Abstract

The backscattering coefficient (β), lidar ratio (S), and depolarization ratio (δ) of ice particles were estimated over a wide range of effective radii to interpret spaceborne 355-nm high-spectral-resolution lidar data from the ATLID sensor onboard the EarthCARE satellite. Five randomly oriented ice particle shapes (3D ice) and two quasi-horizontally oriented particle types (2D ice) were analyzed using five effective angles. The size dependence of β, S, and δ was examined using physical optics and geometrical optics integral equation methods. Differences in β for the same effective radius and ice water content among particle types exceeded one order of magnitude. S-δ relations are useful for inferring ice particle habit and orientation using ATLID data from EarthCARE.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (2)

K. Sato, H. Okamoto, and H. Ishimoto, “Physical model for multiple scattered spaceborne lidar returns from clouds,” Opt. Express 26(6), A301–A319 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. G. Borovoi, A. V. Konoshonkin, N. V. Kustova, and I. A. Veselovskii, “Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 88–96 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

A. Konoshonkin, A. Borovoi, N. Kustova, H. Okamoto, H. Ishimoto, Y. Grynko, and J. Förstner, “Light scattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds: From exact methods to physical-optics approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 195, 132–140 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Saito, H. Iwabuchi, P. Yang, G. Tang, M. D. King, and M. Sekiguchi, “Ice particle morphology and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds inferred from combined CALIOP-IIR measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 122(2), 1816–1830 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Masuda and H. Ishimoto, “Backscatter ratios for nonspherical ice crystals in cirrus clouds calculated by geometrical-optics-integral-equation method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 190, 60–68 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Konoshonkin, A. Borovoi, N. Kustova, and J. Reichardt, “Power laws for backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22341–22346 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

A. Borovoi, N. Kustova, and A. Konoshonkin, “Interference phenomena at backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24557–24571 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

P. Yang, L. Bi, B. A. Baum, K. Liou, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cole, “Spectrally consistent scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of atmospheric ice crystals at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 µm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 70(1), 330–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

K. Masuda, H. Ishimoto, and Y. Mano, “Efficient method of computing a geometric optics integral for light scattering by nonspherical particles,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 63, 15–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Ishimoto, K. Masuda, Y. Mano, N. Orikasa, and A. Uchiyama, “Irregularly shaped ice aggregates in optical modeling of convectively generated ice clouds,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113(8), 632–643 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Garnier, Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, P.-W. Zhai, R. Kuehn, and P. Lucker, “Cirrus optical depth and lidar ratio retrieval from combined CALIPSO-CloudSat observations using ocean surface echo,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D5), D05207 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, N. Kustova, and H. Okamoto, “Backscattering Mueller matrix for quasi-horizontally oriented ice plates of cirrus clouds: application to CALIPSO signals,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28222–28233 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Katterwar, Y. Hu, and A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(9), 1492–1508 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Sato and H. Okamoto, “Refinement of global ice microphysics using spaceborne active sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D20), D20202 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Yoshida, H. Okamoto, Y. Hagihara, and H. Ishimoto, “Global analysis of cloud phase and ice crystal orientation from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data using attenuated backscattering and depolarization ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H32 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Okamoto, K. Sato, and Y. Hagihara, “Global analysis of ice microphysics from CloudSat and CALIPSO: incorporation of specular reflection in lidar signals,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D22), D22209 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. E. Waliser, J.-L. F. Li, C. P. Wood, R. T. Austin, J. Bacmeisterm, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B. Rossow, G. L. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, D. G. vane, C. Walker, and D. Wu, “Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D8), D00A21 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. G. Warren and R. E. Brandt, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave: A revised compilation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D14), D14220 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Defresne and S. Bony, “An assessment of the primary source of spread of global warming estimates from coupled atmosphere-ocean models,” J. Clim. 21(19), 5135–5144 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Roy and N. Roy, “Relation between circular and linear depolarization ratios under multi-le-scattering conditions,” Appl. Opt. 47(35), 6563–6579 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Hu, “Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(11), L11812 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Um and G. M. McFarquhar, “Single-scattering properties of aggregates of bullet rosettes in cirrus,” J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 46(6), 757–775 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Sakai, N. Orikasa, T. Nagai, M. Murakami, K. Kusunoki, K. Mori, A. Hashimoto, T. Matsumura, and T. Shibata, “Optical and microphysical properties of upper clouds measured with the Raman lidar and hydrometer videosonde: A case study on 29 March 2004 over Tsukuba, Japan,” J. Atmos. Sci. 63(8), 2156–2166 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, and S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80(13), 1159–1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “Algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. Borovoi and I. A. Grishin, “Scattering matrixes for large ice crystal particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(11), 2071–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Okamoto, “Information content of the 95-GHz cloud radar signals: Theoretical assessment of effects of nonsphericity and error evaluation of the discrete dipole approximation,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D22), 4628 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Reichardt, S. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, and T. J. McGee, “Correlations among the optical properties of cirrus-cloud particles: Implications for spaceborne remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(14), 1668 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Iwasaki and H. Okamoto, “Analysis of the enhancement of backscattering by nonspherical particles with flat surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 40(33), 6121–6129 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: II. Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58(15), 2103–2112 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Yang P and K. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35(33), 6558–6584 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. D. Klett, “Orientation model for particles in turbulence,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52(12), 2276–2285 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. L. Mitchell and W. P. Arnott, “A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part II: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(6), 817–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, and P. W. Stackhouse, “The relevance of microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climatic feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47(14), 1742–1754 (1990).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

A. H. Auer and D. L. Veal, “The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27(6), 919–926 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, S.

