Abstract

Due to lack of the accommodation stimulus, an inherent drawback for the conventional glasses-free stereoscopic display is that precise depth cues for the human monocular vision is rent, which results in the well-known convergence-accommodation conflict for the human visual system. Here, a super multi-view light field display with the vertically-collimated programmable directional backlight (VC-PDB) and the light control module (LCM) is demonstrated. The VC-PDB and the LCM are used to form the super multi-view light field display with low crosstalk, which can provide precisely detectable accommodation depth for human monocular vision. Meanwhile, the VC-PDB cooperates with the refreshable liquid-crystal display panel to provide the convergence depth matching the accommodation depth. In addition, the proposed method of light field pick-up and reconstruction is implemented to ensure the perceived three dimensional (3D) images with accurate depth cues and correct geometric occlusion, and the eye tracker is used to enlarge the viewing angle of 3D images with smooth motion parallax. In the experiments, the reconstructed high quality fatigue-free 3D images can be perceived with the clear focus depth of 13 cm in the viewing angle of ± 20°, where 352 viewpoints with the viewpoint density of 1 mm−1 and the crosstalk of less than 6% are presented.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (4)

2018 (7)

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. He, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Zhou, and H. Liang, “Investigation on quantitative uniformity evaluation for directional backlight autostereoscopic displays,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9398–9408 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Ueno and T. Yasuhiro, “Super multi-view near-eye display to solve vergence-accommodation conflict,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30703–30715 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kakeya, “A Full-HD Super-Multiview Display with Time-Division Multiplexing Parallax Barrier,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 49(1), 259–262 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Stern, Y. Yitzhaky, and B. Javidi, “Perceivable light fields: matching the requirements between the human visual system and autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” Proc. IEEE 102(10), 1571–1587 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Son, C. H. Lee, O. O. Chernyshov, B. R. Lee, and S.-K. Kim, “A floating type holographic display,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20441–20451 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Yasuhiro, T. Kosuke, and N. Junya, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Takaki, “High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balram, N.

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, G.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brug, J.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, C. Y. Ma, and Y. P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. T.

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chernyshov, O. O.

Choi, S.

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, J. Yuan, F. C. Fan, C. C. Jiang, S. Choi, X. Sang, C. Lin, and D. Xu, “The modulation function and realizing method of holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27820–27826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chou, P. Y.

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. P. Wang, Z. Qin, C.-T. Huang, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lin, and Y. P. Huang, “Hybrid light field head-mounted display using time-multiplexed liquid crystal lens array for resolution enhancement,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1164–1177 (2019).
[Crossref]

Costner, K.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, F. C.

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, J. Yuan, F. C. Fan, C. C. Jiang, S. Choi, X. Sang, C. Lin, and D. Xu, “The modulation function and realizing method of holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27820–27826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gneiting, S.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Goodsell, J.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haymore, B.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, J.

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, P. Y.

Hua, H.

Huang, C. T.

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-T.

Huang, H.

Huang, S. H.

Huang, Y. P.

P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. P. Wang, Z. Qin, C.-T. Huang, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lin, and Y. P. Huang, “Hybrid light field head-mounted display using time-multiplexed liquid crystal lens array for resolution enhancement,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1164–1177 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, C. Y. Ma, and Y. P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

A. Stern, Y. Yitzhaky, and B. Javidi, “Perceivable light fields: matching the requirements between the human visual system and autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” Proc. IEEE 102(10), 1571–1587 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, C. C.

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, J. Yuan, F. C. Fan, C. C. Jiang, S. Choi, X. Sang, C. Lin, and D. Xu, “The modulation function and realizing method of holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27820–27826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Junya, N.

Kakeya, H.

H. Kakeya, “A Full-HD Super-Multiview Display with Time-Division Multiplexing Parallax Barrier,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 49(1), 259–262 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, E. S.

Kim, S.-K.

Kosuke, T.

Kurita, M.

Kvavle, J.

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. R.

Lee, C. H.

Lee, H. H.

Li, H.

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liang, H.

Lin, C.

Lin, S. F.

Lin, T. H.

Lindsey, M.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, C. Y.

Y. C. Chang, C. Y. Ma, and Y. P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Monk, A.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nago, N.

Nygaard, E.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ohara, R.

Okuyama, F.

Pearson, M.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peatross, J.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poon, T. C.

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Qaderi, K.

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. P. Wang, Z. Qin, C.-T. Huang, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lin, and Y. P. Huang, “Hybrid light field head-mounted display using time-multiplexed liquid crystal lens array for resolution enhancement,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1164–1177 (2019).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, J.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rogers, W.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, Y.

Sang, X.

Smalley, D.

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Smalley, D. E.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Son, J. Y.

Squire, K.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stern, A.

A. Stern, Y. Yitzhaky, and B. Javidi, “Perceivable light fields: matching the requirements between the human visual system and autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” Proc. IEEE 102(10), 1571–1587 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tran, T.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ueno, T.

Van Wagoner, J.

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. P.

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. Y.

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. P. Wang, Z. Qin, C.-T. Huang, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lin, and Y. P. Huang, “Hybrid light field head-mounted display using time-multiplexed liquid crystal lens array for resolution enhancement,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1164–1177 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xing, S.

Xu, D.

Yan, B.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yasuhiro, T.

Yitzhaky, Y.

A. Stern, Y. Yitzhaky, and B. Javidi, “Perceivable light fields: matching the requirements between the human visual system and autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” Proc. IEEE 102(10), 1571–1587 (2014).
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Yu, C.

