Abstract

In this paper, we numerically investigate various hollow-core anti-resonant (HC-AR) fibers towards low propagation and bend loss with effectively single-mode operation in the telecommunications window. We demonstrate how the propagation loss and higher-order mode modal contents are strongly influenced by the geometrical structure and the number of the anti-resonant cladding tubes. We found that 5-tube nested HC-AR fiber has a wider anti-resonant band, lower loss, and larger higher-order mode extinction ratio than designs with 6 or more anti-resonant tubes. A loss ratio between the higher-order modes and fundamental mode, as high as 12,000, is obtained in a 5-tube nested HC-AR fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest higher-order mode extinction ratio demonstrated in a hollow-core fiber at 1.55 μm. In addition, we propose a modified 5-tube nested HC-AR fiber, with propagation loss below 1 dB/km from 1330 to 1660 nm. This fiber also has a small bend loss of ~15 dB/km for a bend radius of 1 cm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

M. S. Habib, C. Markos, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. A. Correa, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Multi-stage generation of extreme ultraviolet dispersive waves by tapering gas-filled hollow-core anti-resonant fibers,” Opt. Express 26(19), 24357–24371 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Hasan, N. Akhmediev, and W. Chang, “Empirical Formulae for Dispersion and Effective Mode Area in Hollow-Core Antiresonant Fibers,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(18), 4060–4065 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

2016 (6)

2015 (2)

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss hollow-core silica fibers with adjacent nested anti-resonant tubes,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17394–17406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

2011 (6)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abokhamis Mousavi, S. M.

Akhmediev, N.

Alharbi, M.

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez-Aguirre, R.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Amsanpally, A.

Anderson, J.

Anthony, J.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Astapovich, M. S.

Bache, M.

Balciunas, T.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Baz, A.

Belardi, W.

Benabid, F.

B. Debord, A. Amsanpally, M. Chafer, A. Baz, M. Maurel, J. M. Blondy, E. Hugonnot, F. Scol, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Ultralow transmission loss in inhibited-coupling guiding hollow fibers,” Optica 4(2), 209–217 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, D. Ghosh, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: Cladding effect on confinement and bend loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28609–28616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(2), 87–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and Photonic Guidance of Multi-Octave Optical-Frequency Combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biriukov, A. S.

Birks, T. A.

Blondy, J. M.

Bouwmans, G.

Bradley, T.

Bradley, T. D.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

Chafer, M.

Chang, W.

Chen, Y.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Churbanov, M. F.

Clowes, J.

Cook, K.

Correa, R. A.

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debord, B.

Dianov, E. M.

Ding, W.

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupriez, P.

Eznaveh, Z. S.

Fan, G.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

Fokoua, E. N.

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fourcade-Dutin, C.

Gao, S. F.

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, A. K.

Gerome, F.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gérôme, F.

Gèrôme, F.

Ghosh, D.

Gouveia, M. A.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gu, S.

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Habib, M. S.

Hand, D. P.

Hasan, M. I.

Hayes, J. R.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ho, D.

Hu, J.

areC. Wei, R. Joseph Weiblen, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Negative curvature fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 9(3), 504–561 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Hugonnot, E.

Humbert, G.

Jasion, G.

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. L.

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joly, N. Y.

Joseph Weiblen, R.

areC. Wei, R. Joseph Weiblen, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Negative curvature fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 9(3), 504–561 (2017).
[Crossref]

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow-core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 146–155 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Hollow antiresonant fibers with reduced attenuation,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1853–1856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Hollow antiresonant fibers with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10091–10096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 193–205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gèrôme, P. Dupriez, J. Clowes, J. C. Knight, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power tunable femtosecond soliton source using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and its use for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2381–2386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gèrôme, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight, “Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1142–1149 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7126–7131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolyadin, A. N.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Leonhardt, R.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Liang, S.

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and Photonic Guidance of Multi-Octave Optical-Frequency Combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Galmiche, G.

Luan, F.

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markos, C.

Mason, M. W.

Maurel, M.

Menyuk, C. R.

areC. Wei, R. Joseph Weiblen, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Negative curvature fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 9(3), 504–561 (2017).
[Crossref]

Newkirk, A. V.

Nold, J.

Paulus, G. G.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearce, G. J.

Petrovich, M. N.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Poletti, F.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, “Nested antiresonant nodeless hollow core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23807–23828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulton, C. G.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Qi, W.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and Photonic Guidance of Multi-Octave Optical-Frequency Combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roberts, P.

