Abstract

ZnO nanocavities have advantage to working as optoelectrical nanodevices integrated on chip at high temperature owing to high exciton binding energy. In this work, a single inverted hexagonal ZnO pyramid (HZOP) nanolaser is fabricated successfully by reducing the defect with chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The optical leakage of HZOP is conquered by the inverted configuration to increase the refractive index contrast between ZnO pyramid and surrounding media. Helical whispering-gallery-like mode is proposed to dominate the lasing of HZOP nanolaser. All of the lasing peaks are found to exist at wavelength longer to the fluorescence emission of ZnO, which is ascribed to the large loss represented by the large imaginary part of ZnO refractive index at shorter wavelength. The threshold and linewidth are measured to be 5.27 mJ/cm2 and 0.27 nm, respectively. HZOP nanolaser is a new ultraviolet coherent light source to be integrated on chip at room temperature or higher temperature.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

Y. Mi, Z. X. Liu, Q. Y. Shang, X. X. Niu, J. Shi, S. Zhang, J. Chen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, R. Wang, X. H. Qiu, X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, and X. F. Liu, “Fabry-Perot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities,” Small 14, 1703136 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

X. F. Jiang, L. B. Shao, S. X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, M. Loncar, L. Yang, and Y. F. Xiao, “Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators,” Science 358(6361), 344–347 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Butler, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, and A. Neogi, “Hyperspectral Nonlinear Optical Light Generation from a Monolithic GaN Microcavity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600804 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. P. Huang, P. F. Zhang, E. Lin, P. Wang, M. W. Mei, Q. Y. Huang, J. Jiao, and Q. Zhao, “Fabrication and optically pumped lasing of plasmonic nanolaser with regular ZnO/GaN nanoheterojunction array,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 123, 605 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. C. Wang, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Chen, Z. Q. Liu, J. Ma, Z. Li, X. Y. Yi, H. J. Li, J. X. Wang, G. H. Wang, W. H. Zhu, and J. M. Li, “Optically pumped lasing with a Q-factor exceeding 6000 from wet-etched GaN micro-pyramids,” Opt. Lett. 42(15), 2976–2979 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

X. P. Huang, Y. L. Liu, P. Wang, K. Chen, and Q. Zhao, “Optically pumped lasing and electroluminescence in ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array devices,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 121, 1203 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

N. P. Dasgupta, J. W. Sun, C. Liu, S. Brittman, S. C. Andrews, J. Lim, H. W. Gao, R. X. Yan, and P. D. Yang, “25th Anniversary Article: Semiconductor Nanowires Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2137–2184 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. B. Shi, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. X. Xu, J. Dai, G. P. Zhu, G. Y. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. T. Li, and Z. L. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Khan, M. S. Hassan, H. S. Cho, A. Y. Polyakov, M. S. Khil, and I. H. Lee, “Facile low-temperature synthesis of ZnO nanopyramid and its application to photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye under UV irradiation,” Mater. Lett. 133, 224–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. C. Fan, K. M. Sreekanth, Z. Xie, S. L. Chang, and K. V. Rao, “p-Type ZnO materials: Theory, growth, properties and devices,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 58(6), 874–985 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Tailoring the Lasing Modes in Semiconductor Nanowire Cavities Using Intrinsic Self-Absorption,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, J. N. Yip, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Wavelength Tunable Single Nanowire Lasers Based on Surface Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Burstein-Moss Effect,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5336–5343 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23, 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, H. B. Lu, J. C. Li, Y. Wu, and Q. A. Fu, “Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of ZnO hexagonal pyramids by the thermal evaporation method,” Phys. E 43(1), 410–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods (vol 105, 013502, 2009),” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Li, T. Kawaharamura, T. Matsuda, H. Furuta, T. Hiramatsu, M. Furuta, and T. Hirao, “Intense Green Cathodoluminescence from Low-Temperature-Deposited ZnO Film with Fluted Hexagonal Cone Nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 091601 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging Single ZnO Vertical Nanowire Laser Cavities Using UV-laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Y. Kim, I. S. Lee, Y. S. Yeon, S. M. Park, and J. K. Song, “ZnO Nanoparticles with Hexagonal Cone, Hexagonal Plate, and Rod Shapes: Synthesis and Characterization,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 29(10), 1960–1964 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. X. Sun, Z. H. Chen, Q. J. Ren, K. Yu, L. H. Bai, W. H. Zhou, H. Xiong, Z. Q. Zhu, and X. C. Shen, “Direct observation of whispering gallery mode polaritons and their dispersion in a ZnO tapered microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 156403 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Karl, T. Beck, S. Li, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Q-factor and density of optical modes in pyramidal and cone-shaped GaAs microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231105 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

