Abstract

In this study, a 1.57-µm airborne double-pulse integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system was developed for CO2 measurements. This airborne IPDA LIDAR is integrated with a real-time frequency monitoring system, an integrated sensor for temperature, pressure, and humidity, an inertial navigation system, and a global positioning system. The random errors of the LIDAR system, which are caused by the signal noise, background noise, and detector noise, among other factors, are analyzed for different target reflectivities at a flight altitude of 8 km. After parametric optimization, the signal is unsaturated at high target reflectivity. Further, it can be detected at low target reflectivity by adjusting the detector gain. After the averaging of 148 shots, the relative random error (RRE) was 0.057% for a typical target reflectivity of 0.1 sr−1. Moreover, the systematic errors caused by the laser pulse energy, linewidth, spectral purity, and frequency drift, as well as the atmospheric parameters related to the flight experiments are also investigated. The relative system error (RSE) was 0.214% as determined based on an analysis of the systematic errors, which are primarily caused by the frequency drift. Two methods are proposed to reduce the RSE caused by the frequency drift. The first is the averaging of 148 shots, which can reduce the RSE to 0.096%. The other method involves calculating the integral weight function (IWF) using real-time frequency. However, this is a time-consuming and computationally intensive process. Hence, look-up tables for the absorption cross-section were created to overcome this issue, resulting in a decrease in the RSE to 0.096%. Using actual aircraft attitude angles, velocity, and position data from flight experiments, the relative errors (REs) in the IWF caused by the uncorrected integral path and Doppler shift were determined to be 0.273% and 0.479%, respectively. However, it was found that corrections to the integral path and Doppler shift based on accurate calculations of the IWF cause the airborne platform to turn in such a way that the REs are eliminated. Hence, this study confirms the validity of system parameters and provides a reference for other researchers who study similar IPDA LIDAR systems. Further, the sensitivity analysis of the airborne IPDA LIDAR system can provide a reference to future data inversions. Moreover, the proposed correction algorithms for the integral path and Doppler shift contribute to more accurate inversion results.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (4)

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tellier, C. Pierangelo, M. Wirth, F. Gibert, and F. Marnas, “Averaging bias correction for the future space-borne methane IPDA lidar mission MERLIN,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(10), 5865–5884 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Qiu, C. S. Yang, K. P. Wang, and Y. J. Zheng, “A High-Speed 2-bit/Cycle SAR ADC With Time-Domain Quantization,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. 26(10), 2175–2179 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell, “Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 119(7), 4365–4379 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave 1.57 mu m fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(12), 2874–2892 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. I. Disney, P. E. Lewis, M. Bouvet, A. Prieto-Blanco, and S. Hancock, “Quantifying Surface Reflectivity for Spaceborne Lidar via Two Independent Methods,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47(9), 3262–3271 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1983 (1)

1965 (1)

B. M. Oliver, “Thermal and Quantum Noise,” Proc. IEEE 53(5), 436–454 (1965).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Abshire, James B.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amediek, A.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, David F.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bi, D. C.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bouvet, M.

M. I. Disney, P. E. Lewis, M. Bouvet, A. Prieto-Blanco, and S. Hancock, “Quantifying Surface Reflectivity for Spaceborne Lidar via Two Independent Methods,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47(9), 3262–3271 (2009).
[Crossref]

Browell, E.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Browell, E. V.

Browell, Edward V.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Budenbender, C.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J.

B. Lin, A. R. Nehrir, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, M. D. Obland, J. Campbell, J. Dobler, B. Meadows, T. F. Fan, and S. Kooi, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements in cloudy conditions using intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar at 1.57 micron,” Opt. Express 23(11), A582–A593 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Caron, J.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. R.

Chen, W. B.

W. Y. Hu, J. Q. Liu, Y. D. Zhu, J. F. Dong, X. H. Ma, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, X. P. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Analysis of energy monitoring for a double-pulsed CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar at 1.57 mu m,” Appl. Opt. 58(3), 616–625 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Y. D. Zhu, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, Y. G. Sun, H. G. Zang, D. Liu, X. H. Ma, D. C. Bi, J. Q. Liu, X. L. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Double-pulse 1.57 µm integrated path differential absorption lidar ground validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7053–7058 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, S. G. Li, X. L. Zhu, J. Q. Liu, and W. B. Chen, “Study on spectral purity measurement of single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser based on long-range gas absorption cell,” Chin. J. Las.1–11 (2018).

Chen, X.

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, S. G. Li, X. L. Zhu, J. Q. Liu, and W. B. Chen, “Study on spectral purity measurement of single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser based on long-range gas absorption cell,” Chin. J. Las.1–11 (2018).

