Abstract

We demonstrate a proof-of-concept saturable absorption based pulsewidth measurement (SAPM) by exploring the intensity dependent nonlinear transmission (i.e., saturable absorption) of low-dimensional material (LDM) carbon nanotubes. A minimum pulse energy of 75 fJ is experimentally detected with an average-power-peak-power product (Pav Ppk) of 5.44×107 W2 near 1550 nm. A minimum detectable pulse energy of 10 fJ with a Pav Ppk of 1.3×109 W2 is estimated with further optimization. The nanometer-level thickness and femtosecond-level decay time of LDMs allow ultrafast light interaction on a very small footprint, which potentially supports chip-scale characterization of ultrafast pulses with minimum distortion.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

K. Kondo and T. Baba, “High-performance on-chip autocorrelator using a rib waveguide loaded with two-photon absorption diodes,” Opt. Lett. 43, 719–722 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cong, M. Okano, Y. Maegami, M. Ohno, and K. Yamada, “Interferometric autocorrelation of ultrafast optical pulses in silicon sub-micrometer p-i-n waveguides,” Opt. Express 26, 15090–15100 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214 – 229 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Qiu, Y. Yang, C. Li, Y. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Reports 7, 17046 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kondo and T. Baba, “On-chip autocorrelator using counter-propagating slow light in a photonic crystal with two-photon absorption photodiodes,” Optica 4, 1109–1112 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, W. Xia, and M. Wang, “Characteristic measurement for femtosecond laser pulses using a GaAs PIN photodiode as a two-photon photovoltaic receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 223103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

A. Smolyaninov, M.-H. Yang, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic enhanced two-photon absorption in silicon photodetectors for optical correlators in the near-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4445–4448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xin, S. Yu, Q. Bao, X. Wu, B. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Yang, and L. Tong, “Single CdTe nanowire optical correlator for femtojoule pulses,” Nano Lett. 16, 4807–4810 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kowalczyk, J. Bogusławski, R. Zybała, K. Mars, A. Mikuła, G. Soboń, and J. Sotor, “Sb2Te3-deposited D-shaped fiber as a saturable absorber for mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2273–2282 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Cong, M. Ohno, Y. Maegami, M. Okano, and K. Yamada, “Optical autocorrelation performance of silicon wire p-i-n waveguides utilizing the enhanced two-photon absorption,” Opt. Express 24, 29452–29458 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Reports 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 7454–7461 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23, 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Reports 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Li, Y. Wang, Q. J. Wang, P. P. Shum, and J. Chen, “Towards low timing phase noise operation in fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 23, 501–511 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, C. Peng, A. D. Robertson, D. K. Efetov, S. Assefa, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-responsivity graphene-boron nitride photodetector and autocorrelator in a silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Nano Lett. 15, 7288–7293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-J. Tielrooij, L. Piatkowski, M. Massicotte, A. Woessner, Q. Ma, Y. Lee, K. S. Myhro, C. N. Lau, P. Jarillo-Herrero, N. F. van Hulst, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Generation of photovoltage in graphene on a femtosecond timescale through efficient carrier heating,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 437 (2015).
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G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9, 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Reports 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Chong, T. F. Watson, and F. Festy, “Autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulses based on two-photon absorption in GaP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 062111 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113, 3766–3798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-C. Heisel, J. Bergmann, W. Paa, W. Triebel, T. Zeuner, and H. Stafast, “197nm femtosecond laser-pulse duration: comparison of autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 49–53 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
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A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, F. Légaré, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Time-lens measurement of subpicosecond optical pulses in cmos compatible high-index glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 629–636 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 5, 618 (2011).
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A. Hayat, A. Nevet, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Applications of two-photon processes in semiconductor photonic devices: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 083001 (2011).
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2010 (3)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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P. A. Obraztsov, A. A. Sirotkin, E. D. Obraztsova, Y. P. Svirko, and S. V. Garnov, “Carbon-nanotube-based saturable absorbers for near infrared solid state lasers,” Opt. Rev. 17, 290–293 (2010).
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Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 086809 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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D. Duchesne, L. Razzari, L. Halloran, R. Morandotti, A. J. SpringThorpe, D. N. Christodoulides, and D. J. Moss, “Two-photon photodetector in a multiquantum well GaAs laser structure at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Express 17, 5298–5310 (2009).
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I. A. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 308–437 (2009).
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2008 (4)