K. H. Tam, C. K. Cheung, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, C. C. Ling, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. M. Kwok, W. K. Chan, D. L. Phillips, L. Ding, and W. K. Ge, “Defects in ZnO nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(42), 20865–20871 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. S. Ramgir, I. S. Mulla, and V. K. Pillai, “Micropencils and microhexagonal cones of ZnO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3995–4001 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. B. Djurisic and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944–961 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

R. B. M. Cross, M. M. De Souza, and E. M. S. Narayanan, “A low temperature combination method for the production of ZnO nanowires,” Nanotechnology 16(10), 2188–2192 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. H. Han, G. Z. Wang, J. S. Jie, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Luo, T. I. Yuk, and J. G. Hou, “Controllable synthesis and optical properties of novel ZnO cone arrays via vapor transport at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2733–2738 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

H. C. Ong and G. T. Du, “The evolution of defect emissions in oxygen-deficient and -surplus ZnO thin films: the implication of different growth modes,” J. Cryst. Growth 265(3-4), 471–475 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Kong, Y. Ding, R. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, “Single-crystal nanorings formed by epitaxial self-coiling of polar nanobelts,” Science 303(5662), 1348–1351 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. S. Jie, G. Z. Wang, X. H. Han, Q. X. Yu, Y. Liao, G. P. Li, and J. G. Hou, “Indium-doped zinc oxide nanobelts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387(4-6), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (6)

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurisic, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Kong and Z. L. Wang, “Spontaneous polarization-induced nanohelixes, nanosprings, and nanorings of piezoelectric nanobelts,” Nano Lett. 3(12), 1625–1631 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liu, J. A. Zapien, Y. Yao, X. M. Meng, C. S. Lee, S. S. Fan, Y. Lifshitz, and S. T. Lee, “High-density, ordered ultraviolet light-emitting ZnO nanowire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 838–841 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. T. Ng, B. Chen, J. Li, J. E. Han, M. Meyyappan, J. Wu, S. X. Li, and E. E. Haller, “Optical properties of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires on m-sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2023–2025 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. H. Choy, E. S. Jang, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, and Y. W. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1911–1914 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Govender, D. S. Boyle, P. O’Brien, D. Binks, D. West, and D. Coleman, “Room-temperature lasing observed from ZnO nanocolumns grown by aqueous solution deposition,” Adv. Mater. 14(17), 1221–1224 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “The kinetics of the radiative and nonradiative processes in nanocrystalline ZnO particles upon photoexcitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(8), 1715–1723 (2000).
[Crossref]

