Abstract

Vector beams (VBs) with potential applications are successfully utilized in many fields as light sources with a spatially-varying polarization profile in recent years. Here, we study the transmission of a VB by manipulating atomic polarization via the optical pumping effect. By using hybridly and radially polarized beams as pump and probe beams in a counter-propagating configuration, we observe a four-petal pattern intensity distribution of probe beam, and the four-petal pattern rotates with the polarization state orientation of the pump beam. The results show a polarization dependent absorption in the atomic media. We experimentally demonstrate the absorption characteristics under different polarization combinations of pump and probe beams. The Jones matrix method is used to explain this phenomenon and the simulations are consistent with the experimental observation. Our results may provide a sound foundation for applications in optical manipulation and quantum information in atomic ensembles.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (5)

L. Stern, A. Szapiro, E. Talker, and U. Levy, “Controlling the interactions of space-variant polarization beams with rubidium vapor using external magnetic fields,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4834–4841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, C. Ma, L. Han, H. Cheng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2205–2208 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Baccari, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Arbitrary, direct and deterministic manipulation of vector beams via electrically-tuned q-plates,” Sci. Reports 5(7), 7840–7844 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Radwell, T.W. Clark, B. Piccirillo, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, T. Zeng, B. Qian, and J. Ding, “Complete shaping of optical vector beams,” Opt. Express 23(14), 17701–17710 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Aflan, "Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication," Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of complex photon polarization patterns in vector beams,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 060301 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

J. T. Barreiro, T. C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Remote preparation of single-photon “hybrid” entangled and vector-polarization states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(3), 030407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. N. Li, J. P. Ding, C. H. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. F. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2525–2527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jelger and F. Laurell, “Efficient skew-angle cladding-pumped tunable narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3501–3503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Kojima, H. F. Hofmann, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Nonlinear interaction of two photons with a one-dimensional atom: Spatiotemporal quantum coherence in the emitted field,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013803 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1978 (1)

V. Stert and R. Fischer, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light,” Appl. Phys. 17(2) 151–154 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, “Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36(20), 1170–1173 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Aflan, R. R.

Ahmed, M. A.

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C.

V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baccari, F.

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Baccari, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Arbitrary, direct and deterministic manipulation of vector beams via electrically-tuned q-plates,” Sci. Reports 5(7), 7840–7844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

N. Radwell, T.W. Clark, B. Piccirillo, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barreiro, J. T.

J. T. Barreiro, T. C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Remote preparation of single-photon “hybrid” entangled and vector-polarization states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(3), 030407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, D.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bautista, G.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beversluis, M. R.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics, (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

Bouchard, F.

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, M. T.

J. W. Wang, X. Yang, Y. K. Li, Y. Chen, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Optically spatial information selection with hybridly polarized beam in atomic vapor,” Photon. Res. 6(5), 451–456 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cardano, F.

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. N. Li, J. P. Ding, C. H. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, H.

Cho, H.

Clark, T.W.

N. Radwell, T.W. Clark, B. Piccirillo, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collett, E.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Courjon, D.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, V.

V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Baccari, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Arbitrary, direct and deterministic manipulation of vector beams via electrically-tuned q-plates,” Sci. Reports 5(7), 7840–7844 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davidson, N.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

DeLeon, I.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

Ding, J. P.

H. Chen, J. J. Hao, B. F. Zhang, J. Xu, J. P. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “Generation of vector beam with space-variant distribution of both polarization and phase,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 3179–3181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. N. Li, J. P. Ding, C. H. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dudley, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Evans, S.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fatemi, F. K.

Feng, B. H.

Fickler, R.

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of complex photon polarization patterns in vector beams,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 060301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Firstenberg, O.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fischer, R.

V. Stert and R. Fischer, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light,” Appl. Phys. 17(2) 151–154 (1978).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fraher, B.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

N. Radwell, T.W. Clark, B. Piccirillo, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fürhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gagnon-Bischoff, J.

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

J. W. Wang, X. Yang, Y. K. Li, Y. Chen, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Optically spatial information selection with hybridly polarized beam in atomic vapor,” Photon. Res. 6(5), 451–456 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

Grosjean, T.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gu, B.