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, and S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80(13), 1159–1169 (2003).
[Crossref]

Andersson, E.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arnott, W. P.

D. L. Mitchell and W. P. Arnott, “A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part II: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(6), 817–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Auer, A. H.

A. H. Auer and D. L. Veal, “The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27(6), 919–926 (1970).
[Crossref]

Austin, R. T.

D. E. Waliser, J.-L. F. Li, C. P. Wood, R. T. Austin, J. Bacmeisterm, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B. Rossow, G. L. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, D. G. vane, C. Walker, and D. Wu, “Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D8), D00A21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bacmeisterm, J.

D. E. Waliser, J.-L. F. Li, C. P. Wood, R. T. Austin, J. Bacmeisterm, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B. Rossow, G. L. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, D. G. vane, C. Walker, and D. Wu, “Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D8), D00A21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barker, H. W.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Katterwar, Y. Hu, and A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(9), 1492–1508 (2011).
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P. Yang, L. Bi, B. A. Baum, K. Liou, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cole, “Spectrally consistent scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of atmospheric ice crystals at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 µm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 70(1), 330–347 (2013).
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P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, and S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80(13), 1159–1169 (2003).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Bi, L.

P. Yang, L. Bi, B. A. Baum, K. Liou, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cole, “Spectrally consistent scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of atmospheric ice crystals at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 µm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 70(1), 330–347 (2013).
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L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Katterwar, Y. Hu, and A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(9), 1492–1508 (2011).
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J.-L. Defresne and S. Bony, “An assessment of the primary source of spread of global warming estimates from coupled atmosphere-ocean models,” J. Clim. 21(19), 5135–5144 (2008).
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Borovoi, A. G.

A. G. Borovoi, A. V. Konoshonkin, N. V. Kustova, and I. A. Veselovskii, “Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 88–96 (2018).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Butler, C. F.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Ceccaldi, M.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Chepfer, H.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Chern, J.

D. E. Waliser, J.-L. F. Li, C. P. Wood, R. T. Austin, J. Bacmeisterm, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B. Rossow, G. L. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, D. G. vane, C. Walker, and D. Wu, “Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D8), D00A21 (2009).
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Clerbaux, N.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cole, B.

P. Yang, L. Bi, B. A. Baum, K. Liou, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cole, “Spectrally consistent scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of atmospheric ice crystals at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 µm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 70(1), 330–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cole, J.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Cool, A. L.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Culoma, A.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
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Defresne, J.-L.

J.-L. Defresne and S. Bony, “An assessment of the primary source of spread of global warming estimates from coupled atmosphere-ocean models,” J. Clim. 21(19), 5135–5144 (2008).
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Del Genio, A.

D. E. Waliser, J.-L. F. Li, C. P. Wood, R. T. Austin, J. Bacmeisterm, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B. Rossow, G. L. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, D. G. vane, C. Walker, and D. Wu, “Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D8), D00A21 (2009).
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Delanoë, J.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Domenech, C.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Donovan, D. P.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Endemann, M.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
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Förstner, J.

A. Konoshonkin, A. Borovoi, N. Kustova, H. Okamoto, H. Ishimoto, Y. Grynko, and J. Förstner, “Light scattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds: From exact methods to physical-optics approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 195, 132–140 (2017).
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Froyd, K. D.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Fukuda, S.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Garnier, A.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Garnier, Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, P.-W. Zhai, R. Kuehn, and P. Lucker, “Cirrus optical depth and lidar ratio retrieval from combined CALIPSO-CloudSat observations using ocean surface echo,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D5), D05207 (2012).
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Grishin, I. A.

Grynko, Y.

A. Konoshonkin, A. Borovoi, N. Kustova, H. Okamoto, H. Ishimoto, Y. Grynko, and J. Förstner, “Light scattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds: From exact methods to physical-optics approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 195, 132–140 (2017).
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H. Okamoto, K. Sato, and Y. Hagihara, “Global analysis of ice microphysics from CloudSat and CALIPSO: incorporation of specular reflection in lidar signals,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D22), D22209 (2010).
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R. Yoshida, H. Okamoto, Y. Hagihara, and H. Ishimoto, “Global analysis of cloud phase and ice crystal orientation from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data using attenuated backscattering and depolarization ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H32 (2010).
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Hair, J. W.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Harper, D. B.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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T. Sakai, N. Orikasa, T. Nagai, M. Murakami, K. Kusunoki, K. Mori, A. Hashimoto, T. Matsumura, and T. Shibata, “Optical and microphysical properties of upper clouds measured with the Raman lidar and hydrometer videosonde: A case study on 29 March 2004 over Tsukuba, Japan,” J. Atmos. Sci. 63(8), 2156–2166 (2006).
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Heymsfield, A. J.