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K. H. Tam, C. K. Cheung, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisic, C. C. Ling, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. M. Kwok, W. K. Chan, D. L. Phillips, L. Ding, and W. K. Ge, “Defects in ZnO nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(42), 20865–20871 (2006).
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K. Govender, D. S. Boyle, P. O’Brien, D. Binks, D. West, and D. Coleman, “Room-temperature lasing observed from ZnO nanocolumns grown by aqueous solution deposition,” Adv. Mater. 14(17), 1221–1224 (2002).
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M. T. Hill and M. C. Gather, “Advances in small lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 908–918 (2014).
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C. Y. Li, T. Kawaharamura, T. Matsuda, H. Furuta, T. Hiramatsu, M. Furuta, and T. Hirao, “Intense Green Cathodoluminescence from Low-Temperature-Deposited ZnO Film with Fluted Hexagonal Cone Nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 091601 (2009).
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C. Y. Li, T. Kawaharamura, T. Matsuda, H. Furuta, T. Hiramatsu, M. Furuta, and T. Hirao, “Intense Green Cathodoluminescence from Low-Temperature-Deposited ZnO Film with Fluted Hexagonal Cone Nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 091601 (2009).
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X. P. Huang, P. F. Zhang, E. Lin, P. Wang, M. W. Mei, Q. Y. Huang, J. Jiao, and Q. Zhao, “Fabrication and optically pumped lasing of plasmonic nanolaser with regular ZnO/GaN nanoheterojunction array,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 123, 605 (2017).
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X. P. Huang, Y. L. Liu, P. Wang, K. Chen, and Q. Zhao, “Optically pumped lasing and electroluminescence in ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array devices,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 121, 1203 (2015).
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K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, C. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(11), 7820–7824 (2000).
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C. X. Xu, J. Dai, G. P. Zhu, G. Y. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. T. Li, and Z. L. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 469–494 (2014).
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Y. Mi, Z. X. Liu, Q. Y. Shang, X. X. Niu, J. Shi, S. Zhang, J. Chen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, R. Wang, X. H. Qiu, X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, and X. F. Liu, “Fabry-Perot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities,” Small 14, 1703136 (2018).
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B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. B. Shi, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
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C. X. Xu, J. Dai, G. P. Zhu, G. Y. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. T. Li, and Z. L. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 469–494 (2014).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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Y. Mi, Z. X. Liu, Q. Y. Shang, X. X. Niu, J. Shi, S. Zhang, J. Chen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, R. Wang, X. H. Qiu, X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, and X. F. Liu, “Fabry-Perot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities,” Small 14, 1703136 (2018).
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X. F. Jiang, L. B. Shao, S. X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, M. Loncar, L. Yang, and Y. F. Xiao, “Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators,” Science 358(6361), 344–347 (2017).
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B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. B. Shi, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
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J. C. Fan, K. M. Sreekanth, Z. Xie, S. L. Chang, and K. V. Rao, “p-Type ZnO materials: Theory, growth, properties and devices,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 58(6), 874–985 (2013).
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L. X. Sun, Z. H. Chen, Q. J. Ren, K. Yu, L. H. Bai, W. H. Zhou, H. Xiong, Z. Q. Zhu, and X. C. Shen, “Direct observation of whispering gallery mode polaritons and their dispersion in a ZnO tapered microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 156403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Q. H.

X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Tailoring the Lasing Modes in Semiconductor Nanowire Cavities Using Intrinsic Self-Absorption,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1080–1085 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, J. N. Yip, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Wavelength Tunable Single Nanowire Lasers Based on Surface Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Burstein-Moss Effect,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5336–5343 (2013).
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C. X. Xu, J. Dai, G. P. Zhu, G. Y. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. T. Li, and Z. L. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 469–494 (2014).
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K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, C. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(11), 7820–7824 (2000).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, R. X.

N. P. Dasgupta, J. W. Sun, C. Liu, S. Brittman, S. C. Andrews, J. Lim, H. W. Gao, R. X. Yan, and P. D. Yang, “25th Anniversary Article: Semiconductor Nanowires Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2137–2184 (2014).
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Yang, H. Y.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
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Yang, L.

X. F. Jiang, L. B. Shao, S. X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, M. Loncar, L. Yang, and Y. F. Xiao, “Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators,” Science 358(6361), 344–347 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, P. D.

