Abstract

The optical properties of thickly coated soot particles are sensitive to the chemical composition, thus to the refractive index of the coating material. For 58 differently sized coated soot aggregates the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) and the depolarisation ratio are computed at a wavelength of 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm for two different coating materials: a toluene-based coating and a sulphate coating. Additionally the Ångström exponents between 355 nm and 532 nm as well as between 532 nm and 1064 nm are calculated. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio is found to allow a distinction between the coating materials at all three wavelengths, and the depolarisation ratio allows for a distinction at 355 and 532 nm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

L. Janicka and I. S. Stachlewska, “Properties of biomass burning aerosol mixtures derived at fine temporal and spatial scales from raman lidar measurements: Part i optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2019, 1–46 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Hu, P. Goloub, I. Veselovskii, J.-A. Bravo-Aranda, I. E. Popovici, T. Podvin, M. Haeffelin, A. Lopatin, O. Dubovik, C. Pietras, X. Huang, B. Torres, and C. Chen, “Long-range-transported canadian smoke plumes in the lower stratosphere over northern france,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(2), 1173–1193 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Ishimoto, R. Kudo, and K. Adachi, “A shape model of internally mixed soot particles derived from artificial surface tension,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(1), 107–118 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

F. Kanngießer and M. Kahnert, “Calculation of optical properties of light-absorbing carbon with weakly absorbing coating: A model with tunable transition from film-coating to spherical-shell coating,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 216, 17–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering and radiative properties of morphologically complex carbonaceous aerosols: A systematic modeling study,” Remote Sens. 10(10), 1634 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, A. H. Omar, J. L. Tackett, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, L. R. Poole, M. C. Pitts, J. Kar, and B. E. Magill, “The calipso version 4 automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(11), 6107–6135 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Pei, M. Hallquist, A. C. Eriksson, J. Pagels, N. M. Donahue, T. Mentel, B. Svenningsson, W. Brune, and R. K. Pathak, “Morphological transformation of soot: investigation of microphysical processes during the condensation of sulfuric acid and limonene ozonolysis product vapors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(13), 9845–9860 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Haarig, A. Ansmann, H. Baars, C. Jimenez, I. Veselovskii, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, “Depolarization and lidar ratios at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and microphysical properties of aged tropospheric and stratospheric canadian wildfire smoke,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 11847–11861 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

P. Ortiz-Amezcua, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, J. A. Benavent-Oltra, C. Böckmann, S. Samaras, I. S. Stachlewska, Ł. Janicka, H. Baars, S. Bohlmann, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Microphysical characterization of long-range transported biomass burning particles from north america at three earlinet stations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(9), 5931–5946 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Janicka, I. S. Stachlewska, I. Veselovskii, and H. Baars, “Temporal variations in optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol derived from daytime raman lidar observations over warsaw, poland,” Atmos. Environ. 169, 162–174 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kahnert, “Optical properties of black carbon aerosols encapsulated in a shell of sulfate: comparison of the closed cell model with a coated aggregate model,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24579–24593 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, and L. Liu, “Linear depolarization of lidar returns by aged smoke particles,” Appl. Opt. 55(35), 9968 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Giannakaki, P. G. van Zyl, D. Müller, D. Balis, and M. Komppula, “Optical and microphysical characterization of aerosol layers over south africa by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(13), 8109–8123 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Veselovskii, P. Goloub, T. Podvin, V. Bovchaliuk, Y. Derimian, P. Augustin, M. Fourmentin, D. Tanre, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, A. Diallo, T. Ndiaye, A. Kolgotin, and O. Dubovik, “Retrieval of optical and physical properties of african dust from multiwavelength raman lidar measurements during the shadow campaign in senegal,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(11), 7013–7028 (2016).
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M. Kahnert, “Numerical solutions of the macroscopic maxwell equations for scattering by non-spherical particles: A tutorial review Electromagnetic and light scattering by nonspherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 22–37 (2016). XV: Celebrating 150 years of Maxwell’s electromagnetics.
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2015 (5)

J. Yon, A. Bescond, and F. Liu, “On the radiative properties of soot aggregates part 1: Necking and overlapping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 162, 197–206 (2015).
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P. F. Liu, N. Abdelmalki, H.-M. Hung, Y. Wang, W. H. Brune, and S. T. Martin, “Ultraviolet and visible complex refractive indices of secondary organic material produced by photooxidation of the aromatic compounds toluene and m-xylene,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(3), 1435–1446 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosols using nasa langley airborne high spectral resolution lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G.-J. van Zadelhoff, “The earthcare satellite: The next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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M. Kahnert, “Modelling radiometric properties of inhomogeneous mineral dust particles: Applicability and limitations of effective medium theories,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 16–27 (2015).
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2014 (2)

