Abstract

A suspended WO3-gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure photodetector integrated with a micro-heater is micro-fabricated and characterized for ultraviolet photo detection. The transient optical characteristics of the photodetector at different temperatures are studied. The 2DEG-based photodetector shows a recovery (170 s) time under 240 nm illumination at 150 ℃. The measured spectral response of WO3-gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure shows a high response in deep ultraviolet range. Responsivity at 240 nm wavelength is 4600 A/W at 0.5 V bias. These characteristics support the feasibility of a high accuracy deep UV detector based on the suspended AlGaN/GaN heterostructure integrated with a micro-heater.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. L. Shao, M. P. Yu, J. Lian, and S. Sawyer, “Optoelectronic properties of three dimensional WO3 nanoshale and its application for UV sensing,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 1002–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Yang, and D. He, “Ultraviolet photoconductance of a single hexagonal WO 3 nanowire,” Nano Res. 3(4), 281–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, “Effects of illumination on the excess carrier dynamics and variations of the surface states in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033706 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, “Ultraviolet communications: Potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 46(5), 67–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Blanc, L. Deimling, and N. Eisenreich, “UV- and IR-Signatures of Rocket Plumes,” Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 27(3), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Vetury, N. Q. Zhang, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “The impact of surface states on the DC and RF characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48(3), 560–566 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

C. H. Qiu and J. I. Pankove, “Deep levels and persistent photoconductivity in GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(15), 1983–1985 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, Q. Chen, J. N. Kuznia, and C. J. Sun, “Gated Photodetector Based on Gan/Algan Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor,” Electron. Lett. 31(5), 398–400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Akbari, M. K.

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bardwell, J. A.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beaumont, B.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
[Crossref]

Blanc, A.

A. Blanc, L. Deimling, and N. Eisenreich, “UV- and IR-Signatures of Rocket Plumes,” Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 27(3), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Butun, B.

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Calle, F.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. M.

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, P. C.

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. P.

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, “Effects of illumination on the excess carrier dynamics and variations of the surface states in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, Q. Chen, J. N. Kuznia, and C. J. Sun, “Gated Photodetector Based on Gan/Algan Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor,” Electron. Lett. 31(5), 398–400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. C.

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cherng, Y. T.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chiou, Y. Z.

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chuang, R. W.

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cingolani, R.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cong, L.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

Das, J.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Moor, P.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Vittorio, M.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
[Crossref]

Deimling, L.

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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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A. Blanc, L. Deimling, and N. Eisenreich, “UV- and IR-Signatures of Rocket Plumes,” Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 27(3), 185–189 (2002).
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B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
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Frayssinet, E.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
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Giordanengo, B.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
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K. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Yang, and D. He, “Ultraviolet photoconductance of a single hexagonal WO 3 nanowire,” Nano Res. 3(4), 281–287 (2010).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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Heuser, T. A.

R. A. Miller, H. So, T. A. Heuser, and D. G. Senesky, “High-temperature Ultraviolet Photodetectors: A Review,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.07396 (2018).

Hochedez, J. F.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
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K. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Yang, and D. He, “Ultraviolet photoconductance of a single hexagonal WO 3 nanowire,” Nano Res. 3(4), 281–287 (2010).
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C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
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Hyde, L.

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Iervolino, E.

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
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Jiang, H. X.

J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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R. Vetury, N. Q. Zhang, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “The impact of surface states on the DC and RF characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48(3), 560–566 (2001).
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J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
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S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
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Kuan, T. M.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
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R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
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M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, Q. Chen, J. N. Kuznia, and C. J. Sun, “Gated Photodetector Based on Gan/Algan Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor,” Electron. Lett. 31(5), 398–400 (1995).
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C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lan, W. H.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
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K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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Li, B.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
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Li, J. Z.

J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
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Lian, J.

D. L. Shao, M. P. Yu, J. Lian, and S. Sawyer, “Optoelectronic properties of three dimensional WO3 nanoshale and its application for UV sensing,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 1002–1005 (2014).
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Lin, J. Y.

J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
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Lin, T. K.

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
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C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
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Lin, W. J.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. C.

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
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Liu, H. L.

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
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Lomascolo, M.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. Y.

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

Madrid, J. G. R.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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Mertens, R.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
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R. A. Miller, H. So, T. A. Heuser, and D. G. Senesky, “High-temperature Ultraviolet Photodetectors: A Review,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.07396 (2018).