N. P. Dasgupta, J. W. Sun, C. Liu, S. Brittman, S. C. Andrews, J. Lim, H. W. Gao, R. X. Yan, and P. D. Yang, “25th Anniversary Article: Semiconductor Nanowires Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications,” Adv. Mater. 26, 2137–2184 (2014).
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D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
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D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging Single ZnO Vertical Nanowire Laser Cavities Using UV-laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

X. Y. Kong, Y. Ding, R. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, “Single-crystal nanorings formed by epitaxial self-coiling of polar nanobelts,” Science 303(5662), 1348–1351 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, K. C. Zeng, and W. Yang, “Optical resonance modes in GaN pyramid microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 763–765 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

C. H. Liu, J. A. Zapien, Y. Yao, X. M. Meng, C. S. Lee, S. S. Fan, Y. Lifshitz, and S. T. Lee, “High-density, ordered ultraviolet light-emitting ZnO nanowire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 838–841 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeon, Y. S.

S. Y. Kim, I. S. Lee, Y. S. Yeon, S. M. Park, and J. K. Song, “ZnO Nanoparticles with Hexagonal Cone, Hexagonal Plate, and Rod Shapes: Synthesis and Characterization,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 29(10), 1960–1964 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

X. F. Jiang, L. B. Shao, S. X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, M. Loncar, L. Yang, and Y. F. Xiao, “Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators,” Science 358(6361), 344–347 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yi, X. Y.

Yip, J. N.

X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, J. N. Yip, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Wavelength Tunable Single Nanowire Lasers Based on Surface Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Burstein-Moss Effect,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5336–5343 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, K.

L. X. Sun, Z. H. Chen, Q. J. Ren, K. Yu, L. H. Bai, W. H. Zhou, H. Xiong, Z. Q. Zhu, and X. C. Shen, “Direct observation of whispering gallery mode polaritons and their dispersion in a ZnO tapered microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 156403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q. X.

J. S. Jie, G. Z. Wang, X. H. Han, Q. X. Yu, Y. Liao, G. P. Li, and J. G. Hou, “Indium-doped zinc oxide nanobelts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387(4-6), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. F.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. C.

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. B. Shi, Q. H. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuk, T. I.

X. H. Han, G. Z. Wang, J. S. Jie, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Luo, T. I. Yuk, and J. G. Hou, “Controllable synthesis and optical properties of novel ZnO cone arrays via vapor transport at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2733–2738 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zapien, J. A.

C. H. Liu, J. A. Zapien, Y. Yao, X. M. Meng, C. S. Lee, S. S. Fan, Y. Lifshitz, and S. T. Lee, “High-density, ordered ultraviolet light-emitting ZnO nanowire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 838–841 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zeng, K. C.

H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, K. C. Zeng, and W. Yang, “Optical resonance modes in GaN pyramid microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 763–765 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P. F.

X. P. Huang, P. F. Zhang, E. Lin, P. Wang, M. W. Mei, Q. Y. Huang, J. Jiao, and Q. Zhao, “Fabrication and optically pumped lasing of plasmonic nanolaser with regular ZnO/GaN nanoheterojunction array,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 123, 605 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Mi, Z. X. Liu, Q. Y. Shang, X. X. Niu, J. Shi, S. Zhang, J. Chen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, R. Wang, X. H. Qiu, X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, and X. F. Liu, “Fabry-Perot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities,” Small 14, 1703136 (2018).
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X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, J. N. Yip, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Wavelength Tunable Single Nanowire Lasers Based on Surface Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Burstein-Moss Effect,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5336–5343 (2013).
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X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, Q. H. Xiong, and T. C. Sum, “Tailoring the Lasing Modes in Semiconductor Nanowire Cavities Using Intrinsic Self-Absorption,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1080–1085 (2013).
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Y. Mi, Z. X. Liu, Q. Y. Shang, X. X. Niu, J. Shi, S. Zhang, J. Chen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, R. Wang, X. H. Qiu, X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, and X. F. Liu, “Fabry-Perot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities,” Small 14, 1703136 (2018).
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X. F. Jiang, L. B. Shao, S. X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. H. Gong, M. Loncar, L. Yang, and Y. F. Xiao, “Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators,” Science 358(6361), 344–347 (2017).
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X. P. Huang, P. F. Zhang, E. Lin, P. Wang, M. W. Mei, Q. Y. Huang, J. Jiao, and Q. Zhao, “Fabrication and optically pumped lasing of plasmonic nanolaser with regular ZnO/GaN nanoheterojunction array,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 123, 605 (2017).
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C. X. Xu, J. Dai, G. P. Zhu, G. Y. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. T. Li, and Z. L. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8, 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Zhu, Z. Q.