Choi, Y.

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave 1.57 mu m fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(12), 2874–2892 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Clissold, P.

P. Clissold and European Space Agency, “Six candidate Earth Explorer core missions: reports for assessment: A-SCOPE, BIOMASS, CoReH2O, FLEX, PREMIER, TRAQ,” in ESA Sp, (ESA Communications, 2008).

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collatz, G. J.

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Crisp, David

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Crowell, Sean M. R.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Davis, K.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Davis, K. J.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

DiGangi, J.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Disney, M. I.

M. I. Disney, P. E. Lewis, M. Bouvet, A. Prieto-Blanco, and S. Hancock, “Quantifying Surface Reflectivity for Spaceborne Lidar via Two Independent Methods,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47(9), 3262–3271 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dobler, J.

B. Lin, A. R. Nehrir, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, M. D. Obland, J. Campbell, J. Dobler, B. Meadows, T. F. Fan, and S. Kooi, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements in cloudy conditions using intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar at 1.57 micron,” Opt. Express 23(11), A582–A593 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Dobler, J. T.

Dong, J. F.

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Durand, Y.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ehret, G.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Erxleben, W.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Fan, T.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Fan, T. F.

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fix, A.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
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G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Flamant, P. H.

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerbig, C.

Gibert, F.

Y. Tellier, C. Pierangelo, M. Wirth, F. Gibert, and F. Marnas, “Averaging bias correction for the future space-borne methane IPDA lidar mission MERLIN,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(10), 5865–5884 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hancock, S.

M. I. Disney, P. E. Lewis, M. Bouvet, A. Prieto-Blanco, and S. Hancock, “Quantifying Surface Reflectivity for Spaceborne Lidar via Two Independent Methods,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47(9), 3262–3271 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haner, D. A.

Harrison, F. W.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hostetler, C.

Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, W. Y.

Hu, Y. X.

Hunt, W.

Hyon, Jason J.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Ismail, S.

Jacob, Joseph C.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jucks, Kenneth W.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Kavaya, M. J.

Kawa, S. R.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
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C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell, “Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 119(7), 4365–4379 (2014).
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S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
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Kiemle, C.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
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C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell, “Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 119(7), 4365–4379 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
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C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kochanov, R.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

Kooi, S.

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lemmerz, C.

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lewis, P. E.

M. I. Disney, P. E. Lewis, M. Bouvet, A. Prieto-Blanco, and S. Hancock, “Quantifying Surface Reflectivity for Spaceborne Lidar via Two Independent Methods,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47(9), 3262–3271 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, S. G.

W. Y. Hu, J. Q. Liu, Y. D. Zhu, J. F. Dong, X. H. Ma, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, X. P. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Analysis of energy monitoring for a double-pulsed CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar at 1.57 mu m,” Appl. Opt. 58(3), 616–625 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Y. D. Zhu, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, Y. G. Sun, H. G. Zang, D. Liu, X. H. Ma, D. C. Bi, J. Q. Liu, X. L. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Double-pulse 1.57 µm integrated path differential absorption lidar ground validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7053–7058 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, S. G. Li, X. L. Zhu, J. Q. Liu, and W. B. Chen, “Study on spectral purity measurement of single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser based on long-range gas absorption cell,” Chin. J. Las.1–11 (2018).

Lin, B.

Lin, Bing

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Liu, D.

Liu, J. Q.

W. Y. Hu, J. Q. Liu, Y. D. Zhu, J. F. Dong, X. H. Ma, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, X. P. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Analysis of energy monitoring for a double-pulsed CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar at 1.57 mu m,” Appl. Opt. 58(3), 616–625 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Y. D. Zhu, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, Y. G. Sun, H. G. Zang, D. Liu, X. H. Ma, D. C. Bi, J. Q. Liu, X. L. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Double-pulse 1.57 µm integrated path differential absorption lidar ground validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7053–7058 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, S. G. Li, X. L. Zhu, J. Q. Liu, and W. B. Chen, “Study on spectral purity measurement of single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser based on long-range gas absorption cell,” Chin. J. Las.1–11 (2018).

Liu, Z. Y.

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ma, X. H.

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
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Marnas, F.

Y. Tellier, C. Pierangelo, M. Wirth, F. Gibert, and F. Marnas, “Averaging bias correction for the future space-borne methane IPDA lidar mission MERLIN,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(10), 5865–5884 (2018).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Meadows, B.

Menzies, R. T.

Mezies, Robert T.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nikitin, A. V.

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Obland, M.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

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Orphal, J.

