Abstract

In this paper, we propose an electro-optic modulator design in a hybrid Si3N4-X-cut LiNbO3. The modulator is based on a modified racetrack resonator and performs at both DC and heightened frequencies. Here the driving electrodes are defined along the straight section of the racetrack. This is done to maximize modulation and minimize modulation-cancelation that occurs in a conventional X-cut LiNbO3-based resonator due to the directional change of the electric field in the micro-ring. The single bus racetrack resonator is formed in a hybrid Si3N4-LiNbO3 platform, to guide the optical mode. The fabricated device is characterized and has a measured tunability and intrinsic quality factor (Q) of 2.9 pm/V and 1.3 × 105, respectively. In addition, the proposed racetrack device exhibits enhanced electro-optic conversion efficiency at modulation frequencies that match with the racetrack’s optical free spectral range (FSR). For example, at the modulation frequency of 25 GHz, which corresponds to the fabricated device’s optical FSR frequency, a ∼10 dB increase in electro-optic conversion efficiency is demonstrated. With the enhancement, our measured device demonstrates a conversion efficiency comparable to non-resonant thin-film LiNbO3 devices that possess RF electrodes that are 10 times longer in length.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

A. N. R. Ahmed, S. Shi, M. Zablocki, P. Yao, and D. W. Prather, “Tunable hybrid silicon nitride and thin-film lithium niobate electro-optic microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 44(3), 618–621 (2019).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Alexander, J. P. George, J. Verbist, K. Neyts, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Beeckman, “Nanophotonic Pockels modulators on a silicon nitride platform,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3444 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, H. Liang, R. Luo, M. Li, and Q. Lin, “Dispersion engineered high quality lithium niobate microring resonators,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16315–16322 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. O. Weigel, J. Zhao, K. Fang, H. Rubaye, D. Trotter, D. Hood, J. Mudrick, C. Dallo, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, C. T. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, G. Rebeiz, and S. Mookherjea, “Bonded thin film lithium niobate modulator on a silicon photonics platform exceeding 100 GHz 3-dB electrical modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23728–23739 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. J. Mercante, S. Shi, P. Yao, L. Xie, R. M. Weikle, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film lithium niobate electro-optic modulator with terahertz operating bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14810–14816 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. N. R. Ahmed, A. Mercante, S. Shi, P. Yao, and D. W. Prather, “Vertical mode transition in hybrid lithium niobate and silicon nitride-based photonic integrated circuit structures,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4140–4143 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rao and S. Fathpour, “Compact lithium niobate electrooptic modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Yao, K. Wu, B. X. Tan, J. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and A. W. Poon, “Integrated silicon photonic microresonators: Emerging Technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Cai, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and H. Hu, “Amorphous silicon-lithium niobate thin film strip-loaded waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 4018–4028 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, M. H. Pfeiffer, N. Volet, M. Zervas, J. D. Peters, C. L. Manganelli, E. J. Stanton, Y. Li, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 803–806 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Jiang, R. Kong, and H. Hu, “Grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 72, 136–139 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 thin-film modulators using silicon nitride surface ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave circuits in lithium niobate through hybrid waveguides with silicon photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22301 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, D. Bonneau, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7948 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Rao, A. Patil, J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, S. Novak, K. Richardson, P. Rabiei, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous microring and Mach-Zehnder modulators based on lithium niobate and chalcogenide glasses on silicon,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22746–22752 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2007 (2)

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic components for a mm-wave receiver,” Solid-State Electron. 45(3), 495–505 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, and G. J. McBrien, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Müller, “LPCVD against PECVD for micromechanical applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 1–13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, A. N. R.

Akiyama, S.

Alexander, K.

K. Alexander, J. P. George, J. Verbist, K. Neyts, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Beeckman, “Nanophotonic Pockels modulators on a silicon nitride platform,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3444 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arrangoiz-Arriola, P.

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, and G. J. McBrien, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th3J-1.

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Beeckman, J.

K. Alexander, J. P. George, J. Verbist, K. Neyts, B. Kuyken, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Beeckman, “Nanophotonic Pockels modulators on a silicon nitride platform,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3444 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th3J-1.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Boes, A.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, D. Bonneau, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7948 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bortnik, B.

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bottenfield, C.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Buscaino, B.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

M. Mahmoud, L. Cai, C. Bottenfield, and G. Piazza, “Lithium niobate electro-optic racetrack modulator etched in Y-cut LNOI platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Cai, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and H. Hu, “Amorphous silicon-lithium niobate thin film