S. N. Pereira, J. Preißler, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, A. M. Silva, and F. Wagner, “Forest fire smoke layers observed in the free troposphere over portugal with a multiwavelength raman lidar: Optical and microphysical properties,” Sci. World J. 2014, 421838 (2014).
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J. Gasteiger and V. Freudenthaler, “Benefit of depolarization ratio at λ = 1064 nm for the retrieval of the aerosol microphysics from lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(11), 3773–3781 (2014).
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2013 (6)

J. Preißler, F. Wagner, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, and A. M. Silva, “Two years of free-tropospheric aerosol layers observed over portugal by lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(9), 3676–3686 (2013).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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P. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. T. Martin, “Complex refractive indices of thin films of secondary organic materials by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 220 to 1200 nm,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(23), 13594–13601 (2013). PMID: 24191734.
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D. Nicolae, A. Nemuc, D. Müller, C. Talianu, J. Vasilescu, L. Belegante, and A. Kolgotin, “Characterization of fresh and aged biomass burning events using multiwavelength raman lidar and mass spectrometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(7), 2956–2965 (2013).
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M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and H. Lindqvist, “Models for integrated and differential scattering optical properties of encapsulated light absorbing carbon aggregates,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7974–7993 (2013).
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S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2122 (2013).
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2012 (2)

H. Baars, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, B. Heese, D. Müller, P. Artaxo, M. Paixao, T. Pauliquevis, and R. Souza, “Aerosol profiling with lidar in the amazon basin during the wet and dry season,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D21), D21201 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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2011 (6)

S. C. Anenberg, K. Talgo, S. Arunachalam, P. Dolwick, C. Jang, and J. J. West, “Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7253–7267 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus B 63(4), 725–741 (2011).
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M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code adda: Capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(13), 2234–2247 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements during samum 2,” Tellus B 63(4), 706–724 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Tesche, S. Gross, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization raman lidar at cape verde,” Tellus B 63(4), 649–676 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Müller, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, F. Navas-Guzmán, D. Pérez-Ramírez, and F. J. Olmo, “Optical and microphysical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol retrieved by raman lidar, and star-and sun-photometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(1), L01807 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D21), D21203 (2010).
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K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of soot aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(A9), D15206 (2010).
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P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, P. F. DeCarlo, J. L. Jimenez, J. M. Livingston, J. Redemann, O. Dubovik, and A. Strawa, “Absorption angstrom exponent in aeronet and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(3), 1155–1169 (2010).
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2009 (4)

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The calipso automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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A. Ansmann, H. Baars, M. Tesche, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, T. Pauliquevis, and P. Artaxo, “Dust and smoke transport from africa to south america: Lidar profiling over cape verde and the amazon rainforest,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(11), L11802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, D. H. Shin, H. Lee, J. S. Jung, K. H. Lee, M. Cribb, Z. Li, and Y. J. Kim, “Optical and microphysical properties of severe haze and smoke aerosol measured by integrated remote sensing techniques in gwangju, korea,” Atmos. Environ. 43(4), 879–888 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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2008 (4)

A. Worringen, M. Ebert, T. Trautmann, S. Weinbruch, and G. Helas, “Optical properties of internally mixed ammonium sulfate and soot particles–a study of individual aerosol particles and ambient aerosol populations,” Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3835–3845 (2008).
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J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
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R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from mexico city,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(21), 6469–6481 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
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R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, P. B. Russell, J. Redemann, T. C. Bond, P. K. Quinn, and B. Sierau, “Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(23), 5937–5943 (2007).
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M. Yurkin and A. Hoekstra, “The discrete dipole approximation: An overview and recent developments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106(1-3), 558–589 (2007). IX Conference on Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Non-Spherical Particles.
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2006 (2)

D. W. Mackowski, “A simplified model to predict the effects of aggregation on the absorption properties of soot particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100(1-3), 237–249 (2006). VIII Conference on Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles.
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T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
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2005 (1)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged siberian and canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D17), D17201 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. Murayama, D. Müller, K. Wada, A. Shimizu, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Tsukamoto, “Characterization of asian dust and siberian smoke with multi-wavelength raman lidar over tokyo, japan in spring 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(23), L23103 (2004). L23103.
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T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. V. Hobbs, “Evidence that the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols is affected by organic carbon,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D21), D21208 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ace 2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259 (2002).
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Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2760–2767 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35(2), 648–687 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. Brasil, T. Farias, and M. Carvalho, “A recipe for image characterization of fractal-like aggregates,” J. Aerosol Sci. 30(10), 1379–1389 (1999).
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J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. Christopher, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, “Use of the ångstrom exponent to estimate the variability of optical and physical properties of aging smoke particles in brazil,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D22), 27473–27489 (1999).
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1998 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: An application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(3), 309–312 (1998).
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M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

