Abstract

We demonstrate a flexible full-color plate using Fabry-Perot (FP) resonators with two different types of silver nanostructures, a uniform nanofilm and a layer of nanoislands, for transmissive color elements. Two different nanostructures with deep-subwavelength features are selectively generated according to the layer thickness during vacuum deposition with no patterning process. In the nanofilm case, the primary optical mode accountable for generating the color shifts to blue from the original FP resonance while in the nanoislands case, it shifts to red so that a wide spectrum in the visible range is available through the phase discontinuity in the FP resonators. The peaks in the FP resonance shifted toward the opposite directions are attributed to the opposite signs of the phase retardations by a nanofilm and nanoislands. This approach paves a new way of constructing full-color elements for a variety of display devices and image storage systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (6)

S. D. Rezaei, R. J. H. Ng, Z. G. Dong, J. F. Ho, E. H. H. Koay, S. Ramakrishna, and J. K. W. Yang, “Wide-gamut plasmonic color palettes with constant subwavelength resolution,” ACS Nano 13(3), 3580–3588 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. M. Ito, A. H. Gibbons, D. T. Qin, D. Yamamoto, H. D. Jiang, D. Yamaguchi, K. Tanaka, and E. Sivaniah, “Structural colour using organized microfibrillation in glassy polymer films,” Nature 570(7761), 363–367 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, W. W. Liu, Z. C. Li, H. Cheng, D. Y. Choi, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrahighly saturated structural colors enhanced by multipolar-modulated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 19(7), 4221–4228 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kim, H. K. Choi, H. Lee, and S. H. Hong, “Solution-processable nanocrystal-based broadband Fabry-Perot absorber for reflective vivid color generation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(7), 7280–7287 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. B. Guo, J. Evans, N. Wang, and S. L. He, “Monolithic chip-scale structural color filters fabricated with simple UV lithography,” Opt. Express 27(15), 21646–21651 (2019).
[Crossref]

I.-H. Lee, G. Li, B. Y. Lee, S. U. Kim, B. Lee, S. H. Oh, and S.-D. Lee, “Selective photonic printing based on anisotropic Fabry-Perot resonators for dual-image holography and anti-counterfeiting,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24512–24523 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

J. Hou, M. Z. Li, and Y. L. Song, “Patterned colloidal photonic crystals,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 57(10), 2544–2553 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Duan and N. Liu, “Scanning plasmonic color display,” ACS Nano 12(8), 8817–8823 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Shaltout, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Ultrathin and multicolour optical cavities with embedded metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2673 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Q. Chen, X. Y. Duan, M. Matuschek, Y. M. Zhou, F. Neubrech, H. G. Duan, and N. Liu, “Dynamic color displays using stepwise cavity resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5555–5560 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. M. Yang, Y. Q. Chen, Y. M. Zhou, Y. S. Wang, P. Dai, X. P. Zhu, and H. G. Duan, “Microscopic interference full-color printing using grayscale-patterned Fabry-Perot resonance cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700029 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagasaki, M. Suzuki, and J. Takahara, “All-dielectric dual-color pixel with subwavelength resolution,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7500–7506 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Z. X. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. S. Gao, Z. H. Duan, S. M. Xiao, and Q. H. Song, “All-dielectric full-color printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4445–4452 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Zhu, C. Vannahme, E. Højlund-Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic colour laser printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 325–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. W. Chen, Y. Li, X. H. Zhang, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, X. L. Ma, Y. Q. Wang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Almeida, G. Shalem, and Y. Prior, “Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10367 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ji, C. H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. J. Zhang, T. H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

K.-T. Lee, M. Fukuda, S. Joglekar, and L. J. Guo, “Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(21), 5377–5382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T. Wei, W. Dong, K. Zhang, Y. Sun, X. Chen, and N. Dai, “Vapor-deposited amorphous metamaterials as visible near-perfect absorbers with random non-prefabricated metal nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4850 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yan, J. Dai, and M. Qiu, “Lithography-free broadband visible light absorber based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles,” J. Opt. 16(2), 025002 (2014).
[Crossref]

I.-H. Lee, S.-H. Lee, C. M. Keum, S. U. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Combinatorial color arrays based on optical micro-resonators in monolithic architecture,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15320–15327 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Vasic and R. Gajic, “Tunable Fabry-Perot resonators with embedded graphene from terahertz to near-infrared frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6253–6256 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, X. Zeng, S. Jiang, D. Ji, H. Song, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “A large-scale lithography-free metasurface with spectrally tunable super absorption,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5599–5605 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, R. T. Hill, Q. Wang, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Santbergen, T. Temple, R. Liang, A. Smets, R. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Frey, P. Parrein, J. Raby, C. Pellé, D. Hérault, M. Marty, and J. Michailos, “Color filters including infrared cut-off integrated on CMOS image sensor,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13073–13080 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

S. M. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. Drachev, I. C. Khoo, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable magnetic response of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033115 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

W. Ni, X. Kou, Z. Yang, and J. Wang, “Tailoring longitudinal surface plasmon wavelengths, scattering and absorption cross sections of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 677–686 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. K. Ghosh and T. Pal, “Interparticle coupling effect on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles: from theory to applications,” Chem. Rev. 107(11), 4797–4862 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Arsenault, D. P. Puzzo, I. Manners, and G. A. Ozin, “Photonic-crystal full-colour displays,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 468–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Link, M. Mohamed, and M. El-Sayed, “Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(16), 3073–3077 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Y.-Y. Yu, S.-S. Chang, C.-L. Lee, and C. C. Wang, “Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(34), 6661–6664 (1997).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The CIE colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Almeida, E.

