Abstract

We demonstrate p-type SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) on a strained-silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) substrate. The sSOI system allows strain-balancing between the QWIP heterostructure with an average composition of Si0.7Ge0.3 and the substrate, and therefore lifts restrictions to the active material thickness faced by SiGe growth on silicon or silicon-on-insulator substrates. The realized sSOI QWIPs feature a responsivity peak at detection wavelengths around 6 µm, based on a transition between heavy-hole states. The fabricated devices have been thoroughly characterized and compared to equivalent material simultaneously grown on virtual Si0.7Ge0.3 substrates based on graded SiGe buffers. Responsivities of up to 3.6 mA/W are achieved by the sSOI QWIPs at 77 K, demonstrating the large potential of sSOI-based devices as components for a group-IV optoelectronic platform in the mid-infrared spectral region.

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. J. E. Ayers, “The measurement of threading dislocation densities in semiconductor crystals by X-ray diffraction,” J. Cryst. Growth 135(1-2), 71–77 (1994).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. T. Fromherz, E. Koppensteiner, M. Helm, G. Bauer, J. F. Nützel, and G. Abstreiter, “Hole energy levels and intersubband absorption in modulation-doped Si/Si1-xGex multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15073–15085 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  35. B. F. Levine, “Quantum-well infrared photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(8), R1–R81 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  37. P. Rauter, G. Mussler, D. Grützmacher, and T. Fromherz, “Tensile strained SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors based on a light-hole ground state,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211106 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (3)

P. Rauter, L. Spindlberger, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, J. Freund, and M. Brehm, “Room-Temperature Group-IV LED Based on Defect-Enhanced Ge Quantum Dots,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 431–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, N. Picqué, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 6–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Passoni, D. Gerace, L. O’Faolain, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing band-edge slow light in silicon-on-insulator waveguide gratings,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8470 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. Schatzl, F. Hackl, M. Glaser, P. Rauter, M. Brehm, L. Spindlberger, A. Simbula, M. Galli, T. Fromherz, and F. Schäffler, “Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 665–673 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Durmaz, P. Sookchoo, X. Cui, R. Jacobson, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “SiGe Nanomembrane Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1978–1985 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopy with Germanium Antennas on Silicon Substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-Based Photonic Integration Beyond the Telecommunication Wavelength Range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. C. S. Dumas, K. Gallacher, S. Rhead, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Ge/SiGe quantum confined Stark effect electro-absorption modulation with low voltage swing at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19284–19292 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Cecchi, E. Gatti, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, E. Müller Gubler, D. J. Paul, M. Guzzi, and G. Isella, “Thin SiGe virtual substrates for Ge heterostructures integration on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093502 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Rauter, G. Mussler, D. Grützmacher, and T. Fromherz, “Tensile strained SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors based on a light-hole ground state,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. A. Moram and M. E. Vickers, “X-ray diffraction of III-nitrides,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(3), 036502 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, C. Falub, D. Grützmacher, and G. Bauer, “SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors on pseudosubstrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081115 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, N. Q. Vinh, B. N. Murdin, J. P. Phillips, C. R. Pidgeon, L. Diehl, G. Dehlinger, and D. Grützmacher, “Direct monitoring of the excited state population in biased SiGe valence band quantum wells by femtosecond resolved photocurrent experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211111 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H. J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, L. Diehl, G. Dehlinger, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, and H. Schneider, “Voltage-tunable, two-band mid-infrared detection based on Si/SiGe quantum-cascade injector structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3879–3881 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Diehl, S. Menteşe, E. Müller, D. Grützmacher, H. Sigg, U. Gennser, I. Sagnes, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and J. Faist, “Electroluminescence from strain-compensated Si0.2Ge0.8/Si quantum-cascade structures based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4700–4702 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Kruck, M. Helm, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, J. F. Nützel, and G. Abstreiter, “Medium-wavelength, normal-incidence, p-type Si/SiGe quantum well infrared photodetector with background limited performance up to 85 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(22), 3372–3374 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

T. Fromherz, E. Koppensteiner, M. Helm, G. Bauer, J. F. Nützel, and G. Abstreiter, “Hole energy levels and intersubband absorption in modulation-doped Si/Si1-xGex multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15073–15085 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. E. Ayers, “The measurement of threading dislocation densities in semiconductor crystals by X-ray diffraction,” J. Cryst. Growth 135(1-2), 71–77 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. F. Levine, “Quantum-well infrared photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(8), R1–R81 (1993).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and electrical properties of heavily doped Ge-Si alloys up to 1300°K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

P. Kruck, M. Helm, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, J. F. Nützel, and G. Abstreiter, “Medium-wavelength, normal-incidence, p-type Si/SiGe quantum well infrared photodetector with background limited performance up to 85 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(22), 3372–3374 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Fromherz, E. Koppensteiner, M. Helm, G. Bauer, J. F. Nützel, and G. Abstreiter, “Hole energy levels and intersubband absorption in modulation-doped Si/Si1-xGex multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15073–15085 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Anantha, P.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Antoniadis, D. A.

