Abstract

Clocks based on cold atoms offer unbeatable accuracy and long-term stability, but their use in portable quantum technologies is hampered by a large physical footprint. Here, we use the compact optical layout of a grating magneto-optical trap (gMOT) for a precise frequency reference. The gMOT collects 107 87Rb atoms, which are subsequently cooled to 20 µK in optical molasses. We optically probe the microwave atomic ground-state splitting using lin⊥lin polarised coherent population trapping and a Raman-Ramsey sequence. With ballistic drop distances of only 0.5 mm, the measured short-term fractional frequency stability is $2 \times 10 ^{-11} /\sqrt {\tau }$.

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2019 (4)

S. M. Brewer, J.-S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzwarth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. D. Elgin, T. P. Heavner, J. Kitching, E. A. Donley, J. Denney, and E. A. Salim, “A cold-atom beam clock based on coherent population trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 115(3), 033503 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hoth, R. Elvin, M. Wright, B. Lewis, A. S. Arnold, P. F. Griffin, and E. Riis, “Towards a compact atomic clock based on coherent population trapping and the grating magneto-optical trap,” Proc. SPIE 10934, 109342E (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

J. W. Pollock, V. I. Yudin, M. Shuker, M. Y. Basalaev, A. V. Taichenachev, X. Liu, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “ac Stark shifts of dark resonances probed with Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 98(5), 053424 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. Y. Basalaev, T. Zanon-Willette, T. E. Mehlstäubler, R. Boudot, J. W. Pollock, M. Shuker, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Combined error signal in Ramsey spectroscopy of clock Transitions,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 123016 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. Y. Basalaev, T. Zanon-Willette, J. W. Pollock, M. Shuker, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Generalized autobalanced Ramsey spectroscopy of clock transitions,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(5), 054034 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. J. Arnold, R. Kaewuam, A. Roy, T. R. Tan, and M. D. Barrett, “Blackbody radiation shift assessment for a lutetium ion clock,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1650 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14(5), 437–441 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, R. J. Fasano, S. A. Schäffer, K. Beloy, D. Nicolodi, R. C. Brown, N. Hinkley, G. Milani, M. Schioppo, T. H. Yoon, and A. D. Ludlow, “Atomic clock performance enabling geodesy below the centimetre level,” Nature 564(7734), 87–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. B. Koller, J. Grotti, St. Vogt, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, and Ch. Lisdat, “Transportable optical lattice clock with 7 × 10−17 uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(7), 073601 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. McGilligan, P. F. Griffin, R. Elvin, S. J. Ingleby, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Grating chips for quantum technologies,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 384 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, F. Zi, J. Dudley, R. J. Bilotta, P. Canoza, and H. Müller, “Multiaxis atom interferometry with a single-diode laser and a pyramidal magneto-optical trap,” Optica 4(12), 1545–1551 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Peil, T. B. Swanson, J. Hanssen, and J. Taylor, “Microwave-clock timescale with instability on order of 10−17,” Metrologia 54(3), 247–252 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, E. Ivanov, V. I. Yudin, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Low-drift coherent population trapping clock based on laser-cooled atoms and high-coherence excitation fields,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054001 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Abdel Hafiz, G. Coget, P. Yun, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “A high-performance Raman-Ramsey Cs vapor cell atomic clock,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(10), 104903 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “High contrast dark resonances in a cold-atom clock probed with counterpropagating circularly polarized beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(22), 224102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Warren, M. S. Shahriar, R. Tripathi, and G. S. Pati, “Experimental and theoretical comparison of different optical excitation schemes for a compact coherent population trapping Rb vapor clock,” Metrologia 54(4), 418–431 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Li, X. Pan, N. Song, X. Xu, and X. Lu, “A phase-locked laser system based on double direct modulation technique for atom interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 123(2), 54 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Dutta, D. Savoie, B. Fang, B. Venon, C. L. Garrido Alzar, R. Geiger, and A. Landragin, “Continuous cold-atom inertial sensor with 1nrad/sec rotation stability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(18), 183003 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 041401 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. McGilligan, P. F. Griffin, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Phase-space properties of magneto-optical traps utilising micro-fabricated gratings,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8948–8959 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. V. Rakholia, H. J. McGuinness, and G. W. Biedermann, “Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(5), 054012 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Danet, M. Lours, S. Guérandel, and E. De Clercq, “Dick effect in a pulsed atomic clock using coherent population trapping,” IEEE Trans. UFFC 61(4), 567–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Dickerson, J. M. Hogan, A. Sugarbaker, D. M. S. Johnson, and M. A. Kasevich, “Multiaxis inertial sensing with long-time point source atom interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(8), 083001 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Nshii, M. Vangeleyn, J. P. Cotter, P. F. Griffin, E. A. Hinds, C. N. Ironside, P. See, A. G. Sinclair, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “A surface-patterned chip as a strong source of ultracold atoms for quantum technologies,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(5), 321–324 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Vangeleyn, P. F. Griffin, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Laser cooling with a single laser beam and a planar diffractor,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3453–3455 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bodart, S. Merlet, N. Malossi, F. Pereira Dos Santos, P. Bouyer, and A. Landragin, “A cold atom pyramidal gravimeter with a single laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 134101 (2010).
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C. Xi, Y. Guo-Qing, W. Jin, and Z. Ming-Sheng, “Coherent population trapping - Ramsey interference in cold atoms,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(11), 113201 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Vangeleyn, P. F. Griffin, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Single-laser, one beam, tetrahedral magneto-optical trap,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13601–13608 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Vengalattore, J. M. Higbie, S. R. Leslie, J. Guzman, L. E. Sadler, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, “High-resolution magnetometry with a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 200801 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005).
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T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193002 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+ − σ− optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 495–499 (2004).
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S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1460–1462 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Affolderbach, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, A. V. Taĭchenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in a standing wave,” Phys. Rev. A 65(4), 043810 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, “Quantum projection noise in an atomic fountain: a high stability cesium frequency standard,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(23), 4619–4622 (1999).
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1998 (1)

