Abstract

Advanced handheld plenoptic cameras are being rapidly developed to capture information about light fields (LFs) from the 3D world. Rich LF data can be used to develop dense sub-aperture images (SAIs) that can provide a more immersive experience for users. Unlike conventional 2D images, 4D SAIs contain both the positional and directional information of light rays; the practical applications of handheld plenoptic cameras are limited by the huge volume of data required to capture this information. Therefore, an efficient LF compression method is vital for further application of the cameras. To this end, the pair of steps and depth estimation (PoS&DE) method is proposed in this paper, and the multiview video and depth (MVD) coding structure is used to relieve the LF coding burden. More specifically, a precise depth-estimation approach is presented for SAIs based on the cost function, and an SAI-guided depth optimization algorithm is designed to refine the initial depth map based on pixel variation tendency. Meanwhile, to reduce running time, intermediate SAI synthesis quality and coding bitrates, including the key SAIs selected and cost-computation steps, are set via extensive statistical experiments. In this way, only a limited number of optimally selected SAIs and their corresponding depth maps must be encoded. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed LF compression solution using PoS&DE can obtain a satisfied coding performance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

J. Chen, J. Hou, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Compression With Disparity-Guided Sparse Coding Based on Structural Key Views,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 27, 314–324 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hou, J. Chen, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Image Compression Based on Bi-Level View Compensation with Rate-Distortion Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology PP, 1 (2018).

X. Kaikai, “Monolithically integrated Si gate-controlled light-emitting device: science and properties,” Journal of Optics 20, 024014 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

M. Hog, N. Sabater, and C. Guillemot, “Superrays for Efficient Light Field Processing,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1187–1199 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Bok, H. G. Jeon, and I. S. Kweon, “Geometric Calibration of Micro-Lens-Based Light Field Cameras Using Line Features,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 39, 287–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Navarro and A. Buades, “Robust and Dense Depth Estimation for Light Field Images,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 26, 1873–1886 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, R. Liu, B. Guan, Q. Du, and Z. Xiong, “Accurate Depth Extraction Method for Multiple Light-Coding-Based Depth Cameras,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 19, 685–701 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. L. Pendu, R. A. Farrugia, and C. Guillemot, “Light Field Compression With Homography-Based Low-Rank Approximation,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1132–1145 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. J. Monteiro, P. Nunes, N. Rodrigues, and S. M. M. d. Faria, “Light Field Image Coding using High Order Intra Block Prediction,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1120–1131 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Jin, H. Han, and Q. Dai, “Image Reshaping for Efficient Compression of Plenoptic Content,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1173–1186 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Wu, B. Masia, A. Jarabo, Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Q. Dai, T. Chai, and Y. Liu, “Light Field Image Processing: An Overview,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 926–954 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. Conti, L. D. Soares, and P. Nunes, “HEVC-based 3D holoscopic video coding using self-similarity compensated prediction,” Signal Processing: Image Communication 42, 59–78 (2016).

Y. Li, M. Sjöström, R. Olsson, and U. Jennehag, “Scalable Coding of Plenoptic Images by Using a Sparse Set and Disparities,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 25, 80–91 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ihrke, J. Restrepo, and L. Mignard-Debise, “Principles of Light Field Imaging: Briefly revisiting 25 years of research,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 33, 59–69 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

R. Prevedel, Y.-G. Yoon, M. Hoffmann, N. Pak, G. Wetzstein, S. Kato, T. Schrödel, R. Raskar, M. Zimmer, E. S. Boyden, and A. Vaziri, “Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy,” Nature Methods 11, 727 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

K. Müller, H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, C. Bartnik, S. Bosse, H. Brust, T. Hinz, H. Lakshman, P. Merkle, F. H. Rhee, G. Tech, M. Winken, and T. Wiegand, “3D High-Efficiency Video Coding for Multi-View Video and Depth Data,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 22, 3366–3378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Mataran, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive Light Field Sensing,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 21, 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. Muller, P. Merkle, and T. Wiegand, “3-D Video Representation Using Depth Maps,” Proceedings of the IEEE 99, 643–656 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Magnor and B. Girod, “Data compression for light-field rendering,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 10, 338–343 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. C. Bolles, H. H. Baker, and D. H. Marimont, “Epipolar-plane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion,” International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 7–55 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adams, A.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

Agarwala, A.

