Abstract

Our measurement of the soft X-ray emission of Mo plasmas produced by picosecond Nd:YAG lasers emitting on the fundamental (1064 nm, 150 ps) and second (532 nm, 130 ps) harmonics is presented. The contrast in intensity between spectral peaks and the intensity outside them is lower for the second harmonic produced plasmas probably due to the presence more intense satellite emission and higher optical thickness. The measured spectra are absolutely calibrated and the observed output photon flux was (7 − 9) × 1013 photons/sr in the water-window (2.3 − 4.4 nm) spectral range for a laser energy of 160 mJ independent of laser wavelength. However, in the short wavelength range 1.5 − 2 nm, the emission using the second harmonic is strongly enhanced and is even higher than for the maximum energy of 220 mJ of the fundamental wavelength, so despite inevitable energy losses, laser wavelength conversion may lead to emission enhancement in certain spectral ranges. This enhancement is attributed to higher absorption of short wavelength laser light and higher charge state generation in denser plasmas.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

T. Helk, M. Zuerch, and C. Spielmann, “Perspective: Towards single shot time-resolved microscopy using short wavelength table-top light sources,” Struct. Dyn. 6(1), 010902 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

T. Tamura, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T. Hatano, T. Ejima, W. Jiang, C. Suzuki, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Selection of target elements for laser-produced plasma soft x-ray sources,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2042–2045 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Sheil, “Many-body quantum chaos and actinide ions: Testing the predictions of random matrix theory with high-Z ions,” Phys. Rev. A 98(2), 022521 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, J. Sheil, E. F. Barte, and H. Hara., T. Tamura, T. Gisuji, T. Higashiguchi, C. Suzuki, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, and J. Limpouch, “Soft x-ray spectral analysis of samarium plasmas produced by solid-state laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 51(21), 215001 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, J. Sheil, E. F. Barte, and H. Hara., T. Tamura, T. Gisuji, T. Higashiguchi, C. Suzuki, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, and J. Limpouch, “Soft x-ray spectral analysis of samarium plasmas produced by solid-state laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 51(21), 215001 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Nikl, M. Holec, M. Zeman, M. Kucharik, J. Limpouch, and S. Weber, “Macroscopic laser-plasma interaction under strong non-local transport conditions for coupled matter and radiation,” Matter Radiat. Extremes 3(3), 110–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. Vrba, M. Vrbova, M. Müller, K. Mann, D. Pánek, and T. Parkman, “Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range,” Phys. Plasmas 24(12), 123301 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Dinh, Y. Kondo, T. Tamura, Y. Ono, H. Hara, H. Oikawa, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ishino, M. Nishikino, T. Makimura, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, S. Ohta, K. Kitano, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, and T. Higashiguchi, “Evaluation of a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer for highly charged ion plasma emission in soft x-ray spectral region from 1 to 10 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123106 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T.-H. Dinh, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, W. Jiang, T. Makimura, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, T. Higashiguchi, and J. Limpouch, “Soft X-ray emission from molybdenum plasmas generated by dual laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 194103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

I. Mantouvalou, K. Witte, D. Grötzsch, M. Neitzel, S. Günther, J. Baumann, R. Jung, H. Stiel, B. Kanngießer, and W. Sandner, “High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(3), 035116 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, E. Long, O. Maguire, P. Sheridan, P. Hayden, F. O’Reilly, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, A. Endo, J. Limpouch, and G. O’Sullivan, “XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d − 4p and 3d − 4f transition arrays,” J. Phys. B 48(24), 245009 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. S. Harilal, G. V. Miloshevsky, T. Sizyuk, and A. Hassanein, “Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-a and He-a line emission from nitrogen plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 20(1), 013105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. A. Heltemes and G. A. Moses, “BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(12), 2629–2646 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 014103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Kumagai, Y. Tanaka, M. Murata, Y. Masuda, and T. Shinagawa, “Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at ‘water-window’ wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy,” J. Phys. 22(47), 474008 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. F. Gu, “The flexible atomic code,” Can. J. Phys. 86(5), 675–689 (2008).
[Crossref]