Yu, X.

Yuan, J.

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, J.

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J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. (2)

H. Kakeya, “A Full-HD Super-Multiview Display with Time-Division Multiplexing Parallax Barrier,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 49(1), 259–262 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, C. Y. Ma, and Y. P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. (1)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field displays,” IEEE Comput. Grap. Appl. 32(5), 6–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Inf. Disp. (1)

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Z. Qin, P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Huang, N. Balram, and Y. P. Huang, “Image formation modeling and analysis of near-eye light field displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 238–250 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, and J. Peatross, “A photophoretic-trap volumetric display,” Nature 553(7689), 486–490 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

X. Sang, F. C. Fan, S. Choi, C. C. Jiang, C. Yu, B. Yan, and W. Dou, “Three-dimensional display based on the holographic functional screen,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 091311 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (14)

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. He, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Zhou, and H. Liang, “Investigation on quantitative uniformity evaluation for directional backlight autostereoscopic displays,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9398–9408 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, J. Yuan, F. C. Fan, C. C. Jiang, S. Choi, X. Sang, C. Lin, and D. Xu, “The modulation function and realizing method of holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27820–27826 (2010).
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J. Y. Son, C. H. Lee, O. O. Chernyshov, B. R. Lee, and S.-K. Kim, “A floating type holographic display,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20441–20451 (2013).
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S. F. Lin and E. S. Kim, “Single SLM full-color holographic 3-D display based on sampling and selective frequency-filtering methods,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11389–11404 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multifocal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18508–18525 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Yasuhiro, T. Kosuke, and N. Junya, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Ueno and T. Yasuhiro, “Super multi-view near-eye display to solve vergence-accommodation conflict,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30703–30715 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Yasuhiro and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “effect of ray position sampling on the visual responses of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9343–9360 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chou, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. P. Wang, Z. Qin, C.-T. Huang, P. Y. Hsieh, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lin, and Y. P. Huang, “Hybrid light field head-mounted display using time-multiplexed liquid crystal lens array for resolution enhancement,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1164–1177 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “Generalized methods and strategies for modeling and optimizing the optics of 3D head-mounted light field displays,” Opt. Express 27(18), 25154–25171 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Photonics News (1)

D. Smalley, T. C. Poon, H. Gao, J. Kvavle, and K. Qaderi, “Volumetric Displays: Turning 3-D Inside-Out,” Opt. Photonics News 29(6), 26–33 (2018).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (2)

A. Stern, Y. Yitzhaky, and B. Javidi, “Perceivable light fields: matching the requirements between the human visual system and autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” Proc. IEEE 102(10), 1571–1587 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, “High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This video shows the 3D display result of the glaze horses in the viewing angle of ±20°. The motion parallax is continuous and smooth.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The conventional glasses-free stereoscopic display with low-density viewpoints. (b) The proposed light field display with high-density viewpoints.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The schematic diagram of the proposed super multi-view light field display system. (a) The system configurations of the display prototype. (b) The distribution of viewpoints for human eye. (c) The simulations of the radiation energy pattern of 8 viewpoint perspectives produced by the NCLA at viewing distance. (d)Diagram of the VD-HFS modulation light beams.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The schematic diagram of the proposed light field pick-up and reconstruction. (a) The retina-based light field pick-up method. (b) The novel image mapping method based on backward ray-tracing for light field reconstruction.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The schematic diagram of the vertical crosstalk between different viewpoints with the use of the conventional stray backlight and the LCM. (b) The schematic diagram of low crosstalk between different viewpoints with the use of the VC-PDB and the LCM.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulation of SSIM for different perspectives of the 3D scene. (a) Perspectives captured from different angles. (b) Simulation results of the light field display with the conventional stray backlight. (c) SSIM of the light field display with the conventional stray backlight. (d) Simulation results of the light field display with the VC-PDB. (e) SSIM of the light field display with the VC-PDB.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of the displayed 3D effects produced by two backlight methods with 32 viewpoints. (a) The 3D effect produced by the light field display with the conventional stray backlight and LCM. (b) The 3D effect produced by the proposed light field display.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Illustration of the proposed system for crosstalk measurements. (a) Measuring crosstalk configuration and diagram. (b) The luminance and crosstalk distributions for 8 viewpoints at the viewing plane.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Experimental results for glaze horses based on the proposed light field display prototype. (a) The arrangement of the experimental target scene. (b) The experimental results are captured at the angle of 0° when the camera focuses on the front, middle, and rear position, respectively. (c)The glaze horses are captured with multiple angles when the camera focuses on the LCD panel (see Visualization 1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The specific parameters of the optical system

Equations (7)

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Ω = 2 M arctan ( P 2 D )
V ρ = g N b D
[ m r i g h t m l e f t ] = [ 1 0 0 1 ] [ f l o o r [ T r i g h t ( N 1 ) Δ m ] f l o o r [ T l e f t ( N 1 ) Δ m ] ] + [ 1 1 ]
O m ( i , j ) = P m , l ( i , j )
[ l m ] = [ 1 1 0 0 ] [ N f l o o r ( d f l o o r ( d / d b b ) b / b N N ) ] + [ 0 0 0 1 ] [ 1 m ]
{ d = 3 × j + 3 × i × tan θ + k N = a × b × c
{ θ v e r t i c a l = 2 arctan W p 2 d θ h o r i z o n t a l = 2 arctan W l f 2 d