B. M. Smith, L. Zhang, H. Jin, and A. Agarwala, “Light field video stabilization,” in 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, 341–348 (2009).

An, P.

X. Huang, P. An, L. Shen, and K. Li, “Light Field Image Compression Scheme Based on MVD Coding Standard,” in The Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, 1–10 (2017).

X. Huang, P. An, L. Shan, R. Ma, and L. Shen, “View Synthesis for Light Field Coding Using Depth Estimation,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 1–6 (2018).

Ansorge, R.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Mataran, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive Light Field Sensing,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 21, 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assuncao, P.

C. Perra and P. Assuncao, “High efficiency coding of light field images based on tiling and pseudo-temporal data arrangement,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 1–4 (2016).

Authier, L. A.

M. Rerabek, L. Yuan, L. A. Authier, and T. Ebrahimi, “[ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG1 contribution] EPFL Light-Field Image Dataset,” (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG1, 2015).

Babacan, S. D.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Mataran, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive Light Field Sensing,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 21, 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, H. H.

R. C. Bolles, H. H. Baker, and D. H. Marimont, “Epipolar-plane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion,” International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 7–55 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bartnik, C.

K. Müller, H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, C. Bartnik, S. Bosse, H. Brust, T. Hinz, H. Lakshman, P. Merkle, F. H. Rhee, G. Tech, M. Winken, and T. Wiegand, “3D High-Efficiency Video Coding for Multi-View Video and Depth Data,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 22, 3366–3378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjontegaard, G.

G. Bjontegaard, “Calculation of Average PSNR Differences between RD-curves,” (2001).

Boisson, G.

F. Hawary, C. Guillemot, D. Thoreau, and G. Boisson, “Scalable light field compression scheme using sparse reconstruction and restoration,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 3250–3254 (2017).

Bok, Y.

Y. Bok, H. G. Jeon, and I. S. Kweon, “Geometric Calibration of Micro-Lens-Based Light Field Cameras Using Line Features,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 39, 287–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” in 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1547–1555 (2015).

Bolles, R. C.

R. C. Bolles, H. H. Baker, and D. H. Marimont, “Epipolar-plane image analysis: An approach to determining structure from motion,” International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 7–55 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bosse, S.

K. Müller, H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, C. Bartnik, S. Bosse, H. Brust, T. Hinz, H. Lakshman, P. Merkle, F. H. Rhee, G. Tech, M. Winken, and T. Wiegand, “3D High-Efficiency Video Coding for Multi-View Video and Depth Data,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 22, 3366–3378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyden, E. S.

R. Prevedel, Y.-G. Yoon, M. Hoffmann, N. Pak, G. Wetzstein, S. Kato, T. Schrödel, R. Raskar, M. Zimmer, E. S. Boyden, and A. Vaziri, “Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy,” Nature Methods 11, 727 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bredif, M.

N. Ren, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenopic Camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR (2005).

Brust, H.

K. Müller, H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, C. Bartnik, S. Bosse, H. Brust, T. Hinz, H. Lakshman, P. Merkle, F. H. Rhee, G. Tech, M. Winken, and T. Wiegand, “3D High-Efficiency Video Coding for Multi-View Video and Depth Data,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 22, 3366–3378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buades, A.

J. Navarro and A. Buades, “Robust and Dense Depth Estimation for Light Field Images,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 26, 1873–1886 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, T.

G. Wu, B. Masia, A. Jarabo, Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Q. Dai, T. Chai, and Y. Liu, “Light Field Image Processing: An Overview,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 926–954 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chau, L. P.

J. Hou, J. Chen, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Image Compression Based on Bi-Level View Compensation with Rate-Distortion Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology PP, 1 (2018).

