Abstract

Germanium (Ge) is a promising candidate for a CMOS compatible laser diode. This is due to its compatibility with Silicon (Si) and its ability to be converted into a direct band gap material by applying tensile strain. In particular uniaxial suspended Ge bridges have been extensively explored due to their ability to introduce high tensile strain. There have been two recent demonstrations of low-temperature optically-pumped lasing in these bridges but no room temperature operation accredit to insufficient strain and poor thermal management. In this paper we compare uniaxial bridges with polyaxial bridges in terms of mechanical stress and thermal management using finite element modelling (FEM). The stress simulations reveal that polyaxial bridges suffer from extremely large corner stresses which prevent larger strain from being introduced compared with uniaxial bridges. Thermal simulations however reveal that they are much less thermally sensitive than uniaxial bridges which may indicate lower optical losses. Bridges were fabricated and Raman spectroscopy was used to validate the results of the simulations. We postulate that polyaxial bridges could offer many advantages over their uniaxial counterparts as potential laser devices

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References

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2019 (1)

F. T. Armand Pilon, A. Lyasota, Y.-M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, N. Pauc, J. Widiez, C. Bonzon, J. M. Hartmann, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Lasing in strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2724 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

2017 (3)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Burt, A. Al-Attili, Z. Li, F. Gardès, M. Sotto, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Oda, O. M. Querin, S. Saito, and R. Kelsall, “Enhanced light emission from improved homogeneity in biaxially suspended germanium membranes from curvature optimization,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22911–22922 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. G. ad Krishna Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. Petykiewicz, D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, S. Buckley, A. Y. Piggott, J. Vučković, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap light emission from strained germanium nanowires coupled with high-q nanophotonic cavities,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2168–2173 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y.-M. Niquet, J.-M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J.-M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: Nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs strain,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1907–1911 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. C. Saraswat, B. R. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap gesn alloy grown on si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, J. Petykiewicz, S. Gupta, D. Kim, S. Woo, Y. Kim, J. Vuckovic, K. C. Saraswat, and D. Nam, “Ge microdisk with lithographically-tunable strain using cmos-compatible process,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33249–33254 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

M. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, D. Chrastina, R. G. Isella, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in sin/ge microstructures obtained via si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in ge grown on si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

F. Herman, “The electronic energy band structure of silicon and germanium,” Proc. IRE 43(12), 1703–1732 (1955).
[Crossref]

Aassime, A.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photonics 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

ad Krishna Saraswat, S. G.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. G. ad Krishna Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Attili, A.

D. Burt, A. Al-Attili, Z. Li, F. Gardès, M. Sotto, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Oda, O. M. Querin, S. Saito, and R. Kelsall, “Enhanced light emission from improved homogeneity in biaxially suspended germanium membranes from curvature optimization,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22911–22922 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, M. Husain, F. Gardes, H. Arimoto, S. Saito, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Fabrication of ge micro-disks on free-standing sio2 beams for monolithic light emission,” in 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), (2015).

Al-Attili, A. Z.

A. Z. Al-Attili, D. Burt, Z. Li, N. Higashitarumizu, F. Y. Gardes, K. Oda, Y. Ishikawa, and S. Saito, “Germanium vertically light-emitting micro-gears generating orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34675–34688 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aldaghri, O.

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Al-Kabi, S.

Amalric, E. B.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

Arakawa, Y.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Attili, M. Husain, F. Gardes, H. Arimoto, S. Saito, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Fabrication of ge micro-disks on free-standing sio2 beams for monolithic light emission,” in 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), (2015).

Arimoto, H.

A. Al-Attili, M. Husain, F. Gardes, H. Arimoto, S. Saito, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Fabrication of ge micro-disks on free-standing sio2 beams for monolithic light emission,” in 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), (2015).

Armand Pilon, F.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Armand Pilon, F. T.

F. T. Armand Pilon, A. Lyasota, Y.-M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, N. Pauc, J. Widiez, C. Bonzon, J. M. Hartmann, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Lasing in strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2724 (2019).
[Crossref]

Aubin, J.

Q. M. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Gesn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 k,” Opt. Express 26(25), 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, S.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. G. ad Krishna Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baudot, C.

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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
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Gardès, F.

Gassenq, A.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
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K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y.-M. Niquet, J.-M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J.-M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: Nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs strain,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1907–1911 (2016).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

Geiger, R.

K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y.-M. Niquet, J.-M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J.-M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: Nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs strain,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1907–1911 (2016).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap gesn alloy grown on si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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M. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, D. Chrastina, R. G. Isella, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

Ghetmiri, S. A.

Ghrib, A.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. E. Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

Grutzmacher, D.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap gesn alloy grown on si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Guha, S.

Guilloy, K.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
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K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y.-M. Niquet, J.-M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J.-M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: Nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs strain,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1907–1911 (2016).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

Gupta, S.

D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. C. Saraswat, B. R. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
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D. S. Sukhdeo, J. Petykiewicz, S. Gupta, D. Kim, S. Woo, Y. Kim, J. Vuckovic, K. C. Saraswat, and D. Nam, “Ge microdisk with lithographically-tunable strain using cmos-compatible process,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33249–33254 (2015).
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Hartmann, J. M.

F. T. Armand Pilon, A. Lyasota, Y.-M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, N. Pauc, J. Widiez, C. Bonzon, J. M. Hartmann, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Lasing in strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2724 (2019).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap gesn alloy grown on si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Q. M. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Gesn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 k,” Opt. Express 26(25), 32500–32508 (2018).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Husain, M. K.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
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D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap gesn alloy grown on si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
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M. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, D. Chrastina, R. G. Isella, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
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S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. G. ad Krishna Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing sio 2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(4S), 04EH02 (2016).
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D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% uniaxial tensile strain,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
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Kelsall, R. W.