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, E. Landi, and Yu. Ralchenko, “Bright EUV lines emitted by highly ionized tungsten ions as diagnostic indicators of the tungsten transport in ITER core plasmas (Te > 7 keV),” Nucl. Fusion 48(4), 045004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

H.-K. Chung, W. Morgan, and R. Lee, “FLYCHK: an extension to the K-shell spectroscopy kinetics model FLY,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 81(1-4), 107–115 (2003).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

V. L. Jacobs, “Autoionization phenomena in plasma radiation processes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54(1-2), 195–205 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

I. Martinson, “The spectroscopy of highly ionised atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 52(2), 157–225 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. P. Matte, M. Lamoureuxc, C. Moller, R. Y. Yin, J. Delettrez, J. Virmont, and T. W. Johnston, “Non-Maxwellian electron distributions and continuum x-ray emission in inverse bremsstrahlung heated plasmas,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30(12), 1665–1689 (1988).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

P. Carroll and G. O’Sullivan, “Ground-state configurations of ionic species I through XVI for Z = 57 − 74 and the interpretation of 4d − 4f emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 25(1), 275–286 (1982).
[Crossref]

C. Garban-Labaune, E. Fabre, C. E. Max, R. Fabbro, F. Amiranoff, J. Virmont, M. Weinfeld, and A. Michard, “Effect of Laser Wavelength and Pulse Duration on Laser-Light Absorption and Back Reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(15), 1018–1021 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

C. Breton, C. De Michelis, M. Finkenthal, and M. Mattioli, “Ionization and Recombination Rate Coefficients of Highly Ionized Molybdenum Ions from Spectroscopy of Tokamak Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 110–113 (1978).
[Crossref]

M. Mansfield, N. Peacock, C. Smith, M. Hobby, and R. Cowan, “The XUV spectra of highly ionised molybdenum,” J. Phys. B 11(9), 1521–1544 (1978).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[Crossref]

Alessi, D.

Amiranoff, F.

C. Garban-Labaune, E. Fabre, C. E. Max, R. Fabbro, F. Amiranoff, J. Virmont, M. Weinfeld, and A. Michard, “Effect of Laser Wavelength and Pulse Duration on Laser-Light Absorption and Back Reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(15), 1018–1021 (1982).
[Crossref]

Arai, G.

T. Tamura, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T. Hatano, T. Ejima, W. Jiang, C. Suzuki, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Selection of target elements for laser-produced plasma soft x-ray sources,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2042–2045 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T.-H. Dinh, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, W. Jiang, T. Makimura, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, T. Higashiguchi, and J. Limpouch, “Soft X-ray emission from molybdenum plasmas generated by dual laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 194103 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barte, E. F.

R. Lokasani, J. Sheil, E. F. Barte, and H. Hara., T. Tamura, T. Gisuji, T. Higashiguchi, C. Suzuki, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, and J. Limpouch, “Soft x-ray spectral analysis of samarium plasmas produced by solid-state laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 51(21), 215001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bartnik, A.

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baumann, J.

I. Mantouvalou, K. Witte, D. Grötzsch, M. Neitzel, S. Günther, J. Baumann, R. Jung, H. Stiel, B. Kanngießer, and W. Sandner, “High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(3), 035116 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berrill, M.

Breton, C.

C. Breton, C. De Michelis, M. Finkenthal, and M. Mattioli, “Ionization and Recombination Rate Coefficients of Highly Ionized Molybdenum Ions from Spectroscopy of Tokamak Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 110–113 (1978).
[Crossref]

Burcklen, C.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capitanio, B.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carroll, P.

P. Carroll and G. O’Sullivan, “Ground-state configurations of ionic species I through XVI for Z = 57 − 74 and the interpretation of 4d − 4f emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 25(1), 275–286 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.-K.

