Abstract

We demonstrate high-quality non-destructive imaging using a broadband terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on Cerenkov difference-frequency generation. The source exhibited ultra-broadband terahertz emission spectra, as well as a single-lobed Gaussian-like far-field pattern at –30 °C. These features allowed us to build a compact imaging system with a high spatial resolution, from which a nearly theoretical minimum beam spot size was obtained. As a result, we achieve well-resolved, high-contrast images of objects obscured by opaque materials. We also achieved terahertz imaging with the THz DFG-QCL operated at room temperature.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (∼ 600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. Fujita, S. Jung, Y. Jiang, J. H. Kim, A. Nakanishi, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Edamura, and M. A. Belkin, “Recent progress in terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser sources,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1795–1817 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. U. Siciliani de Cumis, J.-H. Xu, L. Masini, R. Degl’Innocenti, P. Pingue, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, P. A. Benedetti, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz confocal microscopy with a quantum cascade laser source,” Opt. Express 20(20), 21924–21931 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. S. H. Ding, Q. Li, R. Yao, and Q. Wang, “High-resolution terahertz reflective imaging and image restoration,” Appl. Opt. 49(36), 6834–6839 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. H. Richter, N. Rothbart, and H. W. Hübers, “Characterizing the beam properties of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 35(8), 686–698 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. Mumtaz, A. Mahmood, S. D. Khan, M. A. Zia, M. Ahmed, and I. Ahmad, “Investigation of dielectric properties of polymers and their discrimination using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with principal component analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(3), 456–462 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. F. Busch, M. Weidenbach, M. Fey, F. Schäfer, T. Probst, and M. Koch, “Optical properties of 3D printable plastic in the THz regime and their application for 3D printed THz optics,” J Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 35(12), 993–997 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  39. Y. Zhang, Y. Watanabe, S. Hosono, N. Nagai, and K. Hirakawa, “Room temperature, very sensitive thermometer using a doubly clamped microelectromechanical beam resonator for bolometer applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(16), 163503 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

K. Fujita, S. Jung, Y. Jiang, J. H. Kim, A. Nakanishi, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Edamura, and M. A. Belkin, “Recent progress in terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser sources,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1795–1817 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. V. Chernomyrdin, M. E. Frolov, S. P. Lebedev, I. V. Reshetov, I. E. Spektor, V. L. Tolstoguzov, V. E. Karasik, A. M. Khorokhorov, K. I. Koshelev, A. O. Schadko, S. O. Yurchenko, and K. I. Zaytsev, “Wide-aperture aspherical lens for high-resolution terahertz imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(1), 014703 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston,“The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Mumtaz, A. Mahmood, S. D. Khan, M. A. Zia, M. Ahmed, and I. Ahmad, “Investigation of dielectric properties of polymers and their discrimination using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with principal component analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(3), 456–462 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lu, D. Wu, S. Sengupta, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Watanabe, S. Hosono, N. Nagai, and K. Hirakawa, “Room temperature, very sensitive thermometer using a doubly clamped microelectromechanical beam resonator for bolometer applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(16), 163503 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin and F. Capasso, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers: high performance room temperature terahertz sources,” Phys. Scr. 90(11), 118002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Continuous operation of a monolithic semiconductor terahertz source at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221105 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, N. Rothbart, and H. W. Hübers, “Characterizing the beam properties of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 35(8), 686–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. F. Busch, M. Weidenbach, M. Fey, F. Schäfer, T. Probst, and M. Koch, “Optical properties of 3D printable plastic in the THz regime and their application for 3D printed THz optics,” J Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 35(12), 993–997 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

K. Vijayraghavan, R. W. Adams, A. Vizbaras, M. Jang, C. Grasse, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz sources based on Čerenkov difference-frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251104 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 8363, 83630A (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Siciliani de Cumis, J.-H. Xu, L. Masini, R. Degl’Innocenti, P. Pingue, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, P. A. Benedetti, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz confocal microscopy with a quantum cascade laser source,” Opt. Express 20(20), 21924–21931 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (∼ 600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0 0~ 0.4), temperature-insensitive (T0~ 510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, Y. Leng Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2587–2589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature single-mode terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ding, Q. Li, R. Yao, and Q. Wang, “High-resolution terahertz reflective imaging and image restoration,” Appl. Opt. 49(36), 6834–6839 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Bründermann, M. Havenith, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, J. Kunsch, L. Mechold, and M. Abraham, “Turn-key compact high temperature terahertz quantum cascade lasers: imaging and room temperature detection,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1829–1841 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2123–2129 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abraham, M.

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adams, R. W.

K. Vijayraghavan, R. W. Adams, A. Vizbaras, M. Jang, C. Grasse, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz sources based on Čerenkov difference-frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

Ahmed, M.

Alexander, P.

Alton, J.

Amann, M. C.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
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K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
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Davies, A. G.

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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Dean, P.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

Demmerle, F.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
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K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (∼ 600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
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Dupont, E.

Edamura, T.

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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
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K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
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K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0 0~ 0.4), temperature-insensitive (T0~ 510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
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K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (∼ 600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
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K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
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Weightman, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston,“The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wienold, M.

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston,“The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, A.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Worrall, C. H.

Wu, D.

Q. Lu, D. Wu, S. Sengupta, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.-H.

Yamanishi, M.

