Abstract

High-efficient and high-purity photon sources are highly desired for quantum information processing. We report the design of a chip-scale hybrid SixNy and thin film periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide for generating high-purity type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) photons in the telecommunication band. The modeled second harmonic generation efficiency of 225% W−1 • cm−2 is obtained at 1560nm. Joint spectral analysis is performed to estimate the frequency correlation of SPDC photons, yielding intrinsic purity with up to 95.17%. The generation rate of these high-purity photon pairs is estimated to be 2.87 × 107 pairs/s/mW within the bandwidth of SPDC. Our chip-scale hybrid waveguide design has the potential for large-scale on-chip quantum information processing and integrated photon-efficient quantum key distribution through high-dimensional time-energy encoding.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (4)

M. Stefszky, V. Ulvila, Z. Abdallah, C. Silberhorn, and M. Vainio, “Towards optical-frequency-comb generation in continuous-wave-pumped titanium-indiffused lithium-niobate waveguide resonators,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 98(5), 053850 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zielnicki, K. G. Palmett, D. C. Delgado, H. C. Ramirez, M. F. O’Boyle, B. Fang, and V. O. Lorenz, “Joint Spectral Characterization of Photon-Pair Sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 65(10), 1141–1160 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Graffitti, J. K. Massicotte, A. Fedrizzi, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Design considerations for high-purity heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 98(5), 053811 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Kumar and J. Ghosh, “Parametric down-conversion in ppLN ridge waveguide: a quantum analysis for efficient twin photons generation at 1550 nm,” J. Opt. 20(7), 075202 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

F. Laudenbach, R. B. Jin, C. Greganti, M. Hentschel, P. Walther, and H. Hübel, “Numerical Investigation of Photon-Pair Generation in Periodically Poled MTiOX4 (M = K, Rb, Cs; X = P, As),” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(2), 024035 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, C. Bo, M. Y. Niu, F. Xu, Z. Zhang, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient generation and characterization of spectrally factorable biphotons,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7300–7312 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 13984 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kues, C. Reimer, P. Roztocki, L. R. Cortés, S. Sciara, B. Wetzel, Y. Zhang, A. Cino, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, D. J. Moss, L. Caspani, J. Azaña, and R. Morandotti, “On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control,” Nature 546(7660), 622–626 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

2015 (4)

C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, T. Klintberg, J. Bengtsson, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25827–25837 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xie, T. Zhong, S. Shrestha, X. Xu, J. Liang, Y. Gong, J. C. Bienfang, A. Restelli, J. H. Shapiro, F. N. C. Wong, and C. W. Wong, “Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 536–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cai, S. L. H. Han, and H. Hu, “Waveguides in single-crystal lithium niobate thin film by proton exchange,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1240–1248 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zhong, H. Zhou, R. D. Horansky, C. Lee, V. B. Verma, A. E. Lita, A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, Z. Zhang, L. Wang, D. Englund, G. W. Wornell, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Photon-efficient quantum key distribution using time–energy entanglement with high-dimensional encoding,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 022002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Sarrafi, E. Y. Zhu, K. Dolgaleva, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, and L. Qian, “Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched waveguide correlated photon pair source on a III–V chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251115 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Kang and A. S. Helmy, “Generation of polarization entangled photons using concurrent type-I and type-0 processes in AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1481–1483 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. L. Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Zhong, F. N. C. Wong, A. Restelli, and J. C. Bienfang, “Efficient single-spatial-mode periodically-poled KTiOPO4 waveguide source for high-dimensional entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26868–26877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. Rivoire, S. Buckley, F. Hatami, and J. Vučković, “Second harmonic generation in GaP photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 263113 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity,” New J. Phys. 10(9), 093011 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Fiorentino, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and M. W. Munro, “Spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled KTP waveguides and bulk crystals,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7479–7488 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437(7055), 116–120 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1988 (1)

E. Bustarret, M. Bensouda, M. C. Habrard, J. C. Bruyère, S. Poulin, and S. C. Gujrathi, “Configurational statistics in a-SixNyHz alloys: A quantitative bonding analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(12), 8171–8184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdallah, Z.

M. Stefszky, V. Ulvila, Z. Abdallah, C. Silberhorn, and M. Vainio, “Towards optical-frequency-comb generation in continuous-wave-pumped titanium-indiffused lithium-niobate waveguide resonators,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 98(5), 053850 (2018).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

P. Sarrafi, E. Y. Zhu, K. Dolgaleva, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, and L. Qian, “Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched waveguide correlated photon pair source on a III–V chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437(7055), 116–120 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrekson, P. A.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azaña, J.

M. Kues, C. Reimer, P. Roztocki, L. R. Cortés, S. Sciara, B. Wetzel, Y. Zhang, A. Cino, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, D. J. Moss, L. Caspani, J. Azaña, and R. Morandotti, “On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control,” Nature 546(7660), 622–626 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. L. Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437(7055), 116–120 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battle, P.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bengtsson, J.

Bensouda, M.

E. Bustarret, M. Bensouda, M. C. Habrard, J. C. Bruyère, S. Poulin, and S. C. Gujrathi, “Configurational statistics in a-SixNyHz alloys: A quantitative bonding analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(12), 8171–8184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienfang, J. C.