D. A. Bender, J. W. Nicholson, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Ultrashort laser pulse characterization using modified spectrum auto-interferometric correlation (MOSAIC),” Opt. Express 16, 11782–11794 (2008).
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J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
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M. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S.-P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 259–266 (2008).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
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2006 (2)

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

G. Steinmeyer, “A review of ultrafast optics and optoelectronics,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, R1 (2003).
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2002 (3)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323–1325 (2002).
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J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, “Ultrasensitive and high-dynamic-range two-photon absorption in a GaAs photomultiplier tube,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2076–2078 (2002).
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T. Sun, B. K. K. Fung, I. K. Sou, G. K. L. Wong, K. S. Wong, and G. Lanzani, “Two-photon absorption autocorrelation of visible to ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses using ZnS-based photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 86–88 (2002).
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2001 (1)

J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
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1998 (4)

L. P. Barry, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 μm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 μm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–360 (1998).
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F. X. Kurtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and fast saturable absorbers-what’s the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 159–168 (1998).
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D. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. Dudley, L. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
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C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792–794 (1998).
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1997 (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
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J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1344–1346 (1997).
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1996 (1)

1974 (1)

D. J. Bradley and G. H. C. New, “Ultrashort pulse measurements,” Proc. IEEE 62, 313–345 (1974).
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Akinwande, D.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9, 11509–11539 (2015).
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Alem, N.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9, 11509–11539 (2015).
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Anasori, B.

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
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Anderson, M.

M. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S.-P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 259–266 (2008).
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Asghari, M.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323–1325 (2002).
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Assefa, S.

R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, C. Peng, A. D. Robertson, D. K. Efetov, S. Assefa, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-responsivity graphene-boron nitride photodetector and autocorrelator in a silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Nano Lett. 15, 7288–7293 (2015).
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Azaña, J.

A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, F. Légaré, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Time-lens measurement of subpicosecond optical pulses in cmos compatible high-index glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 629–636 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 5, 618 (2011).
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Baba, T.

Baltuska, A.

Bao, Q.

C. Xin, S. Yu, Q. Bao, X. Wu, B. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Yang, and L. Tong, “Single CdTe nanowire optical correlator for femtojoule pulses,” Nano Lett. 16, 4807–4810 (2016).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Barry, L.

Barry, L. P.

L. P. Barry, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 μm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 μm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–360 (1998).
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Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Begishev, I. A.

Bender, D. A.

Bergmann, J.

P.-C. Heisel, J. Bergmann, W. Paa, W. Triebel, T. Zeuner, and H. Stafast, “197nm femtosecond laser-pulse duration: comparison of autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 49–53 (2013).
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Bhimanapati, G. R.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9, 11509–11539 (2015).
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A. Tikan, S. Bielawski, C. Szwaj, S. Randoux, and P. Suret, “Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography,” Nat. Photonics 12, 228 (2018).
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Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Bradley, D. J.

D. J. Bradley and G. H. C. New, “Ultrashort pulse measurements,” Proc. IEEE 62, 313–345 (1974).
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M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 086809 (2009).
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Bromage, J.

Butler, S. Z.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2898–2926 (2013).
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Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2898–2926 (2013).
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G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9, 11509–11539 (2015).
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Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
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Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
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K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214 – 229 (2018).
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C. Xin, S. Yu, Q. Bao, X. Wu, B. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Yang, and L. Tong, “Single CdTe nanowire optical correlator for femtojoule pulses,” Nano Lett. 16, 4807–4810 (2016).
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Chen, H.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Reports 5, 8690 (2015).
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M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113, 3766–3798 (2013).
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K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214 – 229 (2018).
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J. Chen, W. Xia, and M. Wang, “Characteristic measurement for femtosecond laser pulses using a GaAs PIN photodiode as a two-photon photovoltaic receiver,” J. Appl. Phys. 121, 223103 (2017).
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K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
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C. Qiu, Y. Yang, C. Li, Y. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Reports 7, 17046 (2017).
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K. Wu, X. Li, Y. Wang, Q. J. Wang, P. P. Shum, and J. Chen, “Towards low timing phase noise operation in fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 23, 501–511 (2015).
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P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Reports 5, 8690 (2015).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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Chen, Y.

Chong, E. Z.

E. Z. Chong, T. F. Watson, and F. Festy, “Autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulses based on two-photon absorption in GaP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 062111 (2014).
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Chu, S. T.

