Abstract

Novel manipulation techniques for the propagation of electromagnetic waves based on metamaterials can only be performed in narrow operating bands, and this drawback is a major challenge for developing metamaterial-based practical applications. We demonstrate that the scattering of metamaterials can be switched and that their operating band can be tuned by introducing liquid metal in the design of functional metamaterials. The proposed liquid metal-based metamaterial is composed of a copper wire pair and a tiny pipe filled with a liquid metal, namely eutectic gallium-indium. The interference of the sharp magnetic resonance of the copper wire pair and the broad dipolar mode of the liquid metal rod lead to an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate that this EIT-like behavior can be switched on or off by exploiting the fluidity of the liquid metal, which is useful for multi-frequency modulators. These findings will hopefully promote the development of fluid matter-based metamaterials for extending the operating band of novel electromagnetic functions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

Y. Fan, F. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, Q. Fu, Z. Wei, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Achieving a high-$Q$ response in metamaterials by manipulating the toroidal excitations,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033816 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, H. Wu, P. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, and F. Zhang, “Controlling optical polarization conversion with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase-change dielectric metamaterials,” Nanoscale 10(25), 12054–12061 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, L. Tu, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, Z. Zhang, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Broadband Terahertz Absorption in Graphene-Embedded Photonic Crystals,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1153–1158 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically Tunable Slow Light Using Graphene Metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, B. Wei, R. Wallis, W. Michailow, V. S. Kamboj, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial array with graphene for continuous resonance frequency tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800570 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband Wide-Angle Multifunctional Polarization Converter via Liquid-Metal-Based Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, T. Qiao, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, J. Dong, B. Kong, and H. Li, “An electromagnetic modulator based on electrically controllable metamaterial analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40441 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Campbell, V. N. Goncharov, T. C. Sangster, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, R. Betti, J. F. Myatt, D. H. Froula, M. J. Rosenberg, I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, A. A. Solodov, A. V. Maximov, J. A. Marozas, T. J. B. Collins, D. Turnbull, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, J. P. Knauer, R. L. McCrory, A. B. Sefkow, M. Hohenberger, P. A. Michel, T. Chapman, L. Masse, C. Goyon, S. Ross, J. W. Bates, M. Karasik, J. Oh, J. Weaver, A. J. Schmitt, K. Obenschain, S. P. Obenschain, S. Reyes, and B. Van Wonterghem, “Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 37–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Murakami and D. Nishi, “Optimization of laser illumination configuration for directly driven inertial confinement fusion,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 55–68 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical Polarization Encoding Using Graphene‐Loaded Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 91–98 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, L. Zhu, and J. Yao, “Graphene-based tunable terahertz plasmon-induced transparency metamaterial,” Nanoscale 8(33), 15273–15280 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Qiu, N. Jia, Z. Liu, C. Wu, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, F. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Electrically reconfigurable split ring resonator covered by nematic liquid crystal droplet,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27096–27103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Liu, S. Yang, A. Jain, Q. Wang, H. Jiang, J. Song, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and L. Dong, “Tunable meta-atom using liquid metal embedded in stretchable polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Brunet, A. Merlin, B. Mascaro, K. Zimny, J. Leng, O. Poncelet, C. Aristégui, and O. Mondain-Monval, “Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 384–388 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Yoo, S. Ju, S. Y. Park, Y. Ju Kim, J. Bong, T. Lim, K. W. Kim, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. Lee, “Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Tunable Terahertz Meta-Surface with Graphene Cut-Wires,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 151–156 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6269–6272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lu, J. J. Kan, E. E. Fullerton, and Z. Liu, “Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 48–53 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(7), e18 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 14(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Z. Jacob and V. M. Shalaev, “Physics. Plasmonics goes quantum,” Science 334(6055), 463–464 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(16), 165107 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, M.-X. Xu, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, P. Tassin, T. Koschny, C. Kurter, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Large group delay in a microwave metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241904 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-Optical Analog to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Multiple Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
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2008 (4)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation of Stable Structures in Microchannels at Room Temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
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2007 (1)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-Field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
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2006 (5)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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H. Li, J. Hao, L. Zhou, Z. Wei, L. Gong, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “All-dimensional subwavelength cavities made with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 104101 (2006).
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A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 084103 (2006).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
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2005 (3)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
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L. Zhou, H. Li, Y. Qin, Z. Wei, and C. T. Chan, “Directive emissions from subwavelength metamaterial-based cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101101 (2005).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
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2002 (1)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
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2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
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S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, B. Wei, R. Wallis, W. Michailow, V. S. Kamboj, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial array with graphene for continuous resonance frequency tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800570 (2018).
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Anlage, S. M.