Z. Xie, T. Zhong, S. Shrestha, X. Xu, J. Liang, Y. Gong, J. C. Bienfang, A. Restelli, J. H. Shapiro, F. N. C. Wong, and C. W. Wong, “Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 536–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhong, H. Zhou, R. D. Horansky, C. Lee, V. B. Verma, A. E. Lita, A. Restelli, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, Z. Zhang, L. Wang, D. Englund, G. W. Wornell, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Photon-efficient quantum key distribution using time–energy entanglement with high-dimensional encoding,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 022002 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhong, F. N. C. Wong, A. Restelli, and J. C. Bienfang, “Efficient single-spatial-mode periodically-poled KTiOPO4 waveguide source for high-dimensional entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26868–26877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo, C.

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Boyd, R. W.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Branczyk, A. M.

F. Graffitti, J. K. Massicotte, A. Fedrizzi, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Design considerations for high-purity heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 98(5), 053811 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Illustration of chip-scale hybrid Si-rich silicon nitride and thin film PPLN waveguide structure for type-II SPDC (780 nm (o) → 1560 nm (o) + 1560 nm (e)). The hybrid waveguide consists of five sections, labelled from A to E. Dimensions of the hybrid waveguide structure are denoted for each section. (b) Cross-section view of hybrid waveguide structure. Mode profiles in each section of the device are simulated for the pump and SPDC photons. Opical mode is lifted into PPN region from section A to section C, and goes down to SixNy waveguide from section C to section E.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mode area and confinement characteristics of each constituent mode of type-II SPDC for different SixNy materials as functions of waveguide width. The thickness of the waveguide is fixed to 800 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Mode overlap area between fundamental modes of pump and SPDC photons for different SixNy materials and varying waveguide width. (b) Second-harmonic generation normalized efficiency of the hybrid waveguide for different SixNy materials and varying waveguide width.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 For SixNy material 4: (a) Mode confinement factor of pump, signal and idler photons as functions of waveguide width. (b) Mode area of pump and SPDC photons and mode overlap area with varying waveguide width. (c) SHG normalized efficiency as a function of SixNy waveguide width and thickness. (d) SHG normalized efficiency as a function of the pump wavelength, with 400 nm waveguide width and 800 nm waveguide thickness.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Purity of type-II SPDC photon pairs as a function of pump pulse duration and length of PPLN. (b) JSI distribution of SPDC photon pairs with 100 µm length of PPLN and 0.064 ps pump pulse duration, yielding purity of 95.17% without filtering. The spectra of signal and idler are depicted by white curves. (c) phase-matching envelope intensity and (d) pump envelope intensity for the composed JSI. The width and thickness of SixNy waveguide is fixed at 400 nm and 800nm, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental scheme for generating high-dimensional biphoton frequency comb and observing HOM quantum revival. L: lens; BPF: band-pass filter; FFPC: fiber Fabry-Pérot cavity; FPC: fiber polarization controller; PBS: polarization beamsplitter; M: reflective mirror; SPCM: single photon counting module. Inset: (a) JSI distribution of the SPDC photons generated by our designed hybrid waveguide. (b) JSI distribution of the filtered photons, with purity up to 99.79%. The spectra of the signal and idler photons are indicated by the white curves.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 HOM quantum revival of the high-dimensional BFC. Coincidence rate is computed as a function of relative delay ΔT between the two arms of the HOM interferometer. Left inset: zoom-in coincidence around zero relative delay between two arms. The base-to-base width of the central dip is estimated to be 1.6 ps. The visibility of the central dip is calculated to be 99.79%. Right inset: zoom-in coincidence for 33 time-bins with interference visibility over 50%.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive indices of SixNy with different stoichiometric ratio.

Equations (19)

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N Si = 4 3 n Si n n+ n Si 2 n S i 3 N 4 ,
A mode = ( E 2 ( x,y )dxdy ) 2 | E 2 | 2 ( x,y )dxdy ,
Γ= d(x,y) E 2 ( x,y )dxdy E 2 ( x,y )dxdy ,
S eff = [ E p 2 ( x,y )dxdy ][ E s 2 ( x,y )dxdy ][ E i 2 ( x,y )dxdy ] [ d(x,y) E p ( x,y ) E s ( x,y ) E i ( x,y )dxdy ] 2 .
η nor = 8 d eff 2 ε 0 c n p n s n i λ p 2 S eff sin c 2 ( ΔkL 2 ),
|Ψ= N ˜ d eff L 0 0 φ( ω s + ω i )ϕ( ω s + ω i ) a s a s d ω s d ω s |0 ,
ϕ( ω s , ω i )= e iΔkL 2 sinc( ΔkL 2 ),
Δ k ^ =2π( n p λ p k ^ p n s λ s k ^ s n i λ i k ^ i ),
Δk=2π( n p λ p n s λ s n i λ i m Λ ),
f( ω s , ω i )=φ( ω s + ω i )ϕ( ω s , ω i ).
|Ψ= N ˜ d eff L 0 0 f( ω s , ω i ) a s a i d ω s d ω i |0 .
ρ ^ s = Tr i ( ρ ^ ),                ρ ^ i = Tr s ( ρ ^ ),
P s =Tr( ρ ^ s 2 ),                P i =Tr( ρ ^ i 2 ).
|Ψ= j λ j | s j | i j ,          j λ j =1 .
K= 1 j λ j 2 = 1 Tr( ρ ^ s 2 ) = 1 Tr( ρ ^ i 2 ) .
P s = P i = j λ j 2 = 1 K .
|Ψ=|s|i= N ˜ d eff L 0 f s ( ω s ) a s d ω s 0 f i ( ω i ) a i d ω i |0 .
tanθ= v p 1 v s 1 v p 1 v i 1 ,
d P s = 16 π 3 d eff 2 L 2 c P p ε 0 n p n s n i λ s 4 λ i S eff sin c 2 ( ΔkL 2 )d λ s ,