Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) networks are promising to progress towards widespread practical deployment over existing fiber infrastructures in the near future. Given the high cost and difficulty of deploying QKD networks, multi-tenancy becomes promising to improve cost efficiency for future QKD networks. In a multi-tenant QKD network, multiple QKD tenants can share the same QKD network infrastructure to obtain secret keys for securing their data transfer. Since the secret-key resources are finite and precious in QKD networks, how to achieve efficient multi-tenant secret-key assignment (MTKA) to satisfy the secret-key demands of multiple QKD tenants over QKD networks becomes a significant problem. In this regard, this study addresses the MTKA problem over QKD networks. A new multi-tenant QKD network architecture is proposed based on software defined networking (SDN) and quantum key pool (QKP) techniques. A secret-key rate sharing scheme is presented and a heuristic algorithm is designed to implement efficient MTKA over QKD networks. A new performance metric, namely matching degree (MD) that reflects the balance between QKD network secret-key resources and QKD tenant requests, is defined and evaluated. Simulation studies indicate that high QKD tenant requests accommodation and efficient secret-key resource usage can be achieved via maximizing the value of MD.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (12)

L. R. Schreiber and H. Bluhm, “Toward a silicon-based quantum computer,” Science 359(6374), 393–394 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Karinou, H. H. Brunner, C.-H. F. Fung, L. C. Comandar, S. Bettelli, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kuschnerov, S. Mikroulis, D. Wang, C. Xie, M. Peev, and A. Poppe, “Toward the integration of CV quantum key distribution in deployed optical networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(7), 650–653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Mao, B.-X. Wang, C. Zhao, G. Wang, R. Wang, H. Wang, F. Zhou, J. Nie, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, Q. Zhang, J. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Integrating quantum key distribution with classical communications in backbone fiber network,” Opt. Express 26(5), 6010–6020 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, Y. Zhao, Y. Wu, X. Yu, and J. Zhang, “Time-scheduled quantum key distribution (QKD) over WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(16), 3382–3395 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters,” Nature 557(7705), 400–403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aguado, V. Lopez, J. Martinez-Mateo, M. Peev, D. Lopez, and V. Martin, “Virtual network function deployment and service automation to provide end-to-end quantum encryption,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(4), 421–430 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, X. Wang, and H. Yu, “Towards converged, collaborative and co-automatic (3C) optical networks,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(12), 121301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, F. Xu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Large scale quantum key distribution: challenges and solutions [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24260–24273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tang, A. Wonfor, R. Kumar, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Quantum-safe metro network with low-latency reconfigurable quantum key distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(22), 5230–5236 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Cao, W. Wang, H. Wang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, M. Tornatore, Y. Wu, and B. Mukherjee, “Resource allocation in optical networks secured by quantum key distribution,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 56(8), 130–137 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, P. Li, S. Guo, and X. Qiu, “Fiber-wireless network virtual resource embedding method based on load balancing and priority,” IEEE Access 6, 33201–33215 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, L. Zhu, S. K. Bose, and G. Shen, “Energy-saving in IP over WDM networks by putting protection router cards to sleep,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(14), 3003–3017 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (4)

R. Vilalta, A. Mayoral, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, and R. Martínez, “Multitenant transport networks with SDN/NFV,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(6), 1509–1515 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Dynes, W. W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Gleim, V. I. Egorov, Y. V. Nazarov, S. V. Smirnov, V. V. Chistyakov, O. I. Bannik, A. A. Anisimov, S. M. Kynev, A. E. Ivanova, R. J. Collins, S. A. Kozlov, and G. S. Buller, “Secure polarization-independent subcarrier quantum key distribution in optical fiber channel using BB84 protocol with a strong reference,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2619–2633 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, B. Chen, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Energy efficiency with sliceable multi-flow transponders and elastic regenerators in survivable virtual optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(6), 2539–2550 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H. K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys. 12(10), 103042 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075002 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(2), 69–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. Karasan and E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6(2), 186–196 (1998).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory of secrecy systems,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 28(4), 656–715 (1949).
[Crossref]

1926 (1)

G. S. Vernam, “Cipher printing telegraph systems for secret wire and radio telegraphic communications,” J. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. 45(2), 109–115 (1926).

Aguado, A.

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075002 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(2), 69–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anisimov, A. A.

Asai, T.

Autenrieth, A.

Ayanoglu, E.

E. Karasan and E. Ayanoglu, “Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6(2), 186–196 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, H.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(2), 69–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Point-to-point QKD based on BB84 protocol [23].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An example of long-distance end-to-end QKD based on trusted repeaters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 An example of QKP for managing secret keys in a pair-wise manner between QKD node 1 and QKD node 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Multi-tenant QKD network architecture based on SDN and QKP techniques.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The intercommunication procedure among three planes in the multi-tenant QKD network architecture.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Secret-key rate sharing scheme; (b) An example of MTKA over the QKD network infrastructure.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Network topologies in simulation. (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 SPMTKA as a function of the number of QKD tenant requests with different K: (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 KRUMTKA as a function of the number of QKD tenant requests with different K: (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 SPMTKA as a function of the number of QKD tenant requests with different Vr and Wr: (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 KRUMTKA as a function of the number of QKD tenant requests with different Vr and Wr: (a) NSFNET; (b) USNET.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Matching degree (MD) between QKD network secret-key resources and QKD tenant requests: (a) NSFNET (α = 0, β = 1; α = 1, β = 0); (b) USNET (α = 0, β = 1; α = 1, β = 0); (c) NSFNET (α:β = 1:1, 1:2, 2:1); (d) USNET (α:β = 1:1, 1:2, 2:1).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Acronyms/notations and definitions.

Tables Icon

Table 2 MTKA algorithm.

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Table 3 Instances of QKD network secret-key resources and QKD tenant requests.

Equations (7)

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|Q|= |V|( |V|1 ) 2
C mn = k mn /k
A mn = k mn zZ w mn z
KR U mn = B mn / C mn
S P MTKA = |Z|/ |R|
KR U MTKA = m,nV B mn / m,nV C mn
MD=αS P MTKA +βKR U MTKA

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