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0 0~ 0.4), temperature-insensitive (T0~ 510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (∼ 600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yao, R.

Yokoyama, H.

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yurchenko, S. O.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, M. E. Frolov, S. P. Lebedev, I. V. Reshetov, I. E. Spektor, V. L. Tolstoguzov, V. E. Karasik, A. M. Khorokhorov, K. I. Koshelev, A. O. Schadko, S. O. Yurchenko, and K. I. Zaytsev, “Wide-aperture aspherical lens for high-resolution terahertz imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(1), 014703 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaytsev, K. I.

N. V. Chernomyrdin, M. E. Frolov, S. P. Lebedev, I. V. Reshetov, I. E. Spektor, V. L. Tolstoguzov, V. E. Karasik, A. M. Khorokhorov, K. I. Koshelev, A. O. Schadko, S. O. Yurchenko, and K. I. Zaytsev, “Wide-aperture aspherical lens for high-resolution terahertz imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(1), 014703 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Watanabe, S. Hosono, N. Nagai, and K. Hirakawa, “Room temperature, very sensitive thermometer using a doubly clamped microelectromechanical beam resonator for bolometer applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(16), 163503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zia, M. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

S. Suzuki, M. Asada, A. Teranishi, H. Sugiyama, and H. Yokoyama, “Fundamental oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes above 1 THz at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 242102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Continuous operation of a monolithic semiconductor terahertz source at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221105 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (∼ 600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, F. Xie, A. Belyanin, M. Fischer, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature single-mode terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131106 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Vijayraghavan, R. W. Adams, A. Vizbaras, M. Jang, C. Grasse, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz sources based on Čerenkov difference-frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Watanabe, S. Hosono, N. Nagai, and K. Hirakawa, “Room temperature, very sensitive thermometer using a doubly clamped microelectromechanical beam resonator for bolometer applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(16), 163503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves (1)

H. Richter, N. Rothbart, and H. W. Hübers, “Characterizing the beam properties of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 35(8), 686–698 (2014).
[Crossref]

J Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves (1)

S. F. Busch, M. Weidenbach, M. Fey, F. Schäfer, T. Probst, and M. Koch, “Optical properties of 3D printable plastic in the THz regime and their application for 3D printed THz optics,” J Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 35(12), 993–997 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston,“The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

K. Fujita, S. Jung, Y. Jiang, J. H. Kim, A. Nakanishi, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Edamura, and M. A. Belkin, “Recent progress in terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser sources,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1795–1817 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, “Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 288–292 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, C. Baker, T. Lo, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Imaging with THz quantum cascade lasers using a Schottky diode mixer,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6497–6503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bründermann, M. Havenith, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, J. Kunsch, L. Mechold, and M. Abraham, “Turn-key compact high temperature terahertz quantum cascade lasers: imaging and room temperature detection,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1829–1841 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2123–2129 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0 0~ 0.4), temperature-insensitive (T0~ 510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Siciliani de Cumis, J.-H. Xu, L. Masini, R. Degl’Innocenti, P. Pingue, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, M. S. Vitiello, P. A. Benedetti, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz confocal microscopy with a quantum cascade laser source,” Opt. Express 20(20), 21924–21931 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Scr. (1)

M. A. Belkin and F. Capasso, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers: high performance room temperature terahertz sources,” Phys. Scr. 90(11), 118002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Oda, A. W. M. Lee, T. Ishi, I. Hosako, and Q. Hu, “Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 8363, 83630A (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. V. Chernomyrdin, M. E. Frolov, S. P. Lebedev, I. V. Reshetov, I. E. Spektor, V. L. Tolstoguzov, V. E. Karasik, A. M. Khorokhorov, K. I. Koshelev, A. O. Schadko, S. O. Yurchenko, and K. I. Zaytsev, “Wide-aperture aspherical lens for high-resolution terahertz imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(1), 014703 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Q. Lu, D. Wu, S. Sengupta, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23595 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Properties of THz DFG-QCL at –30 °C: (a) Spectrum, (b) far-field profile, (c) horizontal and vertical sections of the beam profile.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the transmission imaging setup: OAP1, off-axis parabolic mirror for collimating THz beam; L1, focusing lens; L2, collimating lens; OAP2, off-axis parabolic mirror for focusing on detector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Knife-edge scanning of the terahertz beam at the focus position.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photograph of test object whose thickness was 0.3 mm. (b) Terahertz image of test object obtained by our terahertz imaging system. The line profile of terahertz intensity along the solid line 1-1’, 2-2’, 3-3′ and 4-4’ ((c), (d), (e) and (f) respectively).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Photograph of stainless-steel plate with openings in the shape of the letters “HPK”. (b) Terahertz image of plate in paper envelope obtained with THz DFG-QCL. (c) Photograph of a rubber band, a plastic button, a clip, and a cutter knife blade. (d) Terahertz image of small articles in paper envelope obtained with THz DFG-QCL.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Photograph of hermetic butterfly-style package. (b) Room-temperature spectrum of the THz DFG-QCL. Inset shows the current–voltage–THz output power characteristic at room temperature. (c) Terahertz image of stainless steel plate obtained with room temperature THz DFG-QCL.

Equations (2)

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a= 1.22λ NA
M= I max I min I max + I min

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