O. Aldaghri, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Optimum strain configurations for carrier injection in near infrared ge lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 053106 (2012).
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S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. G. ad Krishna Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. G. ad Krishna Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
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F. T. Armand Pilon, A. Lyasota, Y.-M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, N. Pauc, J. Widiez, C. Bonzon, J. M. Hartmann, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Lasing in strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2724 (2019).
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V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

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D. S. Sukhdeo, J. Petykiewicz, S. Gupta, D. Kim, S. Woo, Y. Kim, J. Vuckovic, K. C. Saraswat, and D. Nam, “Ge microdisk with lithographically-tunable strain using cmos-compatible process,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33249–33254 (2015).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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J. Petykiewicz, D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, S. Buckley, A. Y. Piggott, J. Vučković, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap light emission from strained germanium nanowires coupled with high-q nanophotonic cavities,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2168–2173 (2016).
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Reboud, V.

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Q. M. Thai, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, M. Bertrand, J. Chrétien, V. Delaye, A. Chelnokov, J.-M. Hartmann, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Gesn heterostructure micro-disk laser operating at 230 k,” Opt. Express 26(25), 32500–32508 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Romagnoli, M.

Rothman, J.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

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D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, K. C. Saraswat, B. R. Dutt, and D. Nam, “Ultimate limits of biaxial tensile strain and n-type doping for realizing an efficient low-threshold ge laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(2), 024301 (2016).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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J. Petykiewicz, D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, S. Buckley, A. Y. Piggott, J. Vučković, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap light emission from strained germanium nanowires coupled with high-q nanophotonic cavities,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2168–2173 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, J. Petykiewicz, S. Gupta, D. Kim, S. Woo, Y. Kim, J. Vuckovic, K. C. Saraswat, and D. Nam, “Ge microdisk with lithographically-tunable strain using cmos-compatible process,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33249–33254 (2015).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vuckovic, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in sin/ge microstructures obtained via si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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F. T. Armand Pilon, A. Lyasota, Y.-M. Niquet, V. Reboud, V. Calvo, N. Pauc, J. Widiez, C. Bonzon, J. M. Hartmann, A. Chelnokov, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Lasing in strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2724 (2019).
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K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y.-M. Niquet, J.-M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J.-M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: Nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs strain,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1907–1911 (2016).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. B. Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strain on 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS compatible Ge lasers,” in Silicon Photonics XI, vol. 9752G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2016), pp. 73–80.

Wirths, S.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
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D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
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Woo, S.

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. E. Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in sin/ge microstructures obtained via si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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Yu, S.-Q.

Zabel, T.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped gesn micro-disks with 16% sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180k,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically pumped gesn microdisk lasers on si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y.-M. Niquet, J.-M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J.-M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: Nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs strain,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1907–1911 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

Zaumseil, P.

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V. Reboud, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, G. O. Dias, D. Fowler, A. Chelnokov, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, V. Calvo, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics X, vol. 9367G. T. Reed and M. R. Watts, eds., International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE, 2015), pp. 231–236.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Exemplar uniaxial and polyaxial bridge designs. (a) Uniaxial design showing the pad length. The central region is shown under zoom and the parameters bridge height, bridge width and filet ratio are defined. The fixed under etch distance of 10.0 $\mu$m is also shown. (b) Polyaxial design with 8 arms. The central region is shown and the parameters etch window thickness and bridge diameter are shown.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Results from the stress simulations. (a) The influence of bridge width at different bridge heights on the VMR for uniaxial bridges. (b) The influence of bridge diameter at different numbers of arms on the VMR for polyaxial bridges. (c) Von Mises stress distribution of a uniaxial bridge with a bridge width of 10.0 $\mu$m and a bridge height of 0.75 $\mu$m. (d) Von Mises stress distribution of a uniaxial bridge with a bridge width of 2.5 $\mu$m and a bridge height of 3.0 $\mu$m. (e) Von Mises stress distribution of a polyaxial bridge with a bridge diameter of 6.0 $\mu$m and 4 arms. (f) Von Mises stress distribution of a polyaxial bridge with a bridge diameter of 3.0 $\mu$m and 20 arms.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Results from the thermal simulations. (a) The influence of bridge width at different bridge heights on the central temperature increase for uniaxial bridges. (b) The influence of bridge diameter at different numbers of arms on the central temperature increase for polyaxial bridges. (c) The temperature distribution of a uniaxial bridge with a bridge width of 2.5 $\mu$m and a bridge height of 3.0 $\mu$m under 1 mW pump power. (d) The temperature distribution of a uniaxial bridge with a bridge width of 10.0 $\mu$m and a bridge height of 0.75 $\mu$m under 1mW pump power. (e) The temperature distribution of a polyaxial bridge with a bridge diameter of 6.0 $\mu$m and 4 arms under 1 mW pump power. (f) The temperature distribution of a polyaxial bridge with a bridge diameter of 3.0 $\mu$m and 20 arms under 1 mW pump power.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. A schematic showing the starting wafer stack of the Ge on SOI platform and the main stages of fabrication.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Surviving devices and bar-graph indicating the survival rate of the devices. (a) Surviving uniaxial (top row) and polyaxial (bottom row) for the not tuned (left column) and tuned (right column) bridges. (b) Bar graph comparing the survival rate of uniaxial and polyaxial bridges with and without tuning.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The results of the Raman spectroscopy. (a) Raman spectra of the bulk Ge sample and the bridges with the highest uniaxial and biaxial strain. (b) Temperature rise from finite element modelling and Raman thermometry for an exemplar uniaxial and polyaxial bridge to verify simulation results.

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