A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, F. Légaré, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Time-lens measurement of subpicosecond optical pulses in cmos compatible high-index glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 629–636 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 5, 618 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
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C. Monat, C. Grillet, M. Collins, A. Clark, J. Schroeder, C. Xiong, J. Li, L. O’faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Integrated optical auto-correlator based on third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3246 (2014).
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M. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S.-P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 259–266 (2008).
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E. Z. Chong, T. F. Watson, and F. Festy, “Autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulses based on two-photon absorption in GaP photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 062111 (2014).
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S.-D. Yang, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “400-photon-per-pulse ultrashort pulse autocorrelation measurement with a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2070–2072 (2004).
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J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
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T. Sun, B. K. K. Fung, I. K. Sou, G. K. L. Wong, K. S. Wong, and G. Lanzani, “Two-photon absorption autocorrelation of visible to ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses using ZnS-based photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 86–88 (2002).
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T. Sun, B. K. K. Fung, I. K. Sou, G. K. L. Wong, K. S. Wong, and G. Lanzani, “Two-photon absorption autocorrelation of visible to ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses using ZnS-based photodetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 86–88 (2002).
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K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25, 17639–17649 (2017).
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K. Wu, X. Li, Y. Wang, Q. J. Wang, P. P. Shum, and J. Chen, “Towards low timing phase noise operation in fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 23, 501–511 (2015).
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C. Xin, S. Yu, Q. Bao, X. Wu, B. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Yang, and L. Tong, “Single CdTe nanowire optical correlator for femtojoule pulses,” Nano Lett. 16, 4807–4810 (2016).
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C. Qiu, Y. Yang, C. Li, Y. Wang, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “All-optical control of light on a graphene-on-silicon nitride chip using thermo-optic effect,” Sci. Reports 7, 17046 (2017).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Reports 5, 7965 (2015).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Transmission electron microscopy image of CNTs. (b) CNT thin film. (c) CNT thin film transferred onto a fiber end. (d) Experimental setup of the CNT saturable absorption measurement. (e) Nonlinear saturable absorption characteristics of the CNT saturable absorber (data and fit). (f) Transmission spectrum of the CNT.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup of the CNT based SAPM. (b) Simulated transmittance change of CNT saturable absorber with respect to different delay time.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated CNT based SAPM traces (red) and SHG AC traces (black) for an input of (a) Gaussian pulse, (b) soliton pulse, and (c) pulse with tale ringing. Insets in (a)-(c): Input pulse shapes. (d)-(f) Zoomed views of wing region of the traces in (a)-(c). Insets in (d)-(f): Zoomed views of peak region of the traces.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation of pulse pair input for (a) SHG based AC and (b) CNT based SAPM. Inset: input pulse pair.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation of (a) SAPM pulse width with respect to the input pulse width and (b) SAPM pulse width with respect to the input pulse peak power. (c) Three-dimensional simulation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) SAPM trace (purple circles) and Gaussian fit (red line), inset: AC trace with standard SHG autocorrelator, (b) SAPM trace (purple circles), hyperbolic secant fit (red line) and Gaussian fit (blue dashed line), inset: AC trace with standard SHG autocorrelator.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) SAPM traces with different input pulse width. (b) Relationship of the measured SAPM pulse width and the input pulse width. (c) SAPM traces with different input pulse power. (d) SAPM pulse width with respect to the normalized peak power.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Long-time stability test of the SAPM. (b) Four typical SAPM traces and their fit from (a). (c) Measurement error of the pulse widths. (d) Histogram of the error.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 SAPM measurement with a pulse energy of 75fJ (-21.26 dBm average power).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Four typical simulated SAPM traces with different recovery time and their fit. (b) Relationship of the measurement error and NRT, inset: measurement error against NRT when error is less than 10%. (c) Simulated SAPM trace (purple circles) and Gaussian fit (red line) with NRT equals 10. (d) Simulated SAPM trace (purple circles) and Gaussian fit (red line) with NRT equals 0.3.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Property comparison among SHG, TPA and LDM based SAPM technologies

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Table 2 Different methods for pulse width measurement

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ i n = τ A C / C c o n
T ( I ) = 1 Δ T exp ( I I s a t ) A n s β I
P i n = P 0 exp ( t 2 τ 2 )
P ( t ) = R ( t ) α 1 P 0 2 exp [ t 2 τ 2 ] + α 2 P 0 2 exp [ ( t t d e l a y ) 2 τ 2 ]
P 1 ( t ) = P ( t ) T ( I )
τ i n = ( τ S A P M Δ τ ) / 1.217
q t = q m q τ R q P ( t ) E A

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