T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ayers, J. E.

J. E. Ayers, “The measurement of threading dislocation densities in semiconductor crystals by X-ray diffraction,” J. Cryst. Growth 135(1-2), 71–77 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopy with Germanium Antennas on Silicon Substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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P. Rauter, L. Spindlberger, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, J. Freund, and M. Brehm, “Room-Temperature Group-IV LED Based on Defect-Enhanced Ge Quantum Dots,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 431–438 (2018).
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M. Schatzl, F. Hackl, M. Glaser, P. Rauter, M. Brehm, L. Spindlberger, A. Simbula, M. Galli, T. Fromherz, and F. Schäffler, “Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 665–673 (2017).
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M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
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P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopy with Germanium Antennas on Silicon Substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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L. Diehl, S. Menteşe, E. Müller, D. Grützmacher, H. Sigg, U. Gennser, I. Sagnes, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and J. Faist, “Electroluminescence from strain-compensated Si0.2Ge0.8/Si quantum-cascade structures based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4700–4702 (2002).
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Carlin, J. A.

T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
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Chen, C. P.

Chen, X.

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T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
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S. Cecchi, E. Gatti, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, E. Müller Gubler, D. J. Paul, M. Guzzi, and G. Isella, “Thin SiGe virtual substrates for Ge heterostructures integration on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093502 (2014).
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T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
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G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-Based Photonic Integration Beyond the Telecommunication Wavelength Range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
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P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, L. Diehl, G. Dehlinger, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, and H. Schneider, “Voltage-tunable, two-band mid-infrared detection based on Si/SiGe quantum-cascade injector structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3879–3881 (2003).
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G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
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Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, N. Q. Vinh, B. N. Murdin, J. P. Phillips, C. R. Pidgeon, L. Diehl, G. Dehlinger, and D. Grützmacher, “Direct monitoring of the excited state population in biased SiGe valence band quantum wells by femtosecond resolved photocurrent experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211111 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, L. Diehl, G. Dehlinger, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, and H. Schneider, “Voltage-tunable, two-band mid-infrared detection based on Si/SiGe quantum-cascade injector structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3879–3881 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Diehl, S. Menteşe, E. Müller, D. Grützmacher, H. Sigg, U. Gennser, I. Sagnes, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and J. Faist, “Electroluminescence from strain-compensated Si0.2Ge0.8/Si quantum-cascade structures based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4700–4702 (2002).
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G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
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J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and electrical properties of heavily doped Ge-Si alloys up to 1300°K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
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Dumas, D. C. S.

Durmaz, H.

H. Durmaz, P. Sookchoo, X. Cui, R. Jacobson, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “SiGe Nanomembrane Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1978–1985 (2016).
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J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and electrical properties of heavily doped Ge-Si alloys up to 1300°K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
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Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
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Ensslin, K.

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
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Erdtmann, M.

T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
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Faist, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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L. Diehl, S. Menteşe, E. Müller, D. Grützmacher, H. Sigg, U. Gennser, I. Sagnes, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and J. Faist, “Electroluminescence from strain-compensated Si0.2Ge0.8/Si quantum-cascade structures based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4700–4702 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Falub, C.

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, C. Falub, D. Grützmacher, and G. Bauer, “SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors on pseudosubstrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081115 (2009).
[Crossref]

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T. A. Langdo, M. T. Currie, Z. Y. Cheng, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Erdtmann, G. Braithwaite, C. W. Leitz, C. J. Vineis, J. A. Carlin, A. Lochtefeld, M. T. Bulsara, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, and M. Somerville, “Strained Si on insulator technology: From materials to devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1357–1367 (2004).
[Crossref]

Freund, J.

P. Rauter, L. Spindlberger, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, J. Freund, and M. Brehm, “Room-Temperature Group-IV LED Based on Defect-Enhanced Ge Quantum Dots,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 431–438 (2018).
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Frigerio, J.

V. Vakarin, W. N. Ye, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, G. Isella, L. Vivien, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium mid-infrared polarization rotator with mode hybridization flattening,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9838–9847 (2019).
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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopy with Germanium Antennas on Silicon Substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Biagioni, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, E. Calandrini, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and M. Ortolani, “Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093789 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Cecchi, E. Gatti, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, E. Müller Gubler, D. J. Paul, M. Guzzi, and G. Isella, “Thin SiGe virtual substrates for Ge heterostructures integration on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fromherz, T.