J. Chen, J. Hou, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Compression With Disparity-Guided Sparse Coding Based on Structural Key Views,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 27, 314–324 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. Hou, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Compression With Disparity-Guided Sparse Coding Based on Structural Key Views,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 27, 314–324 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hou, J. Chen, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Image Compression Based on Bi-Level View Compensation with Rate-Distortion Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology PP, 1 (2018).

Choe, G.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” in 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1547–1555 (2015).

Conti, C.

C. Conti, L. D. Soares, and P. Nunes, “HEVC-based 3D holoscopic video coding using self-similarity compensated prediction,” Signal Processing: Image Communication 42, 59–78 (2016).

Dai, F.

F. Dai, J. Zhang, Y. Ma, and Y. Zhang, “Lenselet image compression scheme based on subaperture images streaming,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4733–4737 (2015).

Dai, J.

J. Dai and T. Nguyen, “View synthesis with hierarchical clustering based occlusion filling,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1387–1391 (2017).

Dai, Q.

X. Jin, H. Han, and Q. Dai, “Image Reshaping for Efficient Compression of Plenoptic Content,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1173–1186 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Wu, B. Masia, A. Jarabo, Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Q. Dai, T. Chai, and Y. Liu, “Light Field Image Processing: An Overview,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 926–954 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, J. Wu, G. Zheng, and Q. Dai, “Camera array based light field microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 3179–3189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Han, X. Jin, and Q. Dai, “Lenslet image compression based on image reshaping and macro-pixel Intra prediction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 1177–1182 (2017).

Dansereau, D. G.

D. G. Dansereau, O. Pizarro, and S. B. Williams, “Decoding, Calibration and Rectification for Lenselet-Based Plenoptic Cameras,” in 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1027–1034 (2013).

Du, Q.

Y. Pan, R. Liu, B. Guan, Q. Du, and Z. Xiong, “Accurate Depth Extraction Method for Multiple Light-Coding-Based Depth Cameras,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 19, 685–701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Duval, G.

N. Ren, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenopic Camera,” Computer Science Technical Report CSTR (2005).

Ebrahimi, T.

M. Rerabek, L. Yuan, L. A. Authier, and T. Ebrahimi, “[ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG1 contribution] EPFL Light-Field Image Dataset,” (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG1, 2015).

Faria, S. M. M. d.

R. J. Monteiro, P. Nunes, N. Rodrigues, and S. M. M. d. Faria, “Light Field Image Coding using High Order Intra Block Prediction,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1120–1131 (2017).
[Crossref]

Farrugia, R. A.

X. Jiang, M. L. Pendu, R. A. Farrugia, and C. Guillemot, “Light Field Compression With Homography-Based Low-Rank Approximation,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1132–1145 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. L. Pendu, R. A. Farrugia, S. S. Hemami, and C. Guillemot, “Homography-based low rank approximation of light fields for compression,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 1313–1317 (2017).

Feng, W.

D. Liu, L. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhiwei, W. Feng, and Z. Wenjun, “Pseudo-sequence-based light field image compression,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 1–4 (2016).

Footer, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gioia, P.

S. Shi, P. Gioia, and G. Madec, “Efficient compression method for integral images using multi-view video coding,” in 2011 18th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 137–140 (2011).

Girod, B.

M. Magnor and B. Girod, “Data compression for light-field rendering,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 10, 338–343 (2000).
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R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A Combined Pre-Processing and H.264-Compression Scheme for 3D Integral Images,” in 2006 International Conference on Image Processing, 513–516 (2006).

Sjöström, M.

Y. Li, M. Sjöström, R. Olsson, and U. Jennehag, “Scalable Coding of Plenoptic Images by Using a Sparse Set and Disparities,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 25, 80–91 (2016).
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Smith, B. M.

B. M. Smith, L. Zhang, H. Jin, and A. Agarwala, “Light field video stabilization,” in 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, 341–348 (2009).

Soares, L. D.