Minoglou, K.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

R. Vetury, N. Q. Zhang, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “The impact of surface states on the DC and RF characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48(3), 560–566 (2001).
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Monroy, E.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
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E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
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Morana, B.

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

Munoz, E.

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
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E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
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Omnes, F.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
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E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
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T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103502 (2008).
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Passaseo, A.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pau, J. L.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
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Picciafoco, P.

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

Pomarico, A.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
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Poti, B.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
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C. H. Qiu and J. I. Pankove, “Deep levels and persistent photoconductivity in GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(15), 1983–1985 (1997).
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J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

Sarro, P. M.

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

Sawyer, S.

D. L. Shao, M. P. Yu, J. Lian, and S. Sawyer, “Optoelectronic properties of three dimensional WO3 nanoshale and its application for UV sensing,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 1002–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Semond, F.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Senesky, D. G.

M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. A. Miller, H. So, T. A. Heuser, and D. G. Senesky, “High-temperature Ultraviolet Photodetectors: A Review,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.07396 (2018).

Shao, D. L.

D. L. Shao, M. P. Yu, J. Lian, and S. Sawyer, “Optoelectronic properties of three dimensional WO3 nanoshale and its application for UV sensing,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 1002–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shur, M. S.

M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, Q. Chen, J. N. Kuznia, and C. J. Sun, “Gated Photodetector Based on Gan/Algan Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor,” Electron. Lett. 31(5), 398–400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, C.

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

So, H.

R. A. Miller, H. So, T. A. Heuser, and D. G. Senesky, “High-temperature Ultraviolet Photodetectors: A Review,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.07396 (2018).

So, H. Y.

M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sokolovskij, R.

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sturdevant, C.

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. J.

M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, Q. Chen, J. N. Kuznia, and C. J. Sun, “Gated Photodetector Based on Gan/Algan Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor,” Electron. Lett. 31(5), 398–400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

Suria, A. J.

M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. J.

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Todaro, M. T.

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tut, T.

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ulker, E.

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vetury, R.

R. Vetury, N. Q. Zhang, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “The impact of surface states on the DC and RF characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48(3), 560–566 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. K.

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. C.

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Webb, J. B.

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. L.

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. Y.

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, “Ultraviolet communications: Potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 46(5), 67–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xue, C. Y.

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yalamarthy, A. S.

M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

K. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Yang, and D. He, “Ultraviolet photoconductance of a single hexagonal WO 3 nanowire,” Nano Res. 3(4), 281–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yelboga, T.

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yen, C. H.

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. L.

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. P.

D. L. Shao, M. P. Yu, J. Lian, and S. Sawyer, “Optoelectronic properties of three dimensional WO3 nanoshale and its application for UV sensing,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 1002–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. Q.

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

Zhang, N. Q.

R. Vetury, N. Q. Zhang, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “The impact of surface states on the DC and RF characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48(3), 560–566 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

K. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Yang, and D. He, “Ultraviolet photoconductance of a single hexagonal WO 3 nanowire,” Nano Res. 3(4), 281–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhuiykov, S.

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Tut, T. Yelboga, E. Ulker, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodetectors with high breakdown voltage and detectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Qiu and J. I. Pankove, “Deep levels and persistent photoconductivity in GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(15), 1983–1985 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Z. Hai, M. K. Akbari, C. Y. Xue, H. Y. Xu, L. Hyde, and S. Zhuiykov, “Wafer-scaled monolayer WO3 windows ultra-sensitive, extremely-fast and stable UV-A photodetection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 405, 169–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, Q. Chen, J. N. Kuznia, and C. J. Sun, “Gated Photodetector Based on Gan/Algan Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor,” Electron. Lett. 31(5), 398–400 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Poti, M. T. Todaro, M. C. Frassanito, A. Pomarico, A. Passaseo, M. Lomascolo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, “High responsivity GaN-based UV detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39(24), 1747–1749 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Z. Y. Xu and B. M. Sadler, “Ultraviolet communications: Potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 46(5), 67–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

P. E. Malinowski, J. John, J. Y. Duboz, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, J. G. R. Madrid, C. Sturdevant, K. Cheng, M. Leys, J. Derluyn, J. Das, M. Germain, K. Minoglou, P. De Moor, E. Frayssinet, F. Semond, J. F. Hochedez, B. Giordanengo, and R. Mertens, “Backside-Illuminated GaN-on-Si Schottky Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(12), 1308–1310 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hou, H. Y. So, A. J. Suria, A. S. Yalamarthy, and D. G. Senesky, “Suppression of Persistent Photoconductivity in AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet Photodetectors Using In Situ Heating,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(1), 56–59 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