C. M. Sorensen and G. C. Roberts, “The prefactor of fractal aggregates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186(2), 447–452 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Oh and C. Sorensen, “The effect of overlap between monomers on the determination of fractal cluster morphology,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 193(1), 17–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16831–16847 (1997).
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1996 (1)

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D18), 23365–23371 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 746–748 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 430(1880), 577–591 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abdelmalki, N.

P. F. Liu, N. Abdelmalki, H.-M. Hung, Y. Wang, W. H. Brune, and S. T. Martin, “Ultraviolet and visible complex refractive indices of secondary organic material produced by photooxidation of the aromatic compounds toluene and m-xylene,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(3), 1435–1446 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adachi, K.

H. Ishimoto, R. Kudo, and K. Adachi, “A shape model of internally mixed soot particles derived from artificial surface tension,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(1), 107–118 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of soot aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(A9), D15206 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from mexico city,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(21), 6469–6481 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aiken, A. C.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

P. Ortiz-Amezcua, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, J. A. Benavent-Oltra, C. Böckmann, S. Samaras, I. S. Stachlewska, Ł. Janicka, H. Baars, S. Bohlmann, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Microphysical characterization of long-range transported biomass burning particles from north america at three earlinet stations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(9), 5931–5946 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Müller, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, F. Navas-Guzmán, D. Pérez-Ramírez, and F. J. Olmo, “Optical and microphysical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol retrieved by raman lidar, and star-and sun-photometry,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(1), L01807 (2011).
[Crossref]

Althausen, D.

M. Haarig, A. Ansmann, H. Baars, C. Jimenez, I. Veselovskii, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, “Depolarization and lidar ratios at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and microphysical properties of aged tropospheric and stratospheric canadian wildfire smoke,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 11847–11861 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, B. Heese, D. Müller, P. Artaxo, M. Paixao, T. Pauliquevis, and R. Souza, “Aerosol profiling with lidar in the amazon basin during the wet and dry season,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D21), D21201 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements during samum 2,” Tellus B 63(4), 706–724 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Tesche, S. Gross, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization raman lidar at cape verde,” Tellus B 63(4), 649–676 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, H. Baars, M. Tesche, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, T. Pauliquevis, and P. Artaxo, “Dust and smoke transport from africa to south america: Lidar profiling over cape verde and the amazon rainforest,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(11), L11802 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged siberian and canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D17), D17201 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ace 2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anenberg, S. C.

S. C. Anenberg, K. Talgo, S. Arunachalam, P. Dolwick, C. Jang, and J. J. West, “Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7253–7267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ansmann, A.

M. Haarig, A. Ansmann, H. Baars, C. Jimenez, I. Veselovskii, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, “Depolarization and lidar ratios at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and microphysical properties of aged tropospheric and stratospheric canadian wildfire smoke,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 11847–11861 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, B. Heese, D. Müller, P. Artaxo, M. Paixao, T. Pauliquevis, and R. Souza, “Aerosol profiling with lidar in the amazon basin during the wet and dry season,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D21), D21201 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Tesche, S. Gross, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization raman lidar at cape verde,” Tellus B 63(4), 649–676 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements during samum 2,” Tellus B 63(4), 706–724 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, H. Baars, M. Tesche, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, T. Pauliquevis, and P. Artaxo, “Dust and smoke transport from africa to south america: Lidar profiling over cape verde and the amazon rainforest,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(11), L11802 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged siberian and canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D17), D17201 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ace 2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31(33), 7113–7131 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 746–748 (1990).
[Crossref]

Artaxo, P.

H. Baars, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, B. Heese, D. Müller, P. Artaxo, M. Paixao, T. Pauliquevis, and R. Souza, “Aerosol profiling with lidar in the amazon basin during the wet and dry season,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D21), D21201 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, H. Baars, M. Tesche, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, T. Pauliquevis, and P. Artaxo, “Dust and smoke transport from africa to south america: Lidar profiling over cape verde and the amazon rainforest,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(11), L11802 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arunachalam, S.