H.-K. Chung, W. Morgan, and R. Lee, “FLYCHK: an extension to the K-shell spectroscopy kinetics model FLY,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 81(1-4), 107–115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Colombant, D.

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[Crossref]

Cowan, R.

M. Mansfield, N. Peacock, C. Smith, M. Hobby, and R. Cowan, “The XUV spectra of highly ionised molybdenum,” J. Phys. B 11(9), 1521–1544 (1978).
[Crossref]

Cowan, R. D.

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (University of California, 1981).

Czwartos, J.

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Michelis, C.

C. Breton, C. De Michelis, M. Finkenthal, and M. Mattioli, “Ionization and Recombination Rate Coefficients of Highly Ionized Molybdenum Ions from Spectroscopy of Tokamak Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 110–113 (1978).
[Crossref]

de Rossi, S.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Delettrez, J.

J. P. Matte, M. Lamoureuxc, C. Moller, R. Y. Yin, J. Delettrez, J. Virmont, and T. W. Johnston, “Non-Maxwellian electron distributions and continuum x-ray emission in inverse bremsstrahlung heated plasmas,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30(12), 1665–1689 (1988).
[Crossref]

Delmotte, F.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dennetiere, D.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

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T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 014103 (2012).
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G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
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H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
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T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 014103 (2012).
[Crossref]

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P. Vrba, M. Vrbova, M. Müller, K. Mann, D. Pánek, and T. Parkman, “Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range,” Phys. Plasmas 24(12), 123301 (2017).
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P. Vrba, M. Vrbova, M. Müller, K. Mann, D. Pánek, and T. Parkman, “Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range,” Phys. Plasmas 24(12), 123301 (2017).
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G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
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R. Lokasani, E. Long, O. Maguire, P. Sheridan, P. Hayden, F. O’Reilly, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, A. Endo, J. Limpouch, and G. O’Sullivan, “XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d − 4p and 3d − 4f transition arrays,” J. Phys. B 48(24), 245009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shinagawa, T.

H. Kumagai, Y. Tanaka, M. Murata, Y. Masuda, and T. Shinagawa, “Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at ‘water-window’ wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy,” J. Phys. 22(47), 474008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

Sizyuk, T.

S. S. Harilal, G. V. Miloshevsky, T. Sizyuk, and A. Hassanein, “Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-a and He-a line emission from nitrogen plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 20(1), 013105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, C.

M. Mansfield, N. Peacock, C. Smith, M. Hobby, and R. Cowan, “The XUV spectra of highly ionised molybdenum,” J. Phys. B 11(9), 1521–1544 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sokell, E.

R. Lokasani, E. Long, O. Maguire, P. Sheridan, P. Hayden, F. O’Reilly, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, A. Endo, J. Limpouch, and G. O’Sullivan, “XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d − 4p and 3d − 4f transition arrays,” J. Phys. B 48(24), 245009 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

T. Helk, M. Zuerch, and C. Spielmann, “Perspective: Towards single shot time-resolved microscopy using short wavelength table-top light sources,” Struct. Dyn. 6(1), 010902 (2019).
[Crossref]

Stiel, H.

I. Mantouvalou, K. Witte, D. Grötzsch, M. Neitzel, S. Günther, J. Baumann, R. Jung, H. Stiel, B. Kanngießer, and W. Sandner, “High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(3), 035116 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sudo, S.

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, C.

R. Lokasani, J. Sheil, E. F. Barte, and H. Hara., T. Tamura, T. Gisuji, T. Higashiguchi, C. Suzuki, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, and J. Limpouch, “Soft x-ray spectral analysis of samarium plasmas produced by solid-state laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 51(21), 215001 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tamura, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T. Hatano, T. Ejima, W. Jiang, C. Suzuki, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Selection of target elements for laser-produced plasma soft x-ray sources,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2042–2045 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tamura, N.

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tamura, T.

