Abstract

Beams with fast and continuously-tunable orbital angular momentum (OAM) have potential applications in classical and quantum optical communications, sensing, and in the study of beam propagation through turbulence. An acousto-optical deflector (AOD) is a sophisticated, well-studied device that continuously and rapidly tunes the deflection angle of an output beam. The log-polar HOBBIT setup can generate beams with OAM by wrapping elliptically shaped Gaussian beams with linear phase tilt to a ring. By combining the linear tilted output from the AOD with the OAM generation capabilities of the HOBBIT system, the generated OAM modes become continuously tunable at high speeds measured on the order of 400 kHz.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

K. Huang, H. Liu, S. Restuccia, M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, D. Giovannini, A. Danner, M. J. Padgett, J. Teng, and C. Qiu, “Spiniform phase-encoded metagratings entangling arbitrary rational-order orbital angular momentum,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17156 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ruffato, M. Girardi, M. Massari, F. Romanato, E. Mafakheri, and P. Capaldo, “Compact diffractive optics for high-resolution sorting of orbital angular momentum beams,” Proc. SPIE 10744, 18 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. B.-C. Arturo Barcelo-Chong, B. E.-P. Brian Estrada-Portillo, A. C.-B. Arturo Canales-Benavides, and S. L.-A. Servando Lopez-Aguayo, “Asymmetric Mathieu beams,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(12), 122601 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

G. Ruffato, M. Massari, and F. Romanato, “Compact sorting of optical vortices by means of diffractive transformation optics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 551–554 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ruffato, M. Massari, G. Parisi, and F. Romanato, “Test of mode-division multiplexing and demultiplexing in free-space with diffractive transformation optics,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7859–7868 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lightman, G. Hurvitz, R. Gvishi, and A. Arie, “Miniature wide-spectrum mode sorter for vortex beams produced by 3D laser printing,” Optica 4(6), 605–610 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Ruffato, M. Massari, and F. Romanato, “Compact sorting of optical vortices by means of diffractive transformation optics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 551–554 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Alperin and M. E. Siemens, “Angular momentum of topologically structured darkness,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203902 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (7)

W. Akemann, J.-F. Léger, C. Ventalon, B. Mathieu, S. Dieudonné, and L. Bourdieu, “Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28191–28205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Grinenko, M. P. MacDonald, C. R. P. Courtney, P. D. Wilcox, C. E. M. Demore, S. Cochran, and B. W. Drinkwater, “Tunable beam shaping with a phased array acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(1), 26–32 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, I. S. Raghu, and E. G. Johnson, “Design and fabrication of diffractive optics for orbital angular momentum space division multiplexing,” Proc. SPIE 9374, 93740Y (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cvijetic, G. Milione, E. Ip, and T. Wang, “Detecting lateral motion using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, S. M. Barnett, F. C. Speirits, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the rotational Doppler shift of a white-light, orbital-angular-momentum-carrying beam backscattered from a rotating body,” Optica 1(1), 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, D. Brickus, T. W. Clark, and S. Franke-Arnold, “High speed switching between arbitrary spatial light profiles,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12845–12852 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, and V. A. Soifer, “Asymmetric Bessel modes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2395–2398 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, and V. A. Soifer, “Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(9), 1977–1983 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

T. Mhlanga, A. Dudley, A. Mcdonald, F. S. Roux, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Forbes, “Efficient sorting of Bessel beams,” Proc. SPIE 8637, 86371C (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, and D. V. Plant, “Analysis and experimental demonstration of novel 8PolSK-QPSK modulation at 5 bits/symbol for passive mitigation of nonlinear impairments,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30204–30220 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. B. Götte, K. O’Holleran, D. Preece, F. Flossmann, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Light beams with fractional orbital angular momentum and their vortex structure,” Opt. Express 16(2), 993–1006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega and C. López-Mariscal, “Nondiffracting vortex beams with continuous orbital angular momentum order dependence,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(1), 015009 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. B. Götte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(12), 1723–1738 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 71 (2004).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. A. Stuff and J. N. Cederquist, “Coordinate transformations realizable with multiple holographic optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7(6), 977–981 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1974 (2)

O. Bryngdahl, “Geometrical transformations in optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64(8), 1092–1099 (1974).
[Crossref]

O. Bryngdahl, “Optical map transformations,” Opt. Commun. 10(2), 164–168 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akemann, W.

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alperin, S. N.

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

Arturo Barcelo-Chong, A. B.-C.

Arturo Canales-Benavides, A. C.-B.

Bai, C.

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, S. M. Barnett, F. C. Speirits, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the rotational Doppler shift of a white-light, orbital-angular-momentum-carrying beam backscattered from a rotating body,” Optica 1(1), 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Götte, K. O’Holleran, D. Preece, F. Flossmann, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Light beams with fractional orbital angular momentum and their vortex structure,” Opt. Express 16(2), 993–1006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Götte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(12), 1723–1738 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourdieu, L.