S. C. Anenberg, K. Talgo, S. Arunachalam, P. Dolwick, C. Jang, and J. J. West, “Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7253–7267 (2011).
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J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus B 63(4), 725–741 (2011).
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S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements during samum 2,” Tellus B 63(4), 706–724 (2011).
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M. Tesche, S. Gross, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization raman lidar at cape verde,” Tellus B 63(4), 649–676 (2011).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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Gasteiger, J.

J. Gasteiger and V. Freudenthaler, “Benefit of depolarization ratio at λ = 1064 nm for the retrieval of the aerosol microphysics from lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(11), 3773–3781 (2014).
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J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus B 63(4), 725–741 (2011).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2122 (2013).
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J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus B 63(4), 725–741 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements during samum 2,” Tellus B 63(4), 706–724 (2011).
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Gross, S.

M. Tesche, S. Gross, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization raman lidar at cape verde,” Tellus B 63(4), 649–676 (2011).
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Haarig, M.

M. Haarig, A. Ansmann, H. Baars, C. Jimenez, I. Veselovskii, R. Engelmann, and D. Althausen, “Depolarization and lidar ratios at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and microphysical properties of aged tropospheric and stratospheric canadian wildfire smoke,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 11847–11861 (2018).
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Haeffelin, M.

Q. Hu, P. Goloub, I. Veselovskii, J.-A. Bravo-Aranda, I. E. Popovici, T. Podvin, M. Haeffelin, A. Lopatin, O. Dubovik, C. Pietras, X. Huang, B. Torres, and C. Chen, “Long-range-transported canadian smoke plumes in the lower stratosphere over northern france,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(2), 1173–1193 (2019).
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S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosols using nasa langley airborne high spectral resolution lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
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S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosols using nasa langley airborne high spectral resolution lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
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X. Pei, M. Hallquist, A. C. Eriksson, J. Pagels, N. M. Donahue, T. Mentel, B. Svenningsson, W. Brune, and R. K. Pathak, “Morphological transformation of soot: investigation of microphysical processes during the condensation of sulfuric acid and limonene ozonolysis product vapors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(13), 9845–9860 (2018).
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M.-H. Kim, A. H. Omar, J. L. Tackett, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, L. R. Poole, M. C. Pitts, J. Kar, and B. E. Magill, “The calipso version 4 automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(11), 6107–6135 (2018).
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S. C. Anenberg, K. Talgo, S. Arunachalam, P. Dolwick, C. Jang, and J. J. West, “Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7253–7267 (2011).
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D. Nicolae, A. Nemuc, D. Müller, C. Talianu, J. Vasilescu, L. Belegante, and A. Kolgotin, “Characterization of fresh and aged biomass burning events using multiwavelength raman lidar and mass spectrometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(7), 2956–2965 (2013).
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I. Veselovskii, P. Goloub, T. Podvin, V. Bovchaliuk, Y. Derimian, P. Augustin, M. Fourmentin, D. Tanre, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, A. Diallo, T. Ndiaye, A. Kolgotin, and O. Dubovik, “Retrieval of optical and physical properties of african dust from multiwavelength raman lidar measurements during the shadow campaign in senegal,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(11), 7013–7028 (2016).
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I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D21), D21203 (2010).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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M.-H. Kim, A. H. Omar, J. L. Tackett, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, L. R. Poole, M. C. Pitts, J. Kar, and B. E. Magill, “The calipso version 4 automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(11), 6107–6135 (2018).
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M.-H. Kim, A. H. Omar, J. L. Tackett, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, L. R. Poole, M. C. Pitts, J. Kar, and B. E. Magill, “The calipso version 4 automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(11), 6107–6135 (2018).
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A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The calipso automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D21), D21203 (2010).
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D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
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D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged siberian and canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D17), D17201 (2005).
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A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ace 2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star-sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259 (2002).
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A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31(33), 7113–7131 (1992).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G.-J. van Zadelhoff, “The earthcare satellite: The next step forward in global measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, and radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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S. C. Anenberg, K. Talgo, S. Arunachalam, P. Dolwick, C. Jang, and J. J. West, “Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7253–7267 (2011).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16831–16847 (1997).
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I. Veselovskii, P. Goloub, T. Podvin, V. Bovchaliuk, Y. Derimian, P. Augustin, M. Fourmentin, D. Tanre, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, A. Diallo, T. Ndiaye, A. Kolgotin, and O. Dubovik, “Retrieval of optical and physical properties of african dust from multiwavelength raman lidar measurements during the shadow campaign in senegal,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(11), 7013–7028 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D21), D21203 (2010).
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J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus B 63(4), 725–741 (2011).
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S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and raman lidar measurements during samum 2,” Tellus B 63(4), 706–724 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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M.-H. Kim, A. H. Omar, J. L. Tackett, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, L. R. Poole, M. C. Pitts, J. Kar, and B. E. Magill, “The calipso version 4 automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(11), 6107–6135 (2018).
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A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The calipso automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during samum 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(D18), 23365–23371 (1996).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Example of a coated soot aggregate consisting of N=286 overlapping monomers as used in the calculations. The aggregate is shown in grey and the coating shell in yellow.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Linear depolarisation ratio (a–c) and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (d–f) for sulphate coating (red/light red) and toluene-based coating (blue/light blue) for 355 nm (a, d), 532 nm (b,e) and 1064 nm (c,f). The arithmetic mean over five different stochastic realisations of the aggregates is shown in red and blue, respectively. The shading indicate the range due to different stochastic realisations of the aggregate structure.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Backscattering ($C_{\mathrm {bak}}$, top), extinction ($C_{\mathrm {ext}}$, centre) and absorption cross section ($C_{\mathrm {abs}}$, bottom) of the coated aggregates for sulphate coating (red) and toluene-based coating (blue) in $\mu$m$^2$ (for $C_{\mathrm {ext}}$ and $C_{\mathrm {abs}}$) and $\mu$m$^2$sr$^{-1}$ (for $C_{\mathrm {bak}}$) at $\lambda =532\,$nm. Solid lines indicate the mean over the five different stochastic realisations and the shading the maximum uncertainty due to the different realisations of the stochastic geometries (The differences for the extinction and absorption cross section are too small to be distinguished from the mean).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. As Fig. 3, but for 355 nm (a,c,e) and 1064 nm (b,d,f).