Guo, C. H.

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. N. Li, J. P. Ding, C. H. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, H. L.

Guo, Q.

Han, L.

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, “Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36(20), 1170–1173 (1976).
[Crossref]

Hao, J. J.

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(12),123901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, H. F.

K. Kojima, H. F. Hofmann, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Nonlinear interaction of two photons with a one-dimensional atom: Spatiotemporal quantum coherence in the emitted field,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013803 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Huttunen, M. J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jelger, P.

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. Lisio, and E. Santamato, “Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by q-plates with different topological charges,” Appl. opt. 51(10), C1–C6 (2012).
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G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kojima, K.

K. Kojima, H. F. Hofmann, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Nonlinear interaction of two photons with a one-dimensional atom: Spatiotemporal quantum coherence in the emitted field,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013803 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kontio, J. M.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozawa, Y.

Kristensen, P.

Krolikowski, W.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(12),123901 (2011).
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J. T. Barreiro, T. C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Remote preparation of single-photon “hybrid” entangled and vector-polarization states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(3), 030407 (2010).
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Lapkiewicz, R.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of complex photon polarization patterns in vector beams,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 060301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Larocque, H.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
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V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Leach, J.

Levy, U.

Li, F. L.

J. W. Wang, X. Yang, Y. K. Li, Y. Chen, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Optically spatial information selection with hybridly polarized beam in atomic vapor,” Photon. Res. 6(5), 451–456 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J. F.

Li, P.

Li, Y.

Li, Y. K.

Li, Y. N.

X. L. Wang, J. Chen, Y. N. Li, J. P. Ding, C. H. Guo, and H. T. Wang, “Optical orbital angular momentum from the curl of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 253602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

Ling, L.

Lipson, S. G.

Lisio, C.

Litvin, I.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Liu, S.

London, P.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
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Ma, C.

Mäkitalo, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Baccari, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Arbitrary, direct and deterministic manipulation of vector beams via electrically-tuned q-plates,” Sci. Reports 5(7), 7840–7844 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. Lisio, and E. Santamato, “Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by q-plates with different topological charges,” Appl. opt. 51(10), C1–C6 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
[Crossref]

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G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Aflan, "Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication," Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
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G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
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Nguyen, T. A.

Nolan, D. A.

G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Aflan, "Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication," Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
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G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
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Novotny, L.

Oppo, G. L.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
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V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
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Park, S. E.

Piccirillo, B.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
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D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
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Qian, S. X.

Radwell, N.

N. Radwell, T.W. Clark, B. Piccirillo, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123603 (2015).
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Ramelow, S.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of complex photon polarization patterns in vector beams,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 060301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rode, A.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(12),123901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ron, A.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roux, F. S.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rubano, A.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santamato, E.

Sasaki, K.

K. Kojima, H. F. Hofmann, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Nonlinear interaction of two photons with a one-dimensional atom: Spatiotemporal quantum coherence in the emitted field,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013803 (2003).
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Schaefer, B.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
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Sciarrino, F.

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Baccari, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Arbitrary, direct and deterministic manipulation of vector beams via electrically-tuned q-plates,” Sci. Reports 5(7), 7840–7844 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
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Seong Lee, H.

Shoham, A.

Shuker, M.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shvedov, V.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(12),123901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simonen, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slussarenko, S.

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Baccari, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Arbitrary, direct and deterministic manipulation of vector beams via electrically-tuned q-plates,” Sci. Reports 5(7), 7840–7844 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. Lisio, and E. Santamato, “Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by q-plates with different topological charges,” Appl. opt. 51(10), C1–C6 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smyth, R.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
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T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1), 1–5 (2002).
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Stert, V.

V. Stert and R. Fischer, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light,” Appl. Phys. 17(2) 151–154 (1978).
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Szapiro, A.

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K. Kojima, H. F. Hofmann, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Nonlinear interaction of two photons with a one-dimensional atom: Spatiotemporal quantum coherence in the emitted field,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013803 (2003).
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Travis, C.

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. DeLeon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G. L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(23), 233903 (2016).
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Upham, J.

H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
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Vogel, M. M.