L. Zhang, P. Tassin, T. Koschny, C. Kurter, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Large group delay in a microwave metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241904 (2010).
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Aristégui, C.

T. Brunet, A. Merlin, B. Mascaro, K. Zimny, J. Leng, O. Poncelet, C. Aristégui, and O. Mondain-Monval, “Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 384–388 (2015).
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Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Bates, J. W.

E. M. Campbell, V. N. Goncharov, T. C. Sangster, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, R. Betti, J. F. Myatt, D. H. Froula, M. J. Rosenberg, I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, A. A. Solodov, A. V. Maximov, J. A. Marozas, T. J. B. Collins, D. Turnbull, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, J. P. Knauer, R. L. McCrory, A. B. Sefkow, M. Hohenberger, P. A. Michel, T. Chapman, L. Masse, C. Goyon, S. Ross, J. W. Bates, M. Karasik, J. Oh, J. Weaver, A. J. Schmitt, K. Obenschain, S. P. Obenschain, S. Reyes, and B. Van Wonterghem, “Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 37–54 (2017).
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Beere, H. E.

S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, B. Wei, R. Wallis, W. Michailow, V. S. Kamboj, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial array with graphene for continuous resonance frequency tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800570 (2018).
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Betti, R.

E. M. Campbell, V. N. Goncharov, T. C. Sangster, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, R. Betti, J. F. Myatt, D. H. Froula, M. J. Rosenberg, I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, A. A. Solodov, A. V. Maximov, J. A. Marozas, T. J. B. Collins, D. Turnbull, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, J. P. Knauer, R. L. McCrory, A. B. Sefkow, M. Hohenberger, P. A. Michel, T. Chapman, L. Masse, C. Goyon, S. Ross, J. W. Bates, M. Karasik, J. Oh, J. Weaver, A. J. Schmitt, K. Obenschain, S. P. Obenschain, S. Reyes, and B. Van Wonterghem, “Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 37–54 (2017).
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Bong, J.

Y. J. Yoo, S. Ju, S. Y. Park, Y. Ju Kim, J. Bong, T. Lim, K. W. Kim, J. Y. Rhee, and Y. Lee, “Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14018 (2015).
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Braeuninger-Weimer, P.

S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, B. Wei, R. Wallis, W. Michailow, V. S. Kamboj, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial array with graphene for continuous resonance frequency tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800570 (2018).
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Brunet, T.

T. Brunet, A. Merlin, B. Mascaro, K. Zimny, J. Leng, O. Poncelet, C. Aristégui, and O. Mondain-Monval, “Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 384–388 (2015).
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Campbell, E. M.

E. M. Campbell, V. N. Goncharov, T. C. Sangster, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, R. Betti, J. F. Myatt, D. H. Froula, M. J. Rosenberg, I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, A. A. Solodov, A. V. Maximov, J. A. Marozas, T. J. B. Collins, D. Turnbull, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, J. P. Knauer, R. L. McCrory, A. B. Sefkow, M. Hohenberger, P. A. Michel, T. Chapman, L. Masse, C. Goyon, S. Ross, J. W. Bates, M. Karasik, J. Oh, J. Weaver, A. J. Schmitt, K. Obenschain, S. P. Obenschain, S. Reyes, and B. Van Wonterghem, “Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 37–54 (2017).
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Chan, C. T.

H. Li, J. Hao, L. Zhou, Z. Wei, L. Gong, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “All-dimensional subwavelength cavities made with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 104101 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H. Li, Y. Qin, Z. Wei, and C. T. Chan, “Directive emissions from subwavelength metamaterial-based cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chapman, T.

E. M. Campbell, V. N. Goncharov, T. C. Sangster, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, R. Betti, J. F. Myatt, D. H. Froula, M. J. Rosenberg, I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, A. A. Solodov, A. V. Maximov, J. A. Marozas, T. J. B. Collins, D. Turnbull, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, J. P. Knauer, R. L. McCrory, A. B. Sefkow, M. Hohenberger, P. A. Michel, T. Chapman, L. Masse, C. Goyon, S. Ross, J. W. Bates, M. Karasik, J. Oh, J. Weaver, A. J. Schmitt, K. Obenschain, S. P. Obenschain, S. Reyes, and B. Van Wonterghem, “Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 37–54 (2017).
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Chen, H.