E. Almeida, G. Shalem, and Y. Prior, “Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10367 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arsenault, A. C.

A. C. Arsenault, D. P. Puzzo, I. Manners, and G. A. Ozin, “Photonic-crystal full-colour displays,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 468–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. M. Shaltout, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Ultrathin and multicolour optical cavities with embedded metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Butun, S.

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-S.

Y.-Y. Yu, S.-S. Chang, C.-L. Lee, and C. C. Wang, “Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(34), 6661–6664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. W.

X. Li, L. W. Chen, Y. Li, X. H. Zhang, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, X. L. Ma, Y. Q. Wang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

W. Ji, C. H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. J. Zhang, T. H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25528 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Q.

B. Yang, W. W. Liu, Z. C. Li, H. Cheng, D. Y. Choi, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrahighly saturated structural colors enhanced by multipolar-modulated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 19(7), 4221–4228 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Zhang, T. Wei, W. Dong, K. Zhang, Y. Sun, X. Chen, and N. Dai, “Vapor-deposited amorphous metamaterials as visible near-perfect absorbers with random non-prefabricated metal nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4850 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Geometrical configuration of the FP resonator having a nanofilm and a layer of nanoislands inside a resonant cavity (RC). Here, the thicknesses of RC and two transreflective layers (TRLs) are denoted by d and tT, respectively. The nanofilm and nanoislands are placed in the middle plane (represented by a black dashed line) of RC. For a nanofilm, the thickness is t1. For nanoislands, the thickness, the width, and the periodicity are denoted by t2, w, and p, respectively. Here, n and ns denote the refractive indices of RC and a substrate, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Conceptual geometry for numerical simulations of the phase retardation on passing through a freestanding nanofilm and an array of nanoislands. (b) Simulated phase retardation as a function of the wavelength for a nanofilm (t1 = 8 nm) and an array of nanoislands (t2 = 8 nm, w = 30 nm, and p = 60 nm).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Optical transmittance through the FP resonator with a nanofilm in RC upon the incidence of the plane wave with a transverse magnetic (TM) polarization for t1 ranging from 0 to 15 nm. Here, the gray dotted and black long dashed lines represent the resonant wavelength in the reference and nanofilm cases, respectively. The electric field distribution for the x component in RC (b) at λFP = 550 nm (reference) and (c) at λFP = 456 nm with a 8 nm-thick nanofilm (corresponding to the red star in (a)). In (b) and (c), the black short dashed lines denote the intensity profiles along the z direction.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Optical transmittance through the FP resonator with nanoislands inside RC upon the incidence of TM-polarized plane wave for t2 = 8 nm and p = 60 nm. Here, the gray dotted line represents the reference while the blue and green dashed lines represent the cavity mode 1 and 2, respectively, when the nanoislands are present inside RC. The white dot-dashed line represents the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for free-standing nanoislands in the same dielectric material as RC. The electric field distribution for the x component in RC at (b) λFP = 441 nm and (c) λFP = 618 nm corresponding to the blue circle and green star in (a) (t2 = 8 nm and w = 18 nm), respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Numerically calculated color palette from the FP resonator with a nanofilm and nanoislands. The column enclosed by the white dashed line corresponds to the reference case (d = 110 nm) with no phase-shifting element. With respect to the reference, the column in the left side corresponds to the nanofilm case while the columns in the right side correspond to the case of nanoislands.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Scanning electron microscopic images of thermally deposited silver nanostructures with different values of the thickness assuming a uniform layer (dunif) of (a) 1.5 nm, (b) 2.5 nm, (c) 8 nm, and (d) 15 nm thick. (e), (f), (g), and (h) show the atomic force microscopic images corresponding to (a), (b), (c), and (d), respectively. (i) and (j) represent the average profiles of an individual nanoisland for dunif = 1.5 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. (k) and (l) represent the line profiles along the red solid lines in (g) and (h), respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Transmittance through the FP resonator (a) with a nanofilm of dunif = 8 nm and 15 nm thick (b) with nanoislands of dunit = 1.5 nm and 2.5 nm thick together with that of the reference where no nanostructures are present inside RC. Microscopic images of a color plate using the nanostructure-embedded FP resonators fabricated on a flexible substrate (c) before and (d) after bending. Here, the green color in background comes from the FP resonator without nanostructures (reference) whereas the red color for ‘SNU’ and the blue color for ‘MIPD’ are from the FP resonators with nanoislands of dunif = 2.5 nm and with a nanofilm of dunif = 8 nm, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Geometry for the numerical simulations of the phase retardations of waves on passing through a freestanding nanofilm and nanoislands. The phase retardations through both nanofilm and nanoislands for different values of w (12, 18, 24, and 30 nm) as a function of the wavelength in the case of (b) t1 = t2 = 3 nm, (c) t1 = t2 = 8 nm, and (d) t1 = t2 = 15 nm, respectively.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Transmittance through the FP resonator with nanoislands inside RC upon the incidence of TM-polarized plane wave for different values of w at (a) t2 = 3 nm, (b) t2 = 8 nm, and (c) t2 = 15 nm. In all cases, p is 60 nm. Here, the gray dotted line represents the reference while the blue and green dashed lines represent the cavity mode 1 and 2, respectively when the nanoislands are present inside RC. The white dot-dashed line represents the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for freestanding nanoislands in the same dielectric material.

Equations (1)

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4 π n d λ F P = 2 π m i Δ ϕ r , i j Δ ϕ t , j ,

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