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S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Pal, S.

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Pierangelo, C.

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Quatrevalet, M.

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
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C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell, “Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 119(7), 4365–4379 (2014).
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A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
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C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
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Ramanathan, A. K.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
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Randolph Kawa, S.

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Refaat, T. F.

Reitebuch, O.

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
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Remus, R.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
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Schroder, T.

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
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Schwarzer, H.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
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Scott Zaccheo, T.

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

Singh, U. N.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. L.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y. G.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tellier, Y.

Y. Tellier, C. Pierangelo, M. Wirth, F. Gibert, and F. Marnas, “Averaging bias correction for the future space-borne methane IPDA lidar mission MERLIN,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(10), 5865–5884 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Treichel, R.

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, M.

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. P.

L. Qiu, C. S. Yang, K. P. Wang, and Y. J. Zheng, “A High-Speed 2-bit/Cycle SAR ADC With Time-Domain Quantization,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. 26(10), 2175–2179 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weaver, C. J.

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winker, D.

Wirth, M.

Y. Tellier, C. Pierangelo, M. Wirth, F. Gibert, and F. Marnas, “Averaging bias correction for the future space-borne methane IPDA lidar mission MERLIN,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(10), 5865–5884 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wuhrer, C.

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. S.

L. Qiu, C. S. Yang, K. P. Wang, and Y. J. Zheng, “A High-Speed 2-bit/Cycle SAR ADC With Time-Domain Quantization,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. 26(10), 2175–2179 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, M. Y. M.

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. R.

Zang, H. G.

Zhang, J. X.

Zheng, Y. J.

L. Qiu, C. S. Yang, K. P. Wang, and Y. J. Zheng, “A High-Speed 2-bit/Cycle SAR ADC With Time-Domain Quantization,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. 26(10), 2175–2179 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X. L.

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Y. D. Zhu, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, Y. G. Sun, H. G. Zang, D. Liu, X. H. Ma, D. C. Bi, J. Q. Liu, X. L. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Double-pulse 1.57 µm integrated path differential absorption lidar ground validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7053–7058 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, S. G. Li, X. L. Zhu, J. Q. Liu, and W. B. Chen, “Study on spectral purity measurement of single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser based on long-range gas absorption cell,” Chin. J. Las.1–11 (2018).

Zhu, X. P.

Zhu, Y. D.

Appl. Opt. (9)

T. F. Refaat, U. N. Singh, M. Petros, R. Remus, and J. R. Yu, “Self-calibration and laser energy monitor validations for a double-pulsed 2-mu m CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar application,” Appl. Opt. 54(24), 7240–7251 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Liu, W. Hunt, M. Vaughan, C. Hostetler, M. McGill, K. Powell, D. Winker, and Y. X. Hu, “Estimating random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 45(18), 4437–4447 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, C. Budenbender, M. Quatrevalet, C. Kiemle, and C. Gerbig, “CHARM-F-a new airborne integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for carbon dioxide and methane observations: measurement performance and quantification of strong point source emissions,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5182–5197 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave 1.57 mu m fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52(12), 2874–2892 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Hu, J. Q. Liu, Y. D. Zhu, J. F. Dong, X. H. Ma, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, X. P. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Analysis of energy monitoring for a double-pulsed CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar at 1.57 mu m,” Appl. Opt. 58(3), 616–625 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. F. Refaat, U. N. Singh, J. R. Yu, M. Petros, S. Ismail, M. J. Kavaya, and K. J. Davis, “Evaluation of an airborne triple-pulsed 2 mu m IPDA lidar for simultaneous and independent atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 54(6), 1387–1398 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. F. Refaat, U. N. Singh, J. R. Yu, M. Petros, R. Remus, and S. Ismail, “Double-pulse 2-mu m integrated path differential absorption lidar airborne validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement,” Appl. Opt. 55(15), 4232–4246 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Y. D. Zhu, S. G. Li, J. X. Zhang, Y. G. Sun, H. G. Zang, D. Liu, X. H. Ma, D. C. Bi, J. Q. Liu, X. L. Zhu, and W. B. Chen, “Double-pulse 1.57 µm integrated path differential absorption lidar ground validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7053–7058 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, and P. H. Flamant, “Target Reflectance Measurements for Calibration of Lidar Atmospheric Backscatter Data,” Appl. Opt. 22(17), 2619–2628 (1983).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (3)

T. Schroder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wuhrer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd: YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (4)