C. Conti, L. D. Soares, and P. Nunes, “HEVC-based 3D holoscopic video coding using self-similarity compensated prediction,” Signal Processing: Image Communication 42, 59–78 (2016).

Su, X.

X. Su, M. Rizkallah, T. Maugey, and C. Guillemot, “Graph-based light fields representation and coding using geometry information,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4023–4027 (2017).

Tai, Y. W.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” in 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1547–1555 (2015).

Tao, M. W.

M. W. Tao, S. Hadap, J. Malik, and R. Ramamoorthi, “Depth from Combining Defocus and Correspondence Using Light-Field Cameras,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 673–680 (2013).

Tech, G.

K. Müller, H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, C. Bartnik, S. Bosse, H. Brust, T. Hinz, H. Lakshman, P. Merkle, F. H. Rhee, G. Tech, M. Winken, and T. Wiegand, “3D High-Efficiency Video Coding for Multi-View Video and Depth Data,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 22, 3366–3378 (2013).
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F. Hawary, C. Guillemot, D. Thoreau, and G. Boisson, “Scalable light field compression scheme using sparse reconstruction and restoration,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 3250–3254 (2017).

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R. Prevedel, Y.-G. Yoon, M. Hoffmann, N. Pak, G. Wetzstein, S. Kato, T. Schrödel, R. Raskar, M. Zimmer, E. S. Boyden, and A. Vaziri, “Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy,” Nature Methods 11, 727 (2014).
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C. Jia, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Ma, “Optimized inter-view prediction based light field image compression with adaptive reconstruction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4572–4576 (2017).

C. Jia, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Ma, “Optimized inter-view prediction based light field image compression with adaptive reconstruction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4572–4576 (2017).

Wanner, S.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” in 2012 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 41–48 (2012).

Wenjun, Z.

D. Liu, L. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhiwei, W. Feng, and Z. Wenjun, “Pseudo-sequence-based light field image compression,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 1–4 (2016).

Wetzstein, G.

R. Prevedel, Y.-G. Yoon, M. Hoffmann, N. Pak, G. Wetzstein, S. Kato, T. Schrödel, R. Raskar, M. Zimmer, E. S. Boyden, and A. Vaziri, “Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy,” Nature Methods 11, 727 (2014).
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Winken, M.

K. Müller, H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, C. Bartnik, S. Bosse, H. Brust, T. Hinz, H. Lakshman, P. Merkle, F. H. Rhee, G. Tech, M. Winken, and T. Wiegand, “3D High-Efficiency Video Coding for Multi-View Video and Depth Data,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 22, 3366–3378 (2013).
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G. Wu, B. Masia, A. Jarabo, Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Q. Dai, T. Chai, and Y. Liu, “Light Field Image Processing: An Overview,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 926–954 (2017).
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Xiong, Z.

Y. Pan, R. Liu, B. Guan, Q. Du, and Z. Xiong, “Accurate Depth Extraction Method for Multiple Light-Coding-Based Depth Cameras,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 19, 685–701 (2017).
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R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A Combined Pre-Processing and H.264-Compression Scheme for 3D Integral Images,” in 2006 International Conference on Image Processing, 513–516 (2006).

Yang, Y.

C. Jia, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Ma, “Optimized inter-view prediction based light field image compression with adaptive reconstruction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4572–4576 (2017).

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N. Li, J. Ye, Y. Ji, H. Ling, and J. Yu, “Saliency Detection on Light Field,” in 2014 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2806–2813(2014).

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R. Prevedel, Y.-G. Yoon, M. Hoffmann, N. Pak, G. Wetzstein, S. Kato, T. Schrödel, R. Raskar, M. Zimmer, E. S. Boyden, and A. Vaziri, “Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy,” Nature Methods 11, 727 (2014).
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Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line Assisted Light Field Triangulation and Stereo Matching,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 2792–2799 (2013).

N. Li, J. Ye, Y. Ji, H. Ling, and J. Yu, “Saliency Detection on Light Field,” in 2014 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2806–2813(2014).