Boyd, R. W.

Brian Estrada-Portillo, B. E.-P.

Brickus, D.

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, “Geometrical transformations in optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64(8), 1092–1099 (1974).
[Crossref]

O. Bryngdahl, “Optical map transformations,” Opt. Commun. 10(2), 164–168 (1974).
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G. Ruffato, M. Massari, and F. Romanato, “Diffractive optics for combined spatial- and mode- division demultiplexing of optical vortices: design, fabrication and optical characterization,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24760 (2016).
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T. Mhlanga, A. Dudley, A. Mcdonald, F. S. Roux, M. Lavery, M. Padgett, and A. Forbes, “Efficient sorting of Bessel beams,” Proc. SPIE 8637, 86371C (2013).
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G. Ruffato, M. Girardi, M. Massari, F. Romanato, E. Mafakheri, and P. Capaldo, “Compact diffractive optics for high-resolution sorting of orbital angular momentum beams,” Proc. SPIE 10744, 18 (2018).
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G. Ruffato, M. Massari, G. Parisi, and F. Romanato, “Test of mode-division multiplexing and demultiplexing in free-space with diffractive transformation optics,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7859–7868 (2017).
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G. Ruffato, M. Massari, and F. Romanato, “Diffractive optics for combined spatial- and mode- division demultiplexing of optical vortices: design, fabrication and optical characterization,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24760 (2016).
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Shi, Z.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siemens, M. E.

Skidanov, R. V.

Soifer, V. A.

Sorel, M.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speirits, F. C.

M. P. J. Lavery, S. M. Barnett, F. C. Speirits, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the rotational Doppler shift of a white-light, orbital-angular-momentum-carrying beam backscattered from a rotating body,” Optica 1(1), 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strain, M. J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuff, M. A.

M. A. Stuff and J. N. Cederquist, “Coordinate transformations realizable with multiple holographic optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7(6), 977–981 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Szulzycki, K.

Tai, A. M.

Teng, J.

K. Huang, H. Liu, S. Restuccia, M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, D. Giovannini, A. Danner, M. J. Padgett, J. Teng, and C. Qiu, “Spiniform phase-encoded metagratings entangling arbitrary rational-order orbital angular momentum,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. G.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

T. Lei, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, J. Tian, and X. Yuan, “Fast-switchable OAM-based high capacity density optical router,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ursin, R.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ventalon, C.

Wang, C.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

Wang, T.

N. Cvijetic, G. Milione, E. Ip, and T. Wang, “Detecting lateral motion using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wilcox, P. D.

Willner, A. E.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. J.

Xie, G.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

T. Lei, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, J. Tian, and X. Yuan, “Fast-switchable OAM-based high capacity density optical router,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, and D. V. Plant, “Analysis and experimental demonstration of novel 8PolSK-QPSK modulation at 5 bits/symbol for passive mitigation of nonlinear impairments,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30204–30220 (2013).
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Yan, Y.

Yang, Z.

Yao, E.

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 71 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, F.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

T. Lei, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, J. Tian, and X. Yuan, “Fast-switchable OAM-based high capacity density optical router,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

T. Lei, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, J. Tian, and X. Yuan, “Fast-switchable OAM-based high capacity density optical router,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zambrini, R.

J. B. Götte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(12), 1723–1738 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

T. Lei, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, J. Tian, and X. Yuan, “Fast-switchable OAM-based high capacity density optical router,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Z.

Zheng, Z.

H. Wang, F. Yuan, S. Chang, P. Sun, S. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Zheng, S. Liu, T. Xie, and C. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of micro-particles in three dimensions by steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Proc. SPIE 10347, 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.-Y.

Zhu, J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuge, Q.

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Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Lei, S. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, M. Zhang, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, J. Tian, and X. Yuan, “Fast-switchable OAM-based high capacity density optical router,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1 (2017).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2781 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
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M. Krenn, R. Fickler, M. Fink, J. Handsteiner, M. Malik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113028 (2014).
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J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 71 (2004).
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A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
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J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Scan of charge number from -3 to +3 in steps of 0.2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The proposed AOD concept, (b) illustration of the beam profiles at the AOD, after the line generator and after the log-polar optics and (c) the momentum vector diagram.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Analytic intensity and phase profiles for m = ± 3, ± 1.2 and 0.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Multiple log-polar device fabrication on a single wafer, (b) the microscope image of central part of wrapper and (c) phase corrector, (d) the 130 × magnification SEM inspection of device center of wrapper and (e) phase corrector.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diagram of the acousto-optic deflector, line-generator and log-polar transformation optics.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Picture of the continuously tunable OAM generation system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of analytic expression with β = 0.663 and ρ0 = 850 µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The simulated and experiment results of BG beams central dark area’s radius vary with charge number as well as AOD driving signal’s frequency.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimentally generated and simulated fractional OAM BG beams.