R. Legere and K. Gibble, “Quantum scattering in a juggling atomic fountain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5780–5783 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, “A simple extended-cavity diode laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1236–1239 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

1982 (1)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey fringes using a stimulated, resonance Raman transition in a sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(13), 867–870 (1982).
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Abdel Hafiz, M.

M. Abdel Hafiz, G. Coget, P. Yun, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “A high-performance Raman-Ramsey Cs vapor cell atomic clock,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(10), 104903 (2017).
[Crossref]

Affolderbach, C.

C. Affolderbach, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, A. V. Taĭchenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in a standing wave,” Phys. Rev. A 65(4), 043810 (2002).
[Crossref]

Al-Masoudi, A.

S. B. Koller, J. Grotti, St. Vogt, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, and Ch. Lisdat, “Transportable optical lattice clock with 7 × 10−17 uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(7), 073601 (2017).
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Arnold, A. S.

G. W. Hoth, R. Elvin, M. Wright, B. Lewis, A. S. Arnold, P. F. Griffin, and E. Riis, “Towards a compact atomic clock based on coherent population trapping and the grating magneto-optical trap,” Proc. SPIE 10934, 109342E (2019).
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J. P. McGilligan, P. F. Griffin, R. Elvin, S. J. Ingleby, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Grating chips for quantum technologies,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 384 (2017).
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K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
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J. P. McGilligan, P. F. Griffin, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Phase-space properties of magneto-optical traps utilising micro-fabricated gratings,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8948–8959 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Nshii, M. Vangeleyn, J. P. Cotter, P. F. Griffin, E. A. Hinds, C. N. Ironside, P. See, A. G. Sinclair, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “A surface-patterned chip as a strong source of ultracold atoms for quantum technologies,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(5), 321–324 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Vangeleyn, P. F. Griffin, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Laser cooling with a single laser beam and a planar diffractor,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3453–3455 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Vangeleyn, P. F. Griffin, E. Riis, and A. S. Arnold, “Single-laser, one beam, tetrahedral magneto-optical trap,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13601–13608 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, “A simple extended-cavity diode laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1236–1239 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Elvin, G. W. Hoth, M. W. Wright, J. P. McGilligan, A. S. Arnold, P. F. Griffin, and E. Riis, “Raman-Ramsey CPT with a grating magneto-optical trap,” IEEE Proc. EFTF (2018).
[Crossref]

Arnold, K. J.

K. J. Arnold, R. Kaewuam, A. Roy, T. R. Tan, and M. D. Barrett, “Blackbody radiation shift assessment for a lutetium ion clock,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1650 (2018).
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Barbieri, P.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14(5), 437–441 (2018).
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Barrett, M. D.