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Morphological properties for the aggregates. Monomer radius, fractal prefactor and overlap factor are taken from [17], while the fractal dimension and the soot volume fraction are taken from [15].

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Table 2. Spectral dependence of the complex refractive indices used for the different materials

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Table 3. Calculated linear depolarisation ratio and extinction-to-backscatter-ratio for the two coating materials, and range of reported mean values from lidar field measurements, as well as range of reported extreme values (see Tables 5 and 6 for a more detailed overview of reported values and the corresponding references).

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Table 4. Calculated Ångström exponents of extinction, backscattering and extinction-to-backscatter-ratio between 355 and 532 nm and 532 and 1064 nm, and range of reported mean values from lidar field measurements, as well as range of reported extreme values (see Table 7 for a more detailed overview of reported values and the corresponding references).

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Table 5. Spectral values of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio reported from lidar field measurements. Type refers to the classification in the cited reference. Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) and (aged) smoke are assumed to refer to (coated) soot particles.

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Table 6. Spectral values of the linear depolarisation ratio reported from field measurements. Type refers to the classification in the cited reference. Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) and (aged) smoke are assumed to refer to (coated) soot particles.

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Table 7. Values for the extinction and backscattering and extinction-to-backscatter Ångström exponent reported from lidar field measurements. * indicates values not explicitly reported, but calculated from reported measurements. In [48] a different definition of the Ångström exponent was used the values thus have been changed accordingly by multiplying $-1$ to allow comparison.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N = k 0 ( R g a m o n ) D f
R g = 1 N i = 1 N | r i r c | 2
C o v = d p d i j d p
r v e , b a r e , p c = a m o n N 1 3
r v e , b a r e , o v = r v e , b a r e , p c ( 1 K o v ) 1 3
K o v = C o v 2 2 ( 3 C o v )
r v e , c o a t = r v e , b a r e , o v f v o l 1 3 ,
r v e , c o a t = a m o n ( N f v o l ( 1 C o v 2 2 ( 3 C o v ) ) ) 1 3
δ l = F 11 F 22 F 11 + F 22 | ϑ = 180
α = r m i n r m a x C e x t ( r ) n ( r ) d r ,
β = r m i n r m a x C s c a ( r ) F 11 ( r , 180 ) 4 π n ( r ) d r
n ( r ) = N 0 σ r 2 π exp ( ( ln r μ ) 2 2 σ 2 )
S p ( r ) = 4 π C e x t ( r ) C s c a ( r ) F 11 ( r ) | ϑ = 180
S p = α β
a ˚ x , λ 1 , λ 2 = ln ( x 1 / x 2 ) ln ( λ 2 / λ 1 )

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