R. Lokasani, J. Sheil, E. F. Barte, and H. Hara., T. Tamura, T. Gisuji, T. Higashiguchi, C. Suzuki, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, and J. Limpouch, “Soft x-ray spectral analysis of samarium plasmas produced by solid-state laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 51(21), 215001 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tamura, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T. Hatano, T. Ejima, W. Jiang, C. Suzuki, G. O’Sullivan, and T. Higashiguchi, “Selection of target elements for laser-produced plasma soft x-ray sources,” Opt. Lett. 43(9), 2042–2045 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Dinh, Y. Kondo, T. Tamura, Y. Ono, H. Hara, H. Oikawa, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ishino, M. Nishikino, T. Makimura, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, S. Ohta, K. Kitano, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, and T. Higashiguchi, “Evaluation of a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer for highly charged ion plasma emission in soft x-ray spectral region from 1 to 10 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

H. Kumagai, Y. Tanaka, M. Murata, Y. Masuda, and T. Shinagawa, “Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at ‘water-window’ wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy,” J. Phys. 22(47), 474008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomasset, M.

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tonon, G. F.

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, A.

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Turnova, J.

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Virmont, J.

J. P. Matte, M. Lamoureuxc, C. Moller, R. Y. Yin, J. Delettrez, J. Virmont, and T. W. Johnston, “Non-Maxwellian electron distributions and continuum x-ray emission in inverse bremsstrahlung heated plasmas,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30(12), 1665–1689 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. Garban-Labaune, E. Fabre, C. E. Max, R. Fabbro, F. Amiranoff, J. Virmont, M. Weinfeld, and A. Michard, “Effect of Laser Wavelength and Pulse Duration on Laser-Light Absorption and Back Reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(15), 1018–1021 (1982).
[Crossref]

Vrba, P.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbova, M. Müller, K. Mann, D. Pánek, and T. Parkman, “Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range,” Phys. Plasmas 24(12), 123301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vrbova, M.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbova, M. Müller, K. Mann, D. Pánek, and T. Parkman, “Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range,” Phys. Plasmas 24(12), 123301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wachulak, P.

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weber, S.

J. Nikl, M. Holec, M. Zeman, M. Kucharik, J. Limpouch, and S. Weber, “Macroscopic laser-plasma interaction under strong non-local transport conditions for coupled matter and radiation,” Matter Radiat. Extremes 3(3), 110–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wegrzynski, L.

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weinfeld, M.

C. Garban-Labaune, E. Fabre, C. E. Max, R. Fabbro, F. Amiranoff, J. Virmont, M. Weinfeld, and A. Michard, “Effect of Laser Wavelength and Pulse Duration on Laser-Light Absorption and Back Reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(15), 1018–1021 (1982).
[Crossref]

White, E.

G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Witte, K.

I. Mantouvalou, K. Witte, D. Grötzsch, M. Neitzel, S. Günther, J. Baumann, R. Jung, H. Stiel, B. Kanngießer, and W. Sandner, “High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(3), 035116 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

T.-H. Dinh, Y. Kondo, T. Tamura, Y. Ono, H. Hara, H. Oikawa, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ishino, M. Nishikino, T. Makimura, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, S. Ohta, K. Kitano, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, and T. Higashiguchi, “Evaluation of a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer for highly charged ion plasma emission in soft x-ray spectral region from 1 to 10 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yatagai, T.

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, R. Y.

J. P. Matte, M. Lamoureuxc, C. Moller, R. Y. Yin, J. Delettrez, J. Virmont, and T. W. Johnston, “Non-Maxwellian electron distributions and continuum x-ray emission in inverse bremsstrahlung heated plasmas,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30(12), 1665–1689 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yugami, N.

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 014103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeman, M.

J. Nikl, M. Holec, M. Zeman, M. Kucharik, J. Limpouch, and S. Weber, “Macroscopic laser-plasma interaction under strong non-local transport conditions for coupled matter and radiation,” Matter Radiat. Extremes 3(3), 110–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zuerch, M.