H. Li, J. Hao, L. Zhou, Z. Wei, L. Gong, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “All-dimensional subwavelength cavities made with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 104101 (2006).
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Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Chen, S.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical Polarization Encoding Using Graphene‐Loaded Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 91–98 (2016).
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H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2015).
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Chen, Y.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Cheng, H.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical Polarization Encoding Using Graphene‐Loaded Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(1), 91–98 (2016).
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H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2015).
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Cheng, Q.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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Chiechi, R. C.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation of Stable Structures in Microchannels at Room Temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
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Chong, P. H. J.

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband Wide-Angle Multifunctional Polarization Converter via Liquid-Metal-Based Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
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Chung, D. S.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically Tunable Slow Light Using Graphene Metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
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Collins, T. J. B.

E. M. Campbell, V. N. Goncharov, T. C. Sangster, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, R. Betti, J. F. Myatt, D. H. Froula, M. J. Rosenberg, I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, A. A. Solodov, A. V. Maximov, J. A. Marozas, T. J. B. Collins, D. Turnbull, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, J. P. Knauer, R. L. McCrory, A. B. Sefkow, M. Hohenberger, P. A. Michel, T. Chapman, L. Masse, C. Goyon, S. Ross, J. W. Bates, M. Karasik, J. Oh, J. Weaver, A. J. Schmitt, K. Obenschain, S. P. Obenschain, S. Reyes, and B. Van Wonterghem, “Laser-direct-drive program: Promise, challenge, and path forward,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 2(2), 37–54 (2017).
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Cortes, C. L.

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt. 14(6), 063001 (2012).
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Cui, T. J.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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de Lustrac, A.

A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 084103 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Miollis, F.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

S. J. Kindness, N. W. Almond, B. Wei, R. Wallis, W. Michailow, V. S. Kamboj, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, S. Hofmann, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial array with graphene for continuous resonance frequency tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800570 (2018).
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Deng, K.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Deng, X.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Dickey, M. D.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation of Stable Structures in Microchannels at Room Temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Dong, J.

Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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Y. Fan, T. Qiao, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, J. Dong, B. Kong, and H. Li, “An electromagnetic modulator based on electrically controllable metamaterial analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40441 (2017).
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Dong, L.

P. Liu, S. Yang, A. Jain, Q. Wang, H. Jiang, J. Song, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and L. Dong, “Tunable meta-atom using liquid metal embedded in stretchable polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(1), 014504 (2015).
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Dong, Z.-G.

Du, K.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
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Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental Realization of an On-Chip All-Optical Analogue to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
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Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, L. Tu, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, Z. Zhang, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Broadband Terahertz Absorption in Graphene-Embedded Photonic Crystals,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1153–1158 (2018).
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Y. Fan, F. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, Q. Fu, Z. Wei, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Achieving a high-$Q$ response in metamaterials by manipulating the toroidal excitations,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033816 (2018).
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W. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, H. Wu, P. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, and F. Zhang, “Controlling optical polarization conversion with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase-change dielectric metamaterials,” Nanoscale 10(25), 12054–12061 (2018).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, T. Qiao, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, J. Dong, B. Kong, and H. Li, “An electromagnetic modulator based on electrically controllable metamaterial analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40441 (2017).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
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K. Qiu, N. Jia, Z. Liu, C. Wu, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, F. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Electrically reconfigurable split ring resonator covered by nematic liquid crystal droplet,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27096–27103 (2016).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Tunable Terahertz Meta-Surface with Graphene Cut-Wires,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 151–156 (2015).
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Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13956 (2015).
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Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6269–6272 (2014).
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Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Zhan, X.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Zhang, F.

Y. Fan, L. Tu, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, Z. Zhang, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Broadband Terahertz Absorption in Graphene-Embedded Photonic Crystals,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1153–1158 (2018).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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W. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, H. Wu, P. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, and F. Zhang, “Controlling optical polarization conversion with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase-change dielectric metamaterials,” Nanoscale 10(25), 12054–12061 (2018).
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Y. Fan, F. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, Q. Fu, Z. Wei, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Achieving a high-$Q$ response in metamaterials by manipulating the toroidal excitations,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033816 (2018).
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Y. Fan, T. Qiao, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, J. Dong, B. Kong, and H. Li, “An electromagnetic modulator based on electrically controllable metamaterial analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40441 (2017).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
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K. Qiu, N. Jia, Z. Liu, C. Wu, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, F. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Electrically reconfigurable split ring resonator covered by nematic liquid crystal droplet,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27096–27103 (2016).
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Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6269–6272 (2014).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(7), e18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. Tassin, T. Koschny, C. Kurter, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Large group delay in a microwave metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241904 (2010).
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P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

W. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, H. Wu, P. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, and F. Zhang, “Controlling optical polarization conversion with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase-change dielectric metamaterials,” Nanoscale 10(25), 12054–12061 (2018).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
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Zhang, S.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically Tunable Slow Light Using Graphene Metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Qiu, N. Jia, Z. Liu, C. Wu, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, F. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Electrically reconfigurable split ring resonator covered by nematic liquid crystal droplet,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27096–27103 (2016).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Zhang, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, M.-X. Xu, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonically induced transparent magnetic resonance in a metallic metamaterial composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18229–18234 (2010).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-Field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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Y. Fan, L. Tu, F. Zhang, Q. Fu, Z. Zhang, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Broadband Terahertz Absorption in Graphene-Embedded Photonic Crystals,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1153–1158 (2018).
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Zhao, Q.

Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6269–6272 (2014).
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Zhao, R.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically Tunable Slow Light Using Graphene Metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, L. Zhu, and J. Yao, “Graphene-based tunable terahertz plasmon-induced transparency metamaterial,” Nanoscale 8(33), 15273–15280 (2016).
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Zheludev, N. I.

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(7), e18 (2012).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Zheng, W.

K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(16), 165107 (2011).
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H. Li, J. Hao, L. Zhou, Z. Wei, L. Gong, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “All-dimensional subwavelength cavities made with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 104101 (2006).
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L. Zhou, H. Li, Y. Qin, Z. Wei, and C. T. Chan, “Directive emissions from subwavelength metamaterial-based cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101101 (2005).
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K. Lan, J. Liu, Z. Li, X. Xie, W. Huo, Y. Chen, G. Ren, C. Zheng, D. Yang, S. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guo, S. Li, M. Zhang, X. Han, C. Zhai, L. Hou, Y. Li, K. Deng, Z. Yuan, X. Zhan, F. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Zhang, K. Du, R. Zhao, P. Li, W. Wang, J. Su, X. Deng, D. Hu, W. Zhou, H. Jia, Y. Ding, W. Zheng, and X. He, “Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study,” Matter Radiat. Extrem. 1(1), 8–27 (2016).
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Zhou, X. Y.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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Zhu, L.

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, L. Zhu, and J. Yao, “Graphene-based tunable terahertz plasmon-induced transparency metamaterial,” Nanoscale 8(33), 15273–15280 (2016).
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Zhu, S.-N.

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, H. Wu, P. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, and F. Zhang, “Controlling optical polarization conversion with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase-change dielectric metamaterials,” Nanoscale 10(25), 12054–12061 (2018).
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P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband Wide-Angle Multifunctional Polarization Converter via Liquid-Metal-Based Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, P. Zhang, J. Dong, Q. Fu, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1612–1618 (2018).
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T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically Tunable Slow Light Using Graphene Metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
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L. Zhou, H. Li, Y. Qin, Z. Wei, and C. T. Chan, “Directive emissions from subwavelength metamaterial-based cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101101 (2005).
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H. Li, J. Hao, L. Zhou, Z. Wei, L. Gong, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “All-dimensional subwavelength cavities made with metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 104101 (2006).
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W. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Fan, Q. Fu, H. Wu, P. Zhang, N.-H. Shen, and F. Zhang, “Controlling optical polarization conversion with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase-change dielectric metamaterials,” Nanoscale 10(25), 12054–12061 (2018).
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X. Zhao, C. Yuan, L. Zhu, and J. Yao, “Graphene-based tunable terahertz plasmon-induced transparency metamaterial,” Nanoscale 8(33), 15273–15280 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the liquid metal-based EIT metamaterial. The proposed metamaterial consists of a cut wire made of a liquid metal alloy and wire pairs made of copper. The substrate slab is made of Teflon, and the geometric sizes of the structure are marked with red arrows.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated transmission spectra of the EIT structure: liquid-metal column by itself (red curve), wire pair by itself (blue curve), and the proposed coupled structure (green curve).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electric field distribution of the hybrid metamaterial at the EIT-like peak frequency.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photograph of the fabricated sample. (b) Setup for controlling the flow of liquid metal and the measurement setup. (c) Measured transmission spectra for the metamaterials: the copper wire pair by itself, the liquid-metal cut wire by itself, and the hybrid liquid/solid metal structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured (a) and simulated (b) transmission spectra of switchable EIT-like behavior in a liquid metal-based and water-based metamaterial.

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