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 mu m in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(2), 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Tellier, C. Pierangelo, M. Wirth, F. Gibert, and F. Marnas, “Averaging bias correction for the future space-borne methane IPDA lidar mission MERLIN,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(10), 5865–5884 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, X. L. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. P. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. M. Yang, and J. DiGangi, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(4), 2001–2025 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(10), 2195–2211 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Chen, X. L. Zhu, S. G. Li, X. H. Ma, W. Xie, J. Q. Liu, W. B. Chen, and R. Zhu, “Frequency Stabilization of Pulsed Injection-Seeded OPO Based on Optical Heterodyne Technique,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(2), 024201 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing (1)

M. I. Disney, P. E. Lewis, M. Bouvet, A. Prieto-Blanco, and S. Hancock, “Quantifying Surface Reflectivity for Spaceborne Lidar via Two Independent Methods,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47(9), 3262–3271 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. (1)

L. Qiu, C. S. Yang, K. P. Wang, and Y. J. Zheng, “A High-Speed 2-bit/Cycle SAR ADC With Time-Domain Quantization,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst. 26(10), 2175–2179 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. (1)

C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell, “Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 119(7), 4365–4379 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. M. Oliver, “Thermal and Quantum Noise,” Proc. IEEE 53(5), 436–454 (1965).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Fix, C. Budenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical Parametric Oscillators and Amplifiers for Airborne and Spaceborne Active Remote Sensing of CO2 and CH4,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tellus B (1)

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus B 62(5), 759–769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

B. Lin, E. Browell, S. Kooi, J. Dobler, J. Campbell, T. Fan, S. Pal, C. O’Dell, M. Obland, W. Erxleben, D. McGregor, I. Gordon, R. Kochanov, J. DiGangi, K. Davis, and Y. Choi, “Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns,” 2017 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, (2017).

P. Clissold and European Space Agency, “Six candidate Earth Explorer core missions: reports for assessment: A-SCOPE, BIOMASS, CoReH2O, FLEX, PREMIER, TRAQ,” in ESA Sp, (ESA Communications, 2008).

S. Randolph Kawa, James B. Abshire, David F. Baker, Edward V. Browell, David Crisp, Sean M. R. Crowell, Jason J. Hyon, Joseph C. Jacob, Kenneth W. Jucks, Bing Lin, Robert T. Mezies, Lesley E. Ott, and T. Scott Zaccheo, “Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS): Final Report of the ASCENDS Ad Hoc Science Definition Team,” NASA/TP–2018-219034 (2018).

X. Chen, S. G. Li, X. L. Zhu, J. Q. Liu, and W. B. Chen, “Study on spectral purity measurement of single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser based on long-range gas absorption cell,” Chin. J. Las.1–11 (2018).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the airborne IPDA LIDAR system. OS, optical switch; FOS, fiber optical splitter; AOM, acoustic-optic modulator; FSS, frequency stabilization system; BSM, beam splitting mirror; BF1, band-pass filter 1; BF2, band-pass filter 2; IS, integrating sphere; CL, collimating lens; BA, beam attenuator; RM, reflecting mirror; ID, iris diaphragm; FL, focusing lens; APD, avalanche photodiode.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Superposition noise of detector noise and background noise measured by the IPDA LIDAR system in the absence of echo signal. (b) The distribution of the superposition noise and the Gaussian fitting.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Variations in absolute values (V) of (a) online and (b) offline echo voltages with hard target reflectivity and AOD.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Four signals received by the APD detector.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Single-shot double-path DAOD. (b) Averaged double-path DAOD for 148 shots. (c) Single-shot XCO2. (d) Averaged XCO2 for 148 shots in case of a 9000-shot sample taken in 5 min.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Temperature profile measured by the in-situ sensor during a spiral-down stage of airborne IPDA LIDAR measurements. (b) Changes in RSE of XCO2 with uncertainty in temperature.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Pressure profile measured by the in-situ sensor during a spiral-down stage of airborne IPDA LIDAR measurements. (b) Change in RSE of XCO2 with the pressure deviation ratio.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Humidity profile measured by the in-situ sensor during a spiral-down stage of airborne IPDA LIDAR measurements. (b) Changes in RSE of XCO2 with uncertainty in humidity.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Double-path DAOD varies greatly with deviation from the central frequency of the online laser. (b) Schematic of the frequency stabilization system. DAQ, digital-to-analog converter; PD, photodiode; IPC, industrial personal computer.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Drift between the frequency of OPO output laser and seeder laser frequency shifted by AOM. (b) Frequency deviation distribution of 9000 shots. (c) Corresponding double-path DAOD. (d) Double-path DAOD for averaged 148 shots.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Actual line shape of OPO output laser and model line shape for full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 40 MHz. (b) Modeled line shapes for FWHM values of 40 and 60 MHz.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) RSE of XCO2 at different laser linewidths. (b) RSE of XCO2 caused by variations in laser linewidth when FWHM is 60 MHz.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. (a) Spectral purity of airborne IPDA LIDAR system. (b) Energy distributions of two line profiles, offline position, and the variations in double OD.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. LIDAR transceiver system and INS/GPS system installation diagram.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Height and attitude angles measured during an airborne experiment.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. (a) RE caused by the uncorrected integral path. (b) RE caused by the installation error of INS owing to the integral path.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 17. (a) East speed ${\upsilon _x}$. (b) North speed ${\upsilon _y}$. (c) Upward speed ${\upsilon _z}$. (d) Frequency offset caused by the Doppler shift.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. (a) RE caused by Doppler shift. (b) RE caused by the installation error of INS because of the Doppler shift.