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, and S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80(13), 1159–1169 (2003).
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Hirakata, M.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Hogan, R. J.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Horie, H.

H. Okamoto, S. Iwasaki, M. Yasui, H. Horie, H. Kuroiwa, and H. Kumagai, “Algorithm for retrieval of cloud microphysics using 95-GHz cloud radar and lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D7), 4226 (2003).
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Hostetler, C. A.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cool, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Hu, Y.

D. Josset, J. Pelon, A. Garnier, Y. Hu, M. Vaughan, P.-W. Zhai, R. Kuehn, and P. Lucker, “Cirrus optical depth and lidar ratio retrieval from combined CALIPSO-CloudSat observations using ocean surface echo,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D5), D05207 (2012).
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L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Katterwar, Y. Hu, and A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(9), 1492–1508 (2011).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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Y. Hu, “Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(11), L11812 (2007).
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Hu, Y. X.

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, and S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80(13), 1159–1169 (2003).
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Huang, H.-L.

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, and S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80(13), 1159–1169 (2003).
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Huenerbein, A.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Hunt, W. H.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE satellite: the next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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Ingmann, P.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
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Isaksen, L.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källén, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86(1), 73–88 (2005).
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Ishimoto, H.

K. Sato, H. Okamoto, and H. Ishimoto, “Modeling of depolarization of spaceborne lidar signals,” Opt. Express 27(4), A117–A132 (2019).
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K. Sato, H. Okamoto, and H. Ishimoto, “Physical model for multiple scattered spaceborne lidar returns from clouds,” Opt. Express 26(6), A301–A319 (2018).
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A. Konoshonkin, A. Borovoi, N. Kustova, H. Okamoto, H. Ishimoto, Y. Grynko, and J. Förstner, “Light scattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds: From exact methods to physical-optics approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 195, 132–140 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Ice particle shapes used for estimating ${\beta _{tot}}$, $\delta $, and S. (a) Voronoi aggregate, (b) droxtal, (c) bullet, (d) hexagonal column, and (e) hexagonal plate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Lidar backscattering properties of 3D ice categories as a function of effective radius ${r_{eff}}$. The ice water content (IWC) was fixed at 1 g/m3. The wavelength was 355 nm and the laser tilt angle (LT) was 3° off nadir. A 2D plate and 2D column with ${\Theta _{eff}}$ = 1° were also compared. (a) the total backscattering coefficient ${\beta _{tot}}$; (b) the lidar ratio S (sr); and (c) the depolarization ratio $\delta $.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. As described for Fig. 2, but for 2D plates with five different values of ${\Theta _{eff}}$: 0.5°, 1.0°, 2.0°, 3.0°, and 5.0°. (a) the total backscattering coefficient ${\beta _{tot}}$; (b) the lidar ratio S (sr); and (c) the depolarization ratio $\delta $. The wavelength was 355 nm and the laser tilt angle (LT) was 3° off nadir.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. As described for Fig. 3, but for 2D columns with five values of ${\Theta _{eff}}$: 0.5°, 1.0°, 2.0°, 3.0°, and 5.0°. (a) the total backscattering coefficient ${\beta _{tot}}$ values; (b) the lidar ratio S (sr); and (c) the depolarization ratio $\delta $. The wavelength was 355 nm and the laser tilt angle (LT) was 3° off nadir.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The relationship between S and $\delta $ for (a) 2D plates, (b) 2D columns, and (c) 3D ice and 2D ice. The wavelength was 355 nm and the laser tilt angle (LT) was 3° off nadir. ${\Theta _{eff}}$: 0.5°, 1.0°, 2.0°, 3.0°, and 5.0° are indicated in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The relationship between S and $\delta $ for 3D aggregate of 8 columns. Results of 2D aggregate of 8 column with ${\Theta _{eff}}$ = 1° were also compared.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters used in the lidar backscattering calculations

Equations (11)

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C ¯ b k ( r e q ) = 0 2 π d φ 0 π d p ( Θ ) d Θ C b k ( r e q , Θ , φ , L T ) sin Θ d Θ
d p ( Θ ) d Θ = 1 2 π exp ( Θ 2 2 Θ e f f 2 ) 0 π exp ( Θ 2 2 Θ e f f 2 ) sin Θ d Θ
β = 1 4 π r e q , min r e q , m a x d n ( r e q ) d r e q C b k ¯ ( r e q ) d r e q
σ e x t = r e q , min r e q , m a x d n ( r e q ) d r e q C e x t ¯ ( r e q ) d r e q
d n ( r e q ) d r e q = N 0 Γ ( p ) r m ( r e q r m ) p 1 exp ( r e q r m )
r e f f = r e q , min r e q , max r e q d n ( r e q ) d r e q d r e q / r e q , min r e q , max d n ( r e q ) d r e q d r e q
m = 0.00528 ( D / 10000 ) 2.1
D = 2.31 × L 0.63 .
D = 0.7 × L 1.0  for L < 100 μ m ,
D = 6.96 × L 0.5  for L > 100 μ m .
L = 2.02 D 0.449