Equations (23)

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θ B sin( θ B )= | K | 2| k i | = λ 0 f 0 2 V a ,
Δ θ m =| θ m θ 0 |=| λ m f m V a λ 0 f 0 V a | λ m | f m f 0 | V a = λ m Δ f m V a ,
Δ θ m =Δ θ m F 1 F 2 ,
Δ θ m tan( Δ θ m )= λ m m 2πa ,
m= 2πa( Δ f m ) F 1 V a F 2 .
U AOD_1st ( u,v )=exp[ ( u 2 + v 2 ) w 0 2 ]exp[ i( 2π( f c + f m )t k d,m r ) ] =exp[ ( u 2 + v 2 ) w 0 2 ]exp[ i( 2π( f c + f m )t k z z k u u ) ].
U line ( u,v )=exp[ ( u 2 w u 2 + v 2 w v 2 ) ]exp[ i( 2π( f c + f m )t k z z k u u ) ].
U near ( ρ,ϕ )=exp[ ( ( ρ ρ 0 ) 2 w ring 2 + ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 ) ]exp[ i( mϕ+2π( f c + f m )t k z z ) ],
U far ( r,θ )=Aexp( r 2 w G 2 )exp[ i( 2π( f c + f m )t k z z ) ] n= B n exp( inθ ) J n ( 2π ρ 0 λ m F r ),
B mk = ( 1 ) k B m+k , k=0, 1, 2,
U far ( r,θ )=Aexp( r 2 w G 2 )exp[ i( mθ+2π( f m + f c )t k z z ) ] { B m J m ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) +isinθ m λ m F π ρ 0 r B m+1 J m ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) +cosθ B m+1 [ J m+1 ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) J m1 ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) ] + k=1 { B m+2k+1 { cos( ( 2k+1 )θ )[ J m+2k+1 ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) J m2k1 ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) ] +isin( ( 2k+1 )θ )[ J m+2k+1 ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F )+ J m2k1 ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) ] } + B m+2k { cos( 2kθ )[ J m+2k ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F )+ J m2k ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) ] +isin( 2kθ )[ J m+2k ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) J m2k ( 2π ρ 0 r λ m F ) ] } } }.
U near ( ρ,ϕ )=Ρ( ρ )Φ( ϕ ),
Ρ( ρ )=exp( ( ρ ρ 0 ) 2 w ring 2 ),
Φ( ϕ )=exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 ]exp(imϕ).
U far ( r,θ )= 1 iλf F{ U near ( ρ,ϕ ) } = 1 iλf F{ exp( ρ 2 w ring 2 ) }F{ δ( ρ ρ 0 )exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 ]exp(imϕ) }.
U far ( r,θ )= 1 iλf π π 0 U near ( ρ,ϕ ) exp( i 2π λ m F ρrcos( θϕ ) )ρdρdϕ,
F{ δ( ρ ρ 0 )exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 ]exp(imϕ) } = π π 0 δ( ρ ρ 0 )exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 ]exp(imϕ)exp( i 2π λ m F ρrcos( θϕ ) )ρdρdϕ .
exp( i 2π λ m F ρrcos( θϕ ) )= n= + ( i ) n J n ( 2π λ m F ρr )exp[ in( θϕ ) ].
F{ δ( ρ ρ 0 )exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 ]exp(imϕ) } = n= + ( i ) n exp( inθ ) 0 δ( ρ ρ 0 ) J l ( 2π λ m F ρr )ρdρ π π exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 +iϕ( mn ) ]dϕ .
π π exp[ ϕ 2 ( βπ ) 2 +iϕ( mn ) ]dϕ = iβπ π 2 exp( ( βπ ) 2 ( mn ) 2 4 )[ erfi( i+ βπ( mn ) 2 )erfi( i+ βπ( mn ) 2 ) ] =βπ π exp( ( βπ ) 2 ( mn ) 2 4 )Im[ erfi( i+ βπ( mn ) 2 ) ].
B n=l+k = ( i ) l+k1 2exp( ( βπ ) 2 ( l( l+k ) ) 2 4 )Im[ erfi( i+ βπ( l( l+k ) ) 2 ) ] = ( i ) l+k1 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i kβπ 2 ) ).
B n=lk = ( i ) lk1 2exp( ( l( lk ) ) 2 ( βπ ) 2 4 )Im[ erfi( i+ ( l( lk ) )βπ 2 ) ] = ( i ) lk1 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i+ kβπ 2 ) ).
B n=lk = ( i ) lk1 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i+ kβπ 2 ) ) = ( i ) l+k1 ( i ) 2k 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i kβπ 2 ) ) = ( 1 ) k ( i ) l+k1 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i kβπ 2 ¯ ) ) = ( 1 ) k ( i ) l+k1 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i kβπ 2 ) ¯ ) = ( 1 ) k ( i ) l+k1 2exp( ( kβπ ) 2 4 )Im( erfi( i kβπ 2 ) )= ( 1 ) k B n=l+k .

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