K. J. Arnold, R. Kaewuam, A. Roy, T. R. Tan, and M. D. Barrett, “Blackbody radiation shift assessment for a lutetium ion clock,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1650 (2018).
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Basalaev, M. Y.

J. W. Pollock, V. I. Yudin, M. Shuker, M. Y. Basalaev, A. V. Taichenachev, X. Liu, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “ac Stark shifts of dark resonances probed with Ramsey spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 98(5), 053424 (2018).
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V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. Y. Basalaev, T. Zanon-Willette, T. E. Mehlstäubler, R. Boudot, J. W. Pollock, M. Shuker, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Combined error signal in Ramsey spectroscopy of clock Transitions,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 123016 (2018).
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V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. Y. Basalaev, T. Zanon-Willette, J. W. Pollock, M. Shuker, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Generalized autobalanced Ramsey spectroscopy of clock transitions,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(5), 054034 (2018).
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Bason, M. G.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
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Baynes, F. N.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14(5), 437–441 (2018).
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Beardsley, R. P.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
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Beloy, K.

W. F. McGrew, X. Zhang, R. J. Fasano, S. A. Schäffer, K. Beloy, D. Nicolodi, R. C. Brown, N. Hinkley, G. Milani, M. Schioppo, T. H. Yoon, and A. D. Ludlow, “Atomic clock performance enabling geodesy below the centimetre level,” Nature 564(7734), 87–90 (2018).
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Benson, T. M.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
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Biedermann, G. W.

A. V. Rakholia, H. J. McGuinness, and G. W. Biedermann, “Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(5), 054012 (2014).
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Bilotta, R. J.

Blanshan, E.

E. Blanshan, S. M. Rochester, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Light shifts in a pulsed cold-atom coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 91(4), 041401 (2015).
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F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, E. N. Ivanov, R. E. Scholten, J. Kitching, and E. A. Donley, “Cold-atom double-Λ coherent population trapping clock,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 042120 (2013).
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E. A. Donley, F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, and J. Kitching, “Cancellation of Doppler shifts in a cold-atom CPT clock,” IEEE Proc. EFTF (2013).
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Bloom, B. J.

S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
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Bodart, Q.

Q. Bodart, S. Merlet, N. Malossi, F. Pereira Dos Santos, P. Bouyer, and A. Landragin, “A cold atom pyramidal gravimeter with a single laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 134101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bongs, K.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boshier, M. G.

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, “A simple extended-cavity diode laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1236–1239 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bostock, H.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
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Bothwell, T.

E. Oelker, R. B. Hutson, C. J. Kennedy, L. Sonderhouse, T. Bothwell, A. Goban, D. Kedar, C. Sanner, J. M. Robinson, G. E. Marti, D. G. Matei, T. Legero, M. Giunta, R. Holzwarth, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Demonstration of 4.8 × 10−17 stability at 1 s for two independent optical clocks,” Nat. Photonics 13(10), 714–719 (2019).
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Boudot, R.

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. Y. Basalaev, T. Zanon-Willette, T. E. Mehlstäubler, R. Boudot, J. W. Pollock, M. Shuker, E. A. Donley, and J. Kitching, “Combined error signal in Ramsey spectroscopy of clock Transitions,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 123016 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Abdel Hafiz, G. Coget, P. Yun, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, and R. Boudot, “A high-performance Raman-Ramsey Cs vapor cell atomic clock,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(10), 104903 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Boudot, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bouyer, P.

Q. Bodart, S. Merlet, N. Malossi, F. Pereira Dos Santos, P. Bouyer, and A. Landragin, “A cold atom pyramidal gravimeter with a single laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 134101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowtell, R. W.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
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A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
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Boyer, V.

