Abstract

The spectral absorption coefficient of pure seawater (aw(λ)) in published studies differ significantly in the blue domain, yet the impacts of such discrepancies on the inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived from ocean color have been scarcely documented. In this study, we confirm that changes in aw(λ) may have significant impacts on retrieved IOPs in oligotrophic waters, especially for the phytoplankton absorption coefficient (aph(λ)). Two sets of aw(λ) data, aw_PF97 (Appl. Opt. 36, 8710, 1997) and aw_Lee15 (Appl. Opt. 54, 546, 2015), were selected for optical inversion analysis. It is found that aph(λ) retrieved with aw_Lee15 agree better with the in-situ measurements in oligotrophic waters. Further applications to satellite images show that the derived aph(λ) using aw_Lee15 can be up to 238% higher than the retrievals using aw_PF97 in the core zone of the subtropical ocean gyres. Given that aw_PF97 is commonly accepted as the “standard” aw(λ) by the ocean color community in the past decades, this study highlights the need and importance to update aw(λ) with aw_Lee15 for IOPs retrievals in oligotrophic waters.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2016 (4)

J. D. Mason, M. T. Cone, and E. S. Fry, “Ultraviolet (250–550 nm) absorption spectrum of pure water,” Appl. Opt. 55(25), 7163–7172 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, Z. Lee, and S. Shang, “A system to measure the data quality of spectral remote-sensing reflectance of aquatic environments,” J. Geophys. Res. 121(11), 8189–8207 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, M. S. Salama, F. Shen, and W. Verhoef, “Retrieval of the diffuse attenuation coefficient from GOCI images using the 2SeaColor model: A case study in the Yangtze Estuary,” Remote Sens. Environ. 175, 109–119 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Z. Lee, J. Marra, M. J. Perry, and M. Kahru, “Estimating oceanic primary productivity from ocean color remote sensing: A strategic assessment,” J. Mar. Syst. 149, 50–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, J. Wei, K. Voss, M. Lewis, A. Bricaud, and Y. Huot, “Hyperspectral absorption coefficient of “pure” seawater in the range of 350–550 nm inverted from remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 546–558 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, and Z. Lee, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, H. Bouman, and T. Platt, “The global distribution of phytoplankton size spectrum and size classes from their light-absorption spectra derived from satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 185–197 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. R. Moisan, T. A. H. Moisan, and M. A. Linkswiler, “An inverse modeling approach to estimating phytoplankton pigment concentrations from phytoplankton absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(C9), C09018 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. M. Dierssen, “Perspectives on empirical approaches for ocean color remote sensing of chlorophyll in a changing climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(40), 17073–17078 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, H. Claustre, and B. Gentili, “The most oligotrophic subtropical zones of the global ocean: similarities and differences in terms of chlorophyll and yellow substance,” Biogeosciences 7(10), 3139–3151 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. J. Polovina, E. A. Howell, and M. Abecassis, “Ocean's least productive waters are expanding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(3), L03618 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. J. Smyth, and R. G. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(1-3), 281–301 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical Modeling of the Upper Ocean in Relation to Its Biogenous Matter Content (Case-I Waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A Semianalytic Radiance Model of Ocean Color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abecassis, M.

J. J. Polovina, E. A. Howell, and M. Abecassis, “Ocean's least productive waters are expanding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(3), L03618 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, Z.

Aiken, J.

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. J. Smyth, and R. G. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R.

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, and Z. Lee, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A Semianalytic Radiance Model of Ocean Color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20(2), 177–184 (1981).
[Crossref]

Balch, W. M.

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barker, K.

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barlow, R. G.

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. J. Smyth, and R. G. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[Crossref]

Behrenfeld, M.

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bontempi, P. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

Boss, E. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bouman, H.

S. Roy, S. Sathyendranath, H. Bouman, and T. Platt, “The global distribution of phytoplankton size spectrum and size classes from their light-absorption spectra derived from satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 185–197 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brando, V. E.

Brewin, R.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

Z. Lee, J. Wei, K. Voss, M. Lewis, A. Bricaud, and Y. Huot, “Hyperspectral absorption coefficient of “pure” seawater in the range of 350–550 nm inverted from remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 546–558 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brotas, V.

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A Semianalytic Radiance Model of Ocean Color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A Semianalytic Radiance Model of Ocean Color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

Christian, J. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(1-3), 281–301 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A Semianalytic Radiance Model of Ocean Color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

A. Morel, H. Claustre, and B. Gentili, “The most oligotrophic subtropical zones of the global ocean: similarities and differences in terms of chlorophyll and yellow substance,” Biogeosciences 7(10), 3139–3151 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Optical properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(1), 217–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cone, M. T.

Dierssen, H. M.

D. A. Siegel, M. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. M. Dierssen, “Perspectives on empirical approaches for ocean color remote sensing of chlorophyll in a changing climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(40), 17073–17078 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doney, S. C.

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Taberner, M.

A. Valente, S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, M. Taberner, D. Antoine, R. Arnone, W. M. Balch, and K. Barker, “A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 8(1), 235–252 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Comparison of three spectral aw(λ) reported in the literature: aw_PF97 (black line, [9]), aw_Lee15 (red dots, [10]), and aw_Mason16 (magenta squares, [11]). The blue dashed and dotted lines, aligned to the right y-axis, represent the differences between aw_PF97 and that of aw_Lee15 and aw_Mason16, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Validation of Rrs(λ)-derived aph(410) and adg(410) from GIOP and QAAv6 and using aw_Lee15 and aw_PF97, respectively, for the oligotrophic subset of the Valente_16 dataset. The upper and lower panels present the results of the derived aph(410) and adg(410), respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Evaluation of the derived IOPs at three VIIRS bands by GIOP and QAA6 using aw_Lee15 and aw_PF97, respectively. The left two boxes in each subfigure represent the results of GIOP and the right two boxes for QAAv6. The upper and lower panels present the results of the derived aph(λ) and adg(λ), respectively. Calculations of the APDs were based on the same oligotrophic subset used in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Global distribution of derived aph(443) from VIIRS data using aw_Lee15 and aw_PF97 and the absolute percentage difference between the two derived aph(443). The left panel presents the results from GIOP while the right panel for QAAv6. The red box superimposed on panels (e) and (f) highlights the oligotrophic core zone in the North Atlantic Gyre, defined by Morel et al. [22], for statistical analysis in Table 1.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Same as Fig. 4, but for GIOP-derived adg(443) and bbp(443). The left panel presents the results for adg(443) and the right panel for bbp(443).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The impacts of aw_Mason16 on the derived IOPs at 410 nm compared to that of using aw_Lee15. Note that the derived IOPs using aw_PF97 were used as the reference to calculate the APD, and the same oligotrophic subset used in Fig. 2 was employed here.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The range (minimum - maximum) of derived IOPs and APD for the selected oligotrophic core zone in the North Atlantic Gyre, as highlighted in Fig. 4(e). The number in the brackets implies the median value.

Equations (2)

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MAPD = M e d i a n ( | 1 derived / measured | × 100 % )
A P D = | I O P L e e 15 I O P P F 97 | I O P P F 97 100 %