Roberts, P. J.

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(2), 87–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and Photonic Guidance of Multi-Octave Optical-Frequency Combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Band Gap Guidance in Optical Fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Sandoghchi, S. R.

N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, J. R. Hayes, M. A. Gouveia, S. Liang, Y. Chen, S. R. Sandoghchi, S. M. Abokhamis Mousavi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss Kagome hollow-core fibers operating from the near- to the mid-IR,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2571–2574 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schülzgen, A.

Scol, F.

Selim Habib, M.

Semjonov, S. L.

Shephard, J. D.

Shiryaev, V. S.

Slavík, R.

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
[Crossref]

Snopatin, G. E.

St. J. Russell, P.

Tomlinson, A.

Travers, J. C.

Urich, A.

Vincetti, L.

Voronin, A. A.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, P.

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. Y.

Wei, C.

areC. Wei, R. Joseph Weiblen, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Negative curvature fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 9(3), 504–561 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, N. V.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Williams, D.

Williams, D. P.

Witting, T.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yong, K.-T.

Yoo, S.

Yu, F.

Zhang, X.

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A. M.

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

areC. Wei, R. Joseph Weiblen, C. R. Menyuk, and J. Hu, “Negative curvature fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 9(3), 504–561 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Negative curvature hollow-core optical fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 146–155 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss hollow-core anti-resonant fibers with semi-circular nested tubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 156–161 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lit. Technol. (2)

J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. D. Bradley, Z. Liu, R. Slavík, M. A. Gouveia, N. V. Wheeler, G. Jasion, Y. Chen, E. N. Fokoua, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber With an Octave Spanning Bandwidth for Short Haul Data Communications,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 437–442 (2017).
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M. I. Hasan, N. Akhmediev, and W. Chang, “Empirical Formulae for Dispersion and Effective Mode Area in Hollow-Core Antiresonant Fibers,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(18), 4060–4065 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(2), 87–124 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (2)

S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, W. Ding, D. L. Jiang, S. Gu, X. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Hollow-core conjoined-tube negative-curvature fibre with ultralow loss,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2828 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Balciunas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuska, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6117 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (19)

J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18470–18478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow--core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1441–1448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Kolyadin, A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Light transmission in negative curvature hollow core fiber in extremely high material loss region,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9514–9519 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss hollow-core silica fibers with adjacent nested anti-resonant tubes,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17394–17406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. Russell, D. Williams, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gèrôme, P. Dupriez, J. Clowes, J. C. Knight, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power tunable femtosecond soliton source using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber, and its use for frequency doubling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2381–2386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7126–7131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, D. Ghosh, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: Cladding effect on confinement and bend loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28609–28616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Habib, C. Markos, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. A. Correa, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Multi-stage generation of extreme ultraviolet dispersive waves by tapering gas-filled hollow-core anti-resonant fibers,” Opt. Express 26(19), 24357–24371 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gèrôme, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight, “Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1142–1149 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13(1), 236 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Habib, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Low-loss single-mode hollow-core fiber with anisotropic anti-resonant elements,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8429–8436 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, W. Qi, D. Ho, K.-T. Yong, F. Luan, and S. Yoo, “Hollow core anti-resonant fiber with split cladding,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7670–7678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, “Nested antiresonant nodeless hollow core fiber,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23807–23828 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Belardi and J. C. Knight, “Hollow antiresonant fibers with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10091–10096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25723–25728 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