P. Rauter, L. Spindlberger, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, J. Freund, and M. Brehm, “Room-Temperature Group-IV LED Based on Defect-Enhanced Ge Quantum Dots,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 431–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Schatzl, F. Hackl, M. Glaser, P. Rauter, M. Brehm, L. Spindlberger, A. Simbula, M. Galli, T. Fromherz, and F. Schäffler, “Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 665–673 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rauter, G. Mussler, D. Grützmacher, and T. Fromherz, “Tensile strained SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors based on a light-hole ground state,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211106 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, C. Falub, D. Grützmacher, and G. Bauer, “SiGe quantum well infrared photodetectors on pseudosubstrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081115 (2009).
[Crossref]

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K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
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M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
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Green, W. M. J.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-Based Photonic Integration Beyond the Telecommunication Wavelength Range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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[Crossref]

P. Rauter, T. Fromherz, G. Bauer, L. Diehl, G. Dehlinger, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, and H. Schneider, “Voltage-tunable, two-band mid-infrared detection based on Si/SiGe quantum-cascade injector structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3879–3881 (2003).
[Crossref]

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M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
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S. Cecchi, E. Gatti, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, E. Müller Gubler, D. J. Paul, M. Guzzi, and G. Isella, “Thin SiGe virtual substrates for Ge heterostructures integration on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093502 (2014).
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M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
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M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H. J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopy with Germanium Antennas on Silicon Substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
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G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H. J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
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M. Grydlik, F. Hackl, H. Groiss, M. Glaser, A. Halilovic, T. Fromherz, W. Jantsch, F. Schäffler, and M. Brehm, “Lasing from Glassy Ge Quantum Dots in Crystalline Si,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 298–303 (2016).
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L. Diehl, S. Menteşe, E. Müller, D. Grützmacher, H. Sigg, U. Gennser, I. Sagnes, Y. Campidelli, O. Kermarrec, D. Bensahel, and J. Faist, “Electroluminescence from strain-compensated Si0.2Ge0.8/Si quantum-cascade structures based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4700–4702 (2002).
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K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
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G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H. J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
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K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
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Lee, K. H.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
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P. Rauter, L. Spindlberger, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, J. Freund, and M. Brehm, “Room-Temperature Group-IV LED Based on Defect-Enhanced Ge Quantum Dots,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 431–438 (2018).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Material layout and reciprocal space maps. (a) Schematics of the QWIP heterostructure stack grown on sSOI. (b) Analogue layout of the material on virtual substrate. (c) Diffracted x-ray intensity as a function of the scattering wave vector components around the (004) and (224) peaks of Si. Maps for the SiGe QWIP material grown on sSOI. (d) The respective data for the equivalent structure grown on virtual substrate. The asymmetric (224) maps indicate excellent pseudomorphic growth of the material with an in-plane lattice constant equivalent to relaxed Si0.7Ge0.3. Note the significantly narrower superlattice peaks for the sSOI material, suggesting a higher structural quality compared to the virtual substrate QWIP. (e) Line cut through the (004) map in Fig. 1(c) together with the simulated characteristics obtained for the fitted actual parameters shown in the table.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Device schematics of the sSOI QWIPs. A facet was lapped into the chip wall at an angle of 30° to the surface for illumination in waveguide geometry. (b) Valence band structure of one period of the SiGe QWIPs in absence of an external field. The valence band edges for the heavy-hole (HH), light-hole (LH) and split-off (SO) bands are presented. Note the band bending induced by the modulation doped barriers. The absolute square of the eigenfunctions calculated for vanishing in-plane wavevectors at their respective eigenenergy position are shown, where the states represented by blue, pink and green curves are dominantly composed of HH, LH and SO states, respectively. Eigenenergy values are given for electrons (hole energies are of opposite sign), relative to the HH1 ground state.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SiGe QWIP responsivity spectra in polarization dependence of the incoming radiation at a device temperature of 77 K. (a) Bias-dependent responsivity characteristics of an sSOI QWIP. The dominant peak in TM polarization originates from a transition between the HH1 and HH2 states in Fig. 2(b). The component sensitive to TE polarized radiation results from transitions between HH1 and LH continuum states. Note that the narrow peak labelled CO2 is a normalization artefact caused by the CO2 absorption line in the photocurrent and globar source spectra. (b) Comparison between the responsivity characteristics of the sSOI QWIP with a device on virtual substrate, together with the simulated absorption spectra scaled to fit the latter. Note the excellent agreement between the simulated spectra and the responsivity of the virtual substrate QWIP. The shift of the responsivity peaks of the sSOI material is induced by the optical cavity formed by the buried oxide of the sSOI substrate.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SiGe QWIP dark-current characteristics. (a) Temperature dependence of the dark-current densities for an sSOI QWIP device, together with the total photocurrent response to a calibrated black-body source at 500°C (broken blue line) at 77 K. (b) Dark-current characteristics recorded for a series of devices on both the virtual substrate and sSOI based chips. The virtual substrate QWIPs exhibit significantly higher dark-currents, and the data suggests that the overall high dark-current is related to the substrate quality. The inset shows an Arrhenius plot of the data in Fig. 4(a) at a bias of 0.1 V together with a linear fit. The latter indicates an activation energy of 71 meV, which corresponds to the HH1-LH1 transition energy in Fig. 2(b).

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