L. X. Sun, Z. H. Chen, Q. J. Ren, K. Yu, L. H. Bai, W. H. Zhou, H. Xiong, Z. Q. Zhu, and X. C. Shen, “Direct observation of whispering gallery mode polaritons and their dispersion in a ZnO tapered microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 156403 (2008).
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[Crossref]

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Small (2)

Y. Mi, Z. X. Liu, Q. Y. Shang, X. X. Niu, J. Shi, S. Zhang, J. Chen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, R. Wang, X. H. Qiu, X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, and X. F. Liu, “Fabry-Perot Oscillation and Room Temperature Lasing in Perovskite Cube-Corner Pyramid Cavities,” Small 14, 1703136 (2018).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The morphology and optical property of the HZOP samples. (a) The SEM image of HZOP sample is taken from the perspective view. The inset is the SEM image of HZOP transferred to a silicon wafer with a tungsten needle. The lasing spectrum of whole sample is plotted with a white line. (b) The PL spectrum of a single HZOP is plotted with a white line. The background is the florescence image of a single HZOP. The scale bar presents 5 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The lasing performance of a single HZOP. (a) The map of the PL intensity as a function of the wavelength as x axis and the pump fluence as y axis. The florescence peak is marked with a white dashed line. (b) The plot of the relationship between PL intensity of HZOP and pump fluence is present with blue color half-circles. The plot of the relationship between FWHM and pump fluence is present with red half-circles. The data of spontaneous emission and stimulated emission are fitted with straight lines, respectively. The threshold is marked with a black dashed line.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The fluorescence images and spectra of a single HZOP pumped with various pump fluence. (a)–(d) are the fluorescence images of HZOP are taken with a CCD pumped with the pump fluence of 0.68 mJ/cm2, 2.70 mJ/cm2, 6.08 mJ/cm2 and 9.03 mJ/cm2, respectively. The corresponding PL spectrum is presented with white line in each corresponding image.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The refractive index of ZnO and the calculated spectrum of lasing modes. (a) is the refractive index of ZnO with the real part present with a black line and the imaginary part present with a red line. (b) is the calculated resonance spectrum of a single HZOP detected by an electric field monitor.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The distribution maps of the calculated electric power density along the cross sections of a single HZOP. (a), (f), (k) and (p) are the maps of the electric power density on the cross sections along X = 0 at the wavelength of 406.32 nm, 408.38 nm, 415.35 nm and 419.20 nm, respectively. (b)–(e) are the maps of the electric power density at the wavelength of 406.32 nm on the cross sections along Z=−80 nm, −250 nm, −435 nm and −705 nm, respectively. (g)–(j) are the maps of the electric power density at the wavelength of 408.38 nm on the cross sections along Z=−300 nm, −435 nm, −665 nm and −825 nm, respectively. (i)–(o) are the maps of electric power density at the wavelength of 415.35 nm on the cross sections along Z=−165 nm, −305 nm, −535 nm and −740 nm, respectively. (q)–(t) are the maps of the electric power density at wavelength of 419.20 nm on the cross sections along Z=−405 nm, −540 nm, −780 nm and −940 nm, respectively.

Equations (1)

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L = λ 2 Δ λ ( n λ d n d λ )