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K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. Li, B. Gu, C. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(1), 120–127 (2012).
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[Crossref]

Wei, D.

J. W. Wang, X. Yang, Y. K. Li, Y. Chen, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Optically spatial information selection with hybridly polarized beam in atomic vapor,” Photon. Res. 6(5), 451–456 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
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Wei, T. C.

J. T. Barreiro, T. C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Remote preparation of single-photon “hybrid” entangled and vector-polarization states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(3), 030407 (2010).
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C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, “Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36(20), 1170–1173 (1976).
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L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
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R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of complex photon polarization patterns in vector beams,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 060301 (2014).
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Zentgraf, T.

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L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
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L. Y. Zhang, F. J. Ye, M. T. Cao, D. Wei, P. Zhang, H. Gao, and F. L. Li, “Investigating the self-healing property of an optical Airy beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5065–5069 (2015).
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Am. J. Phys. (1)

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75(2), 163–168 (2007).
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Appl. opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Stert and R. Fischer, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light,” Appl. Phys. 17(2) 151–154 (1978).
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Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
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H. Larocque, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, F. Bouchard, R. Fickler, J. Upham, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Arbitrary optical wavefront shaping via spin-to-orbit coupling,” J. Opt. 18(12), 124002 (2016).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano. Lett. (1)

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano. Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
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Nat. Commun (1)

V. Parigi, V. D’Ambrosio, C. Arnold, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and J. Laurat, “Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory,” Nat. Commun 6, 7706 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 34(10), 327–332 (2016).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 665–668 (2009).
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New J. Phys. (1)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(78), 41612–41633 (2007).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1), 1–5 (2002).
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Opt. Express (6)

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G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Aflan, "Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication," Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
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Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup for vector beam manipulation via optical pumping in an atomic vapor. (b) Energy-level diagram of the optical pumping configuration, the σ +(red arrow) refers to the pump beam and the π(purple arrow) denotes the probe beam, and so on for σ case where Δ m F = 1. SMF, single-mode optical fiber; L, lens; M, Mirror; QWP, quarter-wave plate; BS, beam splitter; PD, photo-detector; CCD, charge coupled device camera.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The experimental setup of Stokes parameters measurement. GLP, Glan-laser polarizer. (b) and (c) Polarization distribution and Stokes parameters of radially vector probe beam and hybridly vector pump beam. The black curves inside first column of (b) and (c) outline the real polarization distribution, while the blue curves inside S0 indicate the reconstructed polarization distribution from measured Stokes parameters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental results for the manipulation of vector beam. The blue line is the fast axis of the QWP, the curve lines in four lobes at θ=0° indicate the reconstructed polarization distribution from measured Stokes parameters. The fast axis rotation angle of the QWP is θ with respect to the horizontal direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The schematic diagram of the polarization transformation for the probe and pump beams for the uniformly polarized beam experiment. (a) The polarized state selectivity for the pump beam. (b) The polarized state selectivity for the probe beam.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The intensity variations of the probe beam at different pump-probe polarization configuration against ϕ. Pol. means polarization of pump beam. Blue dots are the experimental data and the red line is the theoretical simulation. (a)-(d) show the probe beam polarized states as horizontally polarized state, linear + 45 polarized state, vertically polarized state and linear 45 polarized state, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Theoretical simulation of the four-petal pattern of vector probe beam passing through the atomic medium. (b) Diagram for selecting azimuthal angle to calculate the transmission efficiency. (c) Transmission efficiency of azimuthal distribution, the purple line expresses the polarization states.

Equations (5)

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W 0 = [ exp  ( i δ 2 ) 0 0 exp  ( i δ 2 ) ] ,
W ( ϕ ) = R ( ϕ ) W 0 R ( ϕ ) ,
R ( ϕ ) = [ cos  ( ϕ ) sin  ( ϕ ) sin  ( ϕ ) cos  ( ϕ ) ] ,
P ( ϕ ) = W P 0 = W [ 1 0 ] = [ exp  ( i π 4 ) + 2 i sin 2 ( ϕ ) sin  ( π 4 ) i sin  ( π 4 ) sin  ( 2 ϕ ) ] .
I sin 2 ( 2 ϕ ) .

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