additional channels (e.g. functional elements) to create a multi-channel imaging system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Configuration geometry of the Schwarzschild scan objective which consists of concentric Mirror 1 and Mirror 2. Only one scanner was shown here for simplicity. (a) Ray-tracing for an arbitrary chief ray with the scan angle of θ. R1 and R2 are the radii of curvature, and T1 and T2 are the center thickness for Mirror 1 and Mirror 2, respectively. O is the mutual center point of the curvatures of the mirrors. S is the pivot point of the scanner. The distance between point S and Mirror 1 is d1, the distance between Mirror 2 and Mirror 1 is d2. The chief ray interacts with the two mirrors at points A and B with incident angles I1 and I2, respectively. The chief ray is incident on the focal plane (θ’) before the point C (exit pupil position). f is the focal length of the Schwarzschild scan object, and equals to the distance from point O to the focal plane. L is the total length. dwork and dexp are the working distance and exit pupil distance, respectively. (b) Ray-tracing of the scan beams with the minimal and the maximal scan angles (θmin and θmax, respectively). The reserved central area of loading is in a central zone of ± Hmin, while the peripheral area of scanning is in the annular zone of ± (Hmin – Hmax) at the focal plane. D0 is the input beam size, D1 is the diameter of Mirror 1, and D2_out and D2_in are the outer and inner diameters of Mirror 2, respectively. RH1 to RH5 are the specific marginal ray heights.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Axial dimensions of (a) total length L and (b) working distance dwork. To meet the requirements of L ≤ 300 mm and dwork ≥120 mm, R1 should be in the range of 55 mm – 88.36 mm (yellow-shaded areas).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Marginal ray tracing for RH1 to RH5, to satisfy the dimensional constraint criteria in Eq. (7) for different values of R1 and θmin. (a) Satisfaction of first criterion, representing the minimum diameter for D2_out. (b) Satisfaction of second criterion, representing the vignetting-free condition around the center hole in Mirror 2. (c) Satisfaction of the third criterion, representing the vignetting-free condition for Mirror 1 (ρ1 = ρ2_out = ρ2_in = 90%). Yellow-shaded areas show the radial dimensional constraint requirements.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The equality 2RH4/ρ1 = 2RH5 was used to determine (a) θmin to θmax, (b) Hmin to Hmax, (c) D1 and D2_out, and (d) OPDmax in related to the radius of the Mirror 1 (R1). Yellow-shaded areas in (a) to (d) represent the desired value ranges. (e) Astigmatism for general scan angles (1° to 10°, with a step of 1°) without considering the physical constraints. (f) Astigmatism minimization using DMAA method (when αi = 1) for the constraint-determined scan angle range of θmin to θmax.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 RMS spot size reduction by employing an aspherical (k1 = 0.436, solid lines) Mirror 1, compared to when Mirror 1 is spherical (k1 = 0, dotted lines).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic of the Schwarzschild scan objective, designed using the outcome of the design requirement analysis and Zemax software simulation (drawed in 3/4 section).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Distortion calibration in Zemax simulation. (a) Lateral distortion, demonstrated by the relation between scan angle and scan length. (b) Axial distortion, demonstrated by optical path difference (OPD) across the scan field.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Demonstration of the tissue-excitation (loading) and the wave-detection (scanning) areas, as well as the spot diagrams at the focal plane, simulated in Zemax. The purple stars show the possible loading locations. The distance between two spots is 1mm in the x and y directions. The shadow areas are due to the obscuration of the Mirror 1 mount.

Equations (13)

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f= f 1 f 2 f+ f 2 d 2 = M R 1 2( M1 ) ,
d exp =[ M d 1 +M R 1 2 d 1 ( M1 )+ R 1 ( M2 ) +1 ]× R 1 T 1 ,
d work =( M 2M2 +1 )× R 1 T 1 ,
d work =f+ R 1 T 1 ,
L= T 1 + R 2 +f= ( 2M1 ) 2( M1 ) ×M R 1 + T 1 .
{ R H 1 =( d 1 d 2 )tan θ max + D 0 2 , R H 2 =[ d 1 ( 2M1 )+ R 1 ( M1 ) ]×tan θ min ( 2M1 ) 2 D 0 , R H 3 =[ d 1 ( 2M1 )+ R 1 ( M1 ) ]×tan θ max + ( 2M1 ) 2 D 0 , R H 4 = d 1 tan θ max + D 0 2 , R H 5 ={ 1 [ 2 d 1 ( M1 )+ R 1 ( M2 ) ][ R 1 ( M1 )+ T 1 ] M R 1 [ d 1 ( 2M1 )+ R 1 ( M1 ) ] } ×{ [ d 1 ( 2M1 )+ R 1 ( M1 ) ]tan θ min ( 2M1 ) 2 D 0 },
{ 2R H 3 ρ 2_out D 2_out , 2R H 1 D 2_in 2R H 2 × ρ 2_in , 2R H 4 ρ 1 D 1 2R H 5 ,
OPL( R 1 ,θ )=| SA |+| AB |+| BC | = sin( I 1 θ )( sinθ+sin I 2 ) sinθsin I 2 × R 1 + 1+2( M1 )cos( 2 I 1 I 2 θ ) 2( M1 )cos( 2 I 1 2 I 2 θ ) ×M R 1 ,
{ I 1 =arcsin( d 1 + R 1 R 1 ×sinθ ), I 2 =arcsin( d 1 + R 1 R 2 ×sinθ ).
OP D max ( R 1 ,θ )=OPL( R 1 , θ max )OPL( R 1 , θ min ).
AST( R 1 ,0)= M R 1 (2M2+cos I 1 )cos I 2 4(M1)+2cos I 1 2Mcos I 2 M R 1 [(2M1)+sec I 1 ] 2cos I 2 [2(M1)+sec I 1 2M
DMAA= i=0 k a i | AST( R 1 , θ i ) | i=0 k a i ,
z(r)= r 2 / R 1 1+ 1(1+ k 1 ) r 2 / R 1 2 ,