Abstract

We present polarization-independent optical shutters with a sub-millisecond switching time. The approach utilizes dual-frequency nematics doped with a dichroic dye. Two nematic cells with orthogonal alignment are driven simultaneously by a low-frequency or high-frequency electric field to switch the shutter either into a transparent or a light-absorbing state. The switching speed is accelerated via special short pulses of high amplitude voltage. The approach can be used in a variety of electro-optical devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices, II ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2014).
  2. A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching dual-frequency liquid crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude and frequency modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3864–3866 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. Duan, P. Chen, B.-Y. Wei, S.-J. Ge, X. Liang, W. Hu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast-response and high-efficiency optical switch based on dual-frequency liquid crystal polarization grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 597–602 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Gust-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate measurement of the pretilt angle in a liquid crystal cell by an improved crystal rotation method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 241(1), 147–157 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Tarkoma, M. Siekkinen, E. Lagerspetz, and Y. Xiao, Smartphone Energy Consumption: Modeling and Optimization (Cambridge University, 2014).
  11. Y. Yin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024906 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y.-C. Hsiao and W. Lee, “Lower operation voltage in dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystals based on the thermodielectric effect,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23927–23933 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Yin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024906 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching dual-frequency liquid crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude and frequency modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3864–3866 (2003).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate measurement of the pretilt angle in a liquid crystal cell by an improved crystal rotation method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 241(1), 147–157 (1994).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Gust-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Chen, Y.

Chigrinov, V.

Choi, J.-C.

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chojnowska, O.

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.-Q.

Duan, W.

Garbat, K.

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ge, S.-J.

Golovin, A.

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Golovin, A. B.

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching dual-frequency liquid crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude and frequency modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3864–3866 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, K. Y.

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate measurement of the pretilt angle in a liquid crystal cell by an improved crystal rotation method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 241(1), 147–157 (1994).
[Crossref]

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Gust-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, Y.-C.

Hu, W.

Hu, X.-K.

Joo, K.-I.

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lavrentovich, O.

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Y. Yin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching dual-frequency liquid crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude and frequency modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3864–3866 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

Li, J.-N.

Liang, X.

Lin, X.-W.

Lu, Y.-Q.

Mazur, R.

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate measurement of the pretilt angle in a liquid crystal cell by an improved crystal rotation method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 241(1), 147–157 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mrukiewicz, M.

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-W.

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perkowski, P.

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piecek, W.

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ranjkesh, A.

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shiyanovskii, S.

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

Y. Yin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024906 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching dual-frequency liquid crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude and frequency modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3864–3866 (2003).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate measurement of the pretilt angle in a liquid crystal cell by an improved crystal rotation method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 241(1), 147–157 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.-Y.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024906 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zakerhamidi, M. S.

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Gust-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. B. Golovin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching dual-frequency liquid crystal optical retarder, driven by an amplitude and frequency modulated voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3864–3866 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Gust-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Mrukiewicz, P. Perkowski, W. Piecek, R. Mazur, O. Chojnowska, and K. Garbat, “Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(17), 173104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electric heating effects in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024906 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (3)

Y. Yin, M. Gu, A. Golovin, S. Shiyanovskii, and O. Lavrentovich, “Fast switching optical modulator based on dual frequency nematic cell,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 133–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate measurement of the pretilt angle in a liquid crystal cell by an improved crystal rotation method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 241(1), 147–157 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Ranjkesh, J.-C. Choi, K.-I. Joo, H.-W. Park, M. S. Zakerhamidi, and H.-R. Kim, “Linear dichroism and order parameters of nematics doped with azo dyes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 647(1), 107–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Other (2)

S. Tarkoma, M. Siekkinen, E. Lagerspetz, and Y. Xiao, Smartphone Energy Consumption: Modeling and Optimization (Cambridge University, 2014).

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices, II ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Electro-optic shutter comprised of a pair of cells for polarization-independent light absorption. (a) Field-free state; the nearly homeotropic alignment of the dual frequency nematic doped with a dichroic dye makes the cells transparent to normally impinging light. The rubbing direction of two cells is perpendicular to each other. (b) Light-absorbing state is formed when a high-frequency electric field (f > fc) is applied and realigns the director and dye molecules parallel to the bounding plates. The state is light-absorbing for all polarizations of light. The open and closed ellipsoids represent the nematic and dye molecules, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Temperature dependence of (a) the crossover frequency of two studied materials, (b) dielectric anisotropy of DP002-026 at various frequencies.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of the required transmission T transparent at the transparent state on the minimum order parameter S and contrast ratio T / T .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Voltage waveform for transition (a) from the transparent to the dark state and (b) from the dark state to the transparent state and (c, d) the corresponding fast transmission changes measured for a single cell, d=5μm, filled with DP002-026 and G-472 mixture. The polarization of incident light is along the rubbing direction of the cell. The holding voltage at 60 kHz is 7 V.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Voltage waveform and (b) the corresponding switching of transparency by the two-cell shutter filled with the mixture of DP002-026 and 2 wt% of G-472. The holding voltage for the dark state is 5 V at 60 kHz.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Order parameter of three dichroic dyes in DP002-026.

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