A. V. Newkirk, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Anderson, R. Alvarez-Aguirre, Z. S. Eznaveh, G. Lopez-Galmiche, R. Amezcua-Correa, and A. Schülzgen, “Modal analysis of antiresonant hollow core fibers using S2 imaging,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3277–3280 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Hasan, N. Akhmediev, and W. Chang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in supercritical xenon-filled hollow-core negative curvature fibers,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5122–5125 (2016).
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M. Selim Habib, C. Markos, O. Bang, and M. Bache, “Soliton-plasma nonlinear dynamics in mid-IR gas-filled hollow-core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2232–2235 (2017).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Geometries considered in the calculations. (a) Typical nested HC-AR fiber; (b) modified nested HC-AR fiber with 1 supporting rod; (c) HC-AR fiber with a straight glass bar at the center of the cladding tubes; and (d) conjoined HC-AR. All fibers have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 μm, a uniform silica wall thickness t = 1120 nm, and the same gap separation g = 6.50 μm. The diameter of the inner nested tubes d is defined by d = D/2 for fibers shown in (a) and (b), respectively. The areas of the D-shaped tubes are S1 ≃ 730 μm2 and S2 ≃730 μm2 for the fiber in (c) and S1 = 270 μm2and S2 = 335 μm2 for the fiber in (d), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated propagation loss spectra of different 6-tube HC-AR fibers. All structures have the same core diameter, Dc = 30.5 µm and uniform silica strut thickness, t = 1120 nm. The color of the frame corresponds to the color of the line in the plot. The gray broken line indicates SSL.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated propagation loss spectra of 6-tube nested HC-AR fiber with different numbers of solid silica rods and different smaller tube diameters (d). All structures have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm and a uniform silica strut thickness t = 1120 nm. The color of the frame corresponds to the color of the line in the plot. The solid lines and broken lines show the loss spectra for d = 10.37 μm and 13 μm, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated propagation loss spectra of 6-tube nested HC-AR fiber with 1 solid supporting rod and different smaller tube diameters (d). All structures have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm and a uniform silica strut thickness t = 1120 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated propagation loss spectra of different 5-tube HC-AR fibers. All fibers have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm and a uniform silica strut thickness t = 1120 nm. The color of the frame corresponds to the color of the line in the plot.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Geometry of a nested HC-AR fiber with five anti-resonant tubes. Calculated total propagation loss of (b) LP01-like FM and (c) HOMs. (d) HOMER as a function of d/D with different values of D/Dc. (e) Mode field profile of LP01, LP11, and LP21 at D/Dc ≃ 1.05 and d/D ≃ 0.68. The light leakage into the cladding for HOMs are indicated by arrows. HOM loss in (c) is defined as the lowest loss among the four LP modes (LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, and LP21b). All simulations are performed at 1.55 μm. The fiber has a fixed core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm and a uniform silica strut thickness t = 1120 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Effect of changing the inner tube diameter d while the core diameter Dc = 30.5 μm, the strut thickness t = 1120 nm, and the tube diameter D = 31.62 μm remain constant. The simulations are performed at 1.55 μm. Mode field profiles of the first core guided modes are shown at the right hand side for D/Dc ≃ 1.03 and d/D ≃ 0.45. The color of the frame corresponds to the color of line of the plot.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Geometry of a nested HC-AR fiber with six anti-resonant tubes. Calculated total propagation loss of (b) LP01-like FM and (c) HOMs. (d) HOMER as a function of d/D for different values of D/Dc. (e) Mode field profiles of LP01, LP11, and LP21 at D/Dc ≃ 0.77 and d/D ≃ 0.4. The light leakage into the cladding for HOMs is indicated by arrows. HOM loss in (c) is defined as the lowest loss among the four LP modes (LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, and LP21b). All simulations are performed at 1.55 μm. The fiber has a fixed core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm and a uniform silica wall thickness t = 1120 nm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Geometry of a nested HC-AR fiber with five anti-resonant tubes and one supporting solid rod. Calculated total propagation loss of (b) LP01-like fundamental mode (FM) and (c) higher-order modes (HOMs). (d) HOMER as a function of d/D with different values of D/Dc. (e) Mode field profiles of LP01, LP11, and LP21 at D/Dc ≃ 0.75 and d/D ≃ 0.5. The light leakage into the cladding for HOMs is indicated by arrows. HOM loss in (c) is defined as the lowest loss among the four LP modes (LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, and LP21b). The simulations are performed at 1.55 μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calculated loss spectra of regular (a) and modified (b) nested HC-AR fibers with five, six, and seven tubes. All fibers have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm, a uniform silica strut thickness t = 1120 nm, and same gap distance g. The color of the frame corresponds to the color of line of the plot.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Calculated bend loss vs. bend radius at 1.55 μm. All fibers have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm and the same gap distance g. The silica strut thickness is t = 1120 nm. Fundamental mode field profiles for a bend radius of 2 cm are shown on the right. The colors of the frames on the right correspond to the line colors in the plot on the left.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Calculated wavelength dependent bend loss for a 5 cm bend radius. All fibers have the same core diameter Dc = 30.5 µm, silica strut thickness t = 1120 nm, and gap distance, g. The calculated fundamental mode field profile is shown on the right column. The colors of the frames on the right correspond to the line colors in the plot on the left.

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