C. K. Wang, Y. Z. Chiou, S. J. Chang, W. C. Lai, S. P. Chang, C. H. Yen, and C. C. Hung, “GaN MSM UV Photodetector With Sputtered AlN Nucleation Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(9), 4743–4748 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors With a GaN Sandwich Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(7), 814–819 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (3)

C. K. Wang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. Z. Chiou, S. C. Chen, C. S. Chang, T. K. Lin, H. L. Liu, and J. J. Tang, “GaN MSM UV photodetectors with titanium tungsten transparent electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(1), 38–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Vetury, N. Q. Zhang, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “The impact of surface states on the DC and RF characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48(3), 560–566 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, R. Sokolovskij, E. Iervolino, F. Santagata, Z. Liu, P. M. Sarro, and G. Zhang, “Characterization of an Acetone Detector Based on a Suspended WO3-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT Integrated With Microheater,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(10), 4373–4379 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, M. A. Khan, and Q. Chen, “Persistent photoconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas system formed by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 1227–1230 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, “Effects of illumination on the excess carrier dynamics and variations of the surface states in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033706 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. W. Chuang, S. P. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. Z. Chiou, C. Y. Lu, T. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin, C. F. Kuo, and H. M. Chang, “Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors prepared on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 073110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 537–543 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

H. Zhou, L. Cong, J. Ma, B. Li, M. Chen, H. Xu, and Y. Liu, “High gain broadband photoconductor based on amorphous Ga 2 O 3 and suppression of persistent photoconductivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(42), 13149–13155 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

E. Munoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnes, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nano Res. (1)

K. Huang, Q. Zhang, F. Yang, and D. He, “Ultraviolet photoconductance of a single hexagonal WO 3 nanowire,” Nano Res. 3(4), 281–287 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. L. Shao, M. P. Yu, J. Lian, and S. Sawyer, “Optoelectronic properties of three dimensional WO3 nanoshale and its application for UV sensing,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 1002–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. (1)

A. Blanc, L. Deimling, and N. Eisenreich, “UV- and IR-Signatures of Rocket Plumes,” Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 27(3), 185–189 (2002).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

S. J. Chang, T. M. Kuan, C. H. Ko, Y. K. Su, J. B. Webb, J. A. Bardwell, Y. Liu, H. Tang, W. J. Lin, Y. T. Cherng, and W. H. Lan, “Nitride-based 2DEG photodetectors with a large AC responsivity,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2023–2026 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. A. Miller, H. So, T. A. Heuser, and D. G. Senesky, “High-temperature Ultraviolet Photodetectors: A Review,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.07396 (2018).

J. L. Robichaud, “SiC optics for EUV, UV, and visible space missions,” in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation (International Society for Optics and Photonics2003), pp. 39–50.

C. Silvestri, P. Picciafoco, B. Morana, F. Santagata, G. Q. Zhang, and P. M. Sarro, “Electro-thermal simulation and characterization of vertically aligned CNTs directly grown on a suspended microhoplate for thermal management applications,” Ieee Sensor (2014).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the cross-section of the AlGaN/GaN UV photodetector.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The fabricated AlGaN/GaN UV photodetector (a) Top optical micrograph; (b) SEM image of device structure; (c) EDS spectrum of gate surface of device.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. A schematic of the spectral response measurement setup.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measurement of the heating temperature at different applied voltages. The inset shows the temperature profile (infrared camera image) of the heated (4 V) AlGaN/GaN photodetector.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic illustration of the band diagram to describe the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure photodetector with WO3 layer, Ef and dashed line denote the Femi level.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Transient photocurrent response (a) and Normalized transient photocurrent response (b) of suspended AlGaN/GaN photodetector at various applied micro-heater voltages (Vmicro-heater=0 V, 2 V, 4 V). Normalized photocurrent values: 0% is dark and 100% is maximum photocurrent under 240 nm illumination. The measured decay time and temperature of membrane at various micro-heater voltages are shown in (c). (d) Arrhenius plot of the PPC decay time constant at different temperatures.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The measured spectral response of AlGaN/GaN HEMT photodetector at VDS=0.5 V, VH=4 V.

Equations (2)

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PDCR =  I p  -  I d I d
τ = τ 0 e ( Δ E / K T )

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