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line Assisted Light Field Triangulation and Stereo Matching,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 2792–2799 (2013).

Yuan, L.

M. Rerabek, L. Yuan, L. A. Authier, and T. Ebrahimi, “[ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG1 contribution] EPFL Light-Field Image Dataset,” (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG1, 2015).

Zhang, J.

F. Dai, J. Zhang, Y. Ma, and Y. Zhang, “Lenselet image compression scheme based on subaperture images streaming,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4733–4737 (2015).

Zhang, L.

B. M. Smith, L. Zhang, H. Jin, and A. Agarwala, “Light field video stabilization,” in 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, 341–348 (2009).

Zhang, X.

C. Jia, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Ma, “Optimized inter-view prediction based light field image compression with adaptive reconstruction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4572–4576 (2017).

C. Jia, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Ma, “Optimized inter-view prediction based light field image compression with adaptive reconstruction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4572–4576 (2017).

Zhang, Y.

G. Wu, B. Masia, A. Jarabo, Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Q. Dai, T. Chai, and Y. Liu, “Light Field Image Processing: An Overview,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 926–954 (2017).
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F. Dai, J. Zhang, Y. Ma, and Y. Zhang, “Lenselet image compression scheme based on subaperture images streaming,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4733–4737 (2015).

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Zhiwei, X.

D. Liu, L. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhiwei, W. Feng, and Z. Wenjun, “Pseudo-sequence-based light field image compression,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 1–4 (2016).

Zimmer, M.

R. Prevedel, Y.-G. Yoon, M. Hoffmann, N. Pak, G. Wetzstein, S. Kato, T. Schrödel, R. Raskar, M. Zimmer, E. S. Boyden, and A. Vaziri, “Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy,” Nature Methods 11, 727 (2014).
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R. J. Monteiro, P. Nunes, N. Rodrigues, and S. M. M. d. Faria, “Light Field Image Coding using High Order Intra Block Prediction,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 1120–1131 (2017).
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G. Wu, B. Masia, A. Jarabo, Y. Zhang, L. Wang, Q. Dai, T. Chai, and Y. Liu, “Light Field Image Processing: An Overview,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 11, 926–954 (2017).
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J. Hou, J. Chen, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Image Compression Based on Bi-Level View Compensation with Rate-Distortion Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology PP, 1 (2018).

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J. Chen, J. Hou, and L. P. Chau, “Light Field Compression With Disparity-Guided Sparse Coding Based on Structural Key Views,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 27, 314–324 (2018).
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IEEE Transactions on Multimedia (1)

Y. Pan, R. Liu, B. Guan, Q. Du, and Z. Xiong, “Accurate Depth Extraction Method for Multiple Light-Coding-Based Depth Cameras,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 19, 685–701 (2017).
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Other (26)

C. Perra and P. Assuncao, “High efficiency coding of light field images based on tiling and pseudo-temporal data arrangement,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 1–4 (2016).

H. Han, X. Jin, and Q. Dai, “Lenslet image compression based on image reshaping and macro-pixel Intra prediction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 1177–1182 (2017).

F. Pereira and E. A. B. d. Silva, “Efficient plenoptic imaging representation: Why do we need it?” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 1–6 (2016).

X. Huang, P. An, L. Shen, and K. Li, “Light Field Image Compression Scheme Based on MVD Coding Standard,” in The Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, 1–10 (2017).

X. Huang, P. An, L. Shan, R. Ma, and L. Shen, “View Synthesis for Light Field Coding Using Depth Estimation,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 1–6 (2018).

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N. Li, J. Ye, Y. Ji, H. Ling, and J. Yu, “Saliency Detection on Light Field,” in 2014 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2806–2813(2014).

M. W. Tao, S. Hadap, J. Malik, and R. Ramamoorthi, “Depth from Combining Defocus and Correspondence Using Light-Field Cameras,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 673–680 (2013).

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” in 2012 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 41–48 (2012).

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line Assisted Light Field Triangulation and Stereo Matching,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, 2792–2799 (2013).