Tables (5)

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Table 1. Primary parameters of airborne double-pulse 1.57 µm IPDA LIDAR system

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Table 2. Relative and absolute errors in CO2 concentration as measured at typical target reflectivity

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Table 3. RSE and absolute errors in XCO2 for different filter bandwidths

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Table 4. Comparison of results obtained using the INS and laser electronic theodolite

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Table 5. Contributions of various error sources of airborne IPDA LIDAR instrument

Equations (22)

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P e ( λ , R A ) = η r O r A ( R A R G ) 2 E ( λ ) Δ t ( λ ) ρ T m exp [ τ C O 2 ( λ , R A ) ] ,
Δ τ C O 2 = 2 R G R A Δ σ C O 2 ( P ( r ) , T ( r ) ) N C O 2 ( r ) d r = ln P o f f E o n 0 P o n E o f f 0 ,
X C O 2 = Δ τ C O 2 2 × 10 6 I W F ,
I W F = R G R A N A P ( r ) Δ σ C O 2 ( P ( r ) , T ( r ) ) R T ( r ) ( 1 + X H 2 o ( r ) ) d r ,
V o n , o f f = M P o n , o f f i R L Δ t Δ t e f f ,
Δ t e f f = Δ t 2 + ( 1 3 Δ f ) 2 + ( 2 Δ h c ) 2 ,
δ X C O 2 X C O 2 δ Δ τ Δ τ ,
δ X C O 2 X C O 2 δ I W F I W F ,
Δ τ Δ ν = 2 × 10 6 × X C O 2 × R G R A N A P ( r ) ( σ ( ν o n + Δ ν ) σ ( ν o f f ) ) R T ( r ) ( 1 + X H 2 o ( r ) ) d r ,
L ( v ) = π 2 b 1 2 cosh ( 2 π 2 v b ) + 2 cos ( π a b ) ,
Δ τ e f f = log { 0 L ( v ) d v 0 L ( v ) exp [ 2 R G R A ( σ ( r , v ) σ ( r , v o f f ) ) N c o 2 ( r ) d r ] d v }
L ~ ( v ) = ( 1 P s p e c ) L b ( v ) + P s p e c L n ( v ) ,
L ~ ( v ) = ( 1 P s p e c ) L B ( v ) + P s p e c L n ( v ) ,
Δ τ e f f s = log { Δ B f 2 Δ B f 2 L ~ ( v ) d v Δ B f 2 Δ B f 2 L ~ ( v ) exp ( 2 R G R A [ σ ( r , v ) σ ( r , v o f f ) ] × N C O 2 ( r ) d r ) d v } ,
[ x S L y S L z S L ] = [ 0 0 ρ ] ,
[ x L H y L H z L H ] = R N [ x S L y S L z S L ] ,
[ x L H y L H z L H ] = ρ [ sin φ sin θ cos γ + cos φ sin γ sin φ sin γ cos φ sin θ cos γ cos θ cos γ ] .
I W F d = R G d R A P ( r ) N A ( σ ( v o n , r ) σ ( v o f f , r ) ) R T ( r ) ( 1 + X H 2 O ( r ) ) cos θ cos γ d r ,
υ L = ( x L H , y L H , z L H ) ( υ x , υ y , υ z ) x L H 2 + y L H 2 + z L H 2 .
Δ v = υ L λ = υ L v 0 c .
I W F f = R G d R A P ( r ) N A ( σ ( v o n + Δ v , r ) σ ( v o f f , r ) ) R T ( r ) ( 1 + X H 2 O ( r ) ) cos θ cos γ d r .
δ X C O 2 X C O 2 = i ( δ Δ τ i Δ τ i ) 2 + 1 I W F 2 j ( I W F υ j δ υ j ) 2 ,

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