T. Helk, M. Zuerch, and C. Spielmann, “Perspective: Towards single shot time-resolved microscopy using short wavelength table-top light sources,” Struct. Dyn. 6(1), 010902 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Ohashi, T. Higashiguchi, Y. Suzuki, G. Arai, Y. Otani, T. Yatagai, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, W. Jiang, A. Endo, H. A. Sakaue, D. Kato, I. Murakami, N. Tamura, S. Sudo, F. Koike, and C. Suzuki, “Quasi-Moseley’s law for strong narrow bandwidth soft x-ray sources containing higher charge-state ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 234107 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 014103 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T.-H. Dinh, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, W. Jiang, T. Makimura, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, T. Higashiguchi, and J. Limpouch, “Soft X-ray emission from molybdenum plasmas generated by dual laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 194103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

P. Wachulak, A. Torrisi, A. Mesfin, J. Czwartos, A. Bartnik, L. Wegrzynski, T. Fok, T. Parkman, S. Salacova, J. Turnova, M. Odstrcil, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution,” Appl. Sci. 7(6), 548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. F. Gu, “The flexible atomic code,” Can. J. Phys. 86(5), 675–689 (2008).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

T. A. Heltemes and G. A. Moses, “BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(12), 2629–2646 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Colombant and G. F. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[Crossref]

C. Burcklen, R. Soufli, D. Dennetiere, F. Polack, B. Capitanio, E. Gullikson, E. Meltchakov, M. Thomasset, A. Jérome, S. de Rossi, and F. Delmotte, “Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(12), 125307 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (1)

H. Kumagai, Y. Tanaka, M. Murata, Y. Masuda, and T. Shinagawa, “Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at ‘water-window’ wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy,” J. Phys. 22(47), 474008 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (3)

M. Mansfield, N. Peacock, C. Smith, M. Hobby, and R. Cowan, “The XUV spectra of highly ionised molybdenum,” J. Phys. B 11(9), 1521–1544 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, E. Long, O. Maguire, P. Sheridan, P. Hayden, F. O’Reilly, P. Dunne, E. Sokell, A. Endo, J. Limpouch, and G. O’Sullivan, “XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d − 4p and 3d − 4f transition arrays,” J. Phys. B 48(24), 245009 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Lokasani, J. Sheil, E. F. Barte, and H. Hara., T. Tamura, T. Gisuji, T. Higashiguchi, C. Suzuki, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, and J. Limpouch, “Soft x-ray spectral analysis of samarium plasmas produced by solid-state laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 51(21), 215001 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

V. L. Jacobs, “Autoionization phenomena in plasma radiation processes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54(1-2), 195–205 (1995).
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H.-K. Chung, W. Morgan, and R. Lee, “FLYCHK: an extension to the K-shell spectroscopy kinetics model FLY,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 81(1-4), 107–115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matter Radiat. Extremes (1)

J. Nikl, M. Holec, M. Zeman, M. Kucharik, J. Limpouch, and S. Weber, “Macroscopic laser-plasma interaction under strong non-local transport conditions for coupled matter and radiation,” Matter Radiat. Extremes 3(3), 110–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Fusion (1)

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, E. Landi, and Yu. Ralchenko, “Bright EUV lines emitted by highly ionized tungsten ions as diagnostic indicators of the tungsten transport in ITER core plasmas (Te > 7 keV),” Nucl. Fusion 48(4), 045004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (2)

S. S. Harilal, G. V. Miloshevsky, T. Sizyuk, and A. Hassanein, “Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-a and He-a line emission from nitrogen plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 20(1), 013105 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Vrba, M. Vrbova, M. Müller, K. Mann, D. Pánek, and T. Parkman, “Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range,” Phys. Plasmas 24(12), 123301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Sheil, “Many-body quantum chaos and actinide ions: Testing the predictions of random matrix theory with high-Z ions,” Phys. Rev. A 98(2), 022521 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Carroll and G. O’Sullivan, “Ground-state configurations of ionic species I through XVI for Z = 57 − 74 and the interpretation of 4d − 4f emission resonances in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 25(1), 275–286 (1982).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Breton, C. De Michelis, M. Finkenthal, and M. Mattioli, “Ionization and Recombination Rate Coefficients of Highly Ionized Molybdenum Ions from Spectroscopy of Tokamak Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(2), 110–113 (1978).
[Crossref]