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” in 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1547–1555 (2015).

B. M. Smith, L. Zhang, H. Jin, and A. Agarwala, “Light field video stabilization,” in 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, 341–348 (2009).

X. Su, M. Rizkallah, T. Maugey, and C. Guillemot, “Graph-based light fields representation and coding using geometry information,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4023–4027 (2017).

F. Hawary, C. Guillemot, D. Thoreau, and G. Boisson, “Scalable light field compression scheme using sparse reconstruction and restoration,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 3250–3254 (2017).

X. Jiang, M. L. Pendu, and C. Guillemot, “Light field compression using depth image based view synthesis,” in IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 19–24 (2017).

F. Dai, J. Zhang, Y. Ma, and Y. Zhang, “Lenselet image compression scheme based on subaperture images streaming,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4733–4737 (2015).

X. Jiang, M. L. Pendu, R. A. Farrugia, S. S. Hemami, and C. Guillemot, “Homography-based low rank approximation of light fields for compression,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 1313–1317 (2017).

C. Jia, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Ma, “Optimized inter-view prediction based light field image compression with adaptive reconstruction,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 4572–4576 (2017).

R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A Combined Pre-Processing and H.264-Compression Scheme for 3D Integral Images,” in 2006 International Conference on Image Processing, 513–516 (2006).

S. Shi, P. Gioia, and G. Madec, “Efficient compression method for integral images using multi-view video coding,” in 2011 18th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 137–140 (2011).

D. Liu, L. Wang, L. Li, X. Zhiwei, W. Feng, and Z. Wenjun, “Pseudo-sequence-based light field image compression,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops, 1–4 (2016).

L. Li, Z. Li, B. Li, D. Liu, and H. Li, “Pseudo Sequence Based 2-D Hierarchical Coding Structure for Light-Field Image Compression,” in 2017 Data Compression Conference, 131–140 (2017).

J. Dai and T. Nguyen, “View synthesis with hierarchical clustering based occlusion filling,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 1387–1391 (2017).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The raw LFI captured by Lytro-Illum camera (left) and detail of the LFI (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The various transformations of light field image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The related woks about LFI coding.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The related woks about LFI coding.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The flow chart of the proposed compression method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The flow chart of the proposed compression method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The statistical results. (a) The distribution of distortion under different (Sc, Ss); (b) The average estimating time for one SAI under different computation steps.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experiments on the partial LFIs from Table 1. Top to bottom: I01 to I10. (a) center SAI; (b) depth map by LAGC; (c) depth map by ADME; (d) depth map by the proposed method.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The synthesis performance of the LFIs from Table 1. The horizontal axis represents the image index and the vertical axis implies the synthesized SAI quality in SSIM.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The perceptual quality comparison for four SAIs. Top to bottom: Bikes, Flowers, Ankylosaurus_&_Diplodocus_1 and Magnets_1. (a) the original intermediate SAI; (b) the decoded intermediate SAI with QP=22; (c) the synthesized intermediate SAI using our produced depth map.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The diagram of multi-view videos selection and their transformation from SAIs.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The rate-distortion curves are demonstrated for MVS, SC-SKV and PoS&DE with 7 and 3 viewpoints sequences. The horizontal axis indicates the bit per pixel (bpp), and the vertical axis indicates the reconstruction PSNR (dB).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Image Test Sequence

Tables Icon

Table 2 Coding Results Comparison.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z ( i ) = f tan α ( i ) .
α ( i ) * ( p ) = arg min α ( 45 ° , 45 ° ) C ( α ( i ) , p ) .
C ( α ( i ) , p ) = N ω n ( V p V Δ p ( α ( i ) ) ) 2 N ω n .
Z e = 1 | P e | r P e γ r Z r .
γ r = V e V r , ( r P e ) s . t . { 1 ε | γ r | 1 + ε otherwise , γ r = 0
PSNR avg = 1 169 ( 39 PSNR coded ( u , v ) + 130 PSNR syn ( u , v ) ) .

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