K. Bongs, V. Boyer, M. A. Cruise, A. Freise, M. Holynski, J. Hughes, A. Kaushik, Y.-H. Lien, A. Niggebaum, M. Perea-Ortiz, P. Petrov, S. Plant, Y. Singh, A. Stabrawa, D. J. Paul, M. Sorel, D. R. S. Cumming, J. H. Marsh, R. W. Bowtell, M. G. Bason, R. P. Beardsley, R. P. Campion, M. J. Brookes, T. Fernholz, T. M. Fromhold, L. Hackermuller, P. Krüger, X. Li, J. O. Maclean, C. J. Mellor, S. V. Novikov, F. Orucevic, A. W. Rushforth, N. Welch, T. M. Benson, R. D. Wildman, T. Freegarde, M. Himsworth, J. Ruostekoski, P. Smith, A. Tropper, P. F. Griffin, A. S. Arnold, E. Riis, J. E. Hastie, D. Paboeuf, D. C. Parrotta, B. M. Garraway, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, W. Hensinger, E. Potter, A. H. Nizamani, H. Bostock, A. Rodriguez Blanco, G. Sinuco-Leon, I. R. Hill, R. A. Williams, P. Gill, N. Hempler, G. P. A. Malcolm, T. Cross, B. O. Kock, S. Maddox, and P. John, “The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper),” Proc. SPIE 9900, 990009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bregolin, F.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. 14(5), 437–441 (2018).
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Brewer, S. M.

S. M. Brewer, J.-S. Chen, A. M. Hankin, E. R. Clements, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. B. Hume, and D. R. Leibrandt, “27Al+ quantum-logic clock with a systematic uncertainty below 10−18,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(3), 033201 (2019).
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CSAC specifications at www.microsemi.com (2019).

P. Cash, W. Krzewick, P. Machado, K. R. Overstreet, M. Silveira, M. Stanczyk, D. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Microsemi chip scale atomic clock (CSAC) technical status, applications, and future plans,” IEEE Proc. EFTF (2018).
[Crossref]

SpectraDynamics cRb-Clock .

MuQuans MuClock .

Commercially available at www.kntnano.com .

R. Elvin, G. W. Hoth, M. W. Wright, J. P. McGilligan, A. S. Arnold, P. F. Griffin, and E. Riis, “Raman-Ramsey CPT with a grating magneto-optical trap,” IEEE Proc. EFTF (2018).
[Crossref]

E. A. Donley, F.-X. Esnault, E. Blanshan, and J. Kitching, “Cancellation of Doppler shifts in a cold-atom CPT clock,” IEEE Proc. EFTF (2013).
[Crossref]

Dataset DOI: 10.15129/4b93bf4c-84fe-4a0b-8e85-871884aefa6e.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the gMOT with CPT detection. The single beam required for the gMOT (red downward arrow) is produced by collimating the output of an optical fiber with a lens (blue disk). It is circularly polarised by a quarter-wave plate (green disk), and directed to a $2\times 2\, \textrm{cm}^2$ microfabricated diffractive optic (gold grating), which creates the remaining three beams. All four beams intersect to make up the trapping volume within a vacuum chamber represented by the transparent cuboid. A set of anti-Helmholtz coils (grey) co-axial with the incident trapping beam generate the required 3D magnetic field gradient. The clock signal is obtained by measuring the transmission of the probe D$_1$ light (red arrow, left) through the cold atoms (purple ball) using the two photodiodes (PD$_{\textrm {R/S}}$ for reference/signal). The beamsplitter cube splits 90/10 (reflecting/transmitting – a convention we use throughout this paper) and is non-polarising.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The level diagram for lin$\perp$lin CPT on the D$_{1}$ line of $^{87}$Rb. The two orthogonally polarised CPT fields are represented by the red and blue solid lines, and the levels used in the CPT state are labelled $m_{F}=0-0$. (b) Schematic optical bench for the CPT experiment including: external cavity diode laser (ECDL); acousto-optical modulator (AOM); non-polarising beam-splitter (NPBS); photodiode for reference/signal (PD$_{\textrm {R/S}}$); local oscillator (LO); loop filter (LF). The dashed region indicates the gMOT and CPT signal zone shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental Ramsey-CPT fringes with a $T=1\,$ms free evolution time. We use the double-ratio technique, described in the text, to cancel common-mode laser intensity noise. Each data point represents a single run of the experiment sequence as the LO frequency is varied. The signal is normalised to the off-resonant wings.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured Allan deviation curves for our apparatus. Experimental data, with a $T=10\,$ms free evolution time and PLL engaged, are plotted for two CPT bias field configurations: $280\,$mG (red diamonds) and $140\,$mG (blue circles). The dashed line represents $2 \times 10 ^{-11}/ \sqrt {\tau }$, which is a fit to the first six points. Inset: an example $T=10\,$ms fringe, where each point is a single experimental run.

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