C. Garban-Labaune, E. Fabre, C. E. Max, R. Fabbro, F. Amiranoff, J. Virmont, M. Weinfeld, and A. Michard, “Effect of Laser Wavelength and Pulse Duration on Laser-Light Absorption and Back Reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(15), 1018–1021 (1982).
[Crossref]

Phys. Scr. (1)

G. O’Sullivan, B. Li, P. Dunne, P. Hayden, D. Kilbane, R. Lokasani, E. Long, H. Ohashi, F. O’Reilly, J. Sheil, P. Sheridan, E. Sokell, C. Suzuki, E. White, and T. Higashiguchi, “Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging,” Phys. Scr. 90(5), 054002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion (1)

J. P. Matte, M. Lamoureuxc, C. Moller, R. Y. Yin, J. Delettrez, J. Virmont, and T. W. Johnston, “Non-Maxwellian electron distributions and continuum x-ray emission in inverse bremsstrahlung heated plasmas,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30(12), 1665–1689 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

I. Martinson, “The spectroscopy of highly ionised atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 52(2), 157–225 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. Mantouvalou, K. Witte, D. Grötzsch, M. Neitzel, S. Günther, J. Baumann, R. Jung, H. Stiel, B. Kanngießer, and W. Sandner, “High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(3), 035116 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Dinh, Y. Kondo, T. Tamura, Y. Ono, H. Hara, H. Oikawa, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ishino, M. Nishikino, T. Makimura, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, S. Ohta, K. Kitano, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, and T. Higashiguchi, “Evaluation of a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer for highly charged ion plasma emission in soft x-ray spectral region from 1 to 10 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Struct. Dyn. (1)

T. Helk, M. Zuerch, and C. Spielmann, “Perspective: Towards single shot time-resolved microscopy using short wavelength table-top light sources,” Struct. Dyn. 6(1), 010902 (2019).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

S. P. Lyon and J. D. Johnson, “SESAME: The Los Alamos National Laboratory equation of state database,” Tech. Rep. LA-UR-92-3407, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA, 1992.

R. D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (University of California, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Mo spectra from 150 and 130 ps, λ = 1064 and 532 nm LPP recorded in the wavelength region 1 − 6 nm at 160-mJ laser energy, corresponding to a laser intensity 8.5 × 1013 W/cm2. The spectrum at 220-mJ laser energy (laser intensity 1.1 × 1014 W/cm2) (red) at the laser wavelength of 1064 nm and the spectrum at 80-mJ (energy for the laser wavelength of 532 nm (blue). The contributions from different transitions come from 3d − 4p, 3d − 4f, 3p − 4s, and 3s − 4p transitions.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Compared measured spectra in 1 − 3 nm region and calculated emission spectra of Mo for 150 and 130 ps, 1064 and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser produced plasma at a power density of 8.5 × 1013 W/cm2. Normalized gA values with arbitrary units of possible transitions in the region of observation for Mo15+ − Mo35+ ions calculated by the FAC: 3p − 4d, 3p − 4s, 3s − 4p, 3d − 5p, 3d − 5f, 3d − 4f, and 3d − 4p transitions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Calculated mean ion charge $\bar{q}$ of Mo as a function of electron temperature assuming coronal equilibrium and electron density of 1 × 1021 and 4 × 1021 cm-3 for the fundamental wavelength and second harmonic wavelengths at a plasma scale length of 20 µm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Relative difference (I532 − I1064) / I1064 of spectral intensities emitted from plasmas produced by the 1064-nm (I1064) and 532-nm (I532) laser pulse irradiation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison of number of photons emitted in the water-window soft X-ray spectral region (2.3 − 4.4 nm) from Mo targets at different laser energies of 150-ps, 1064-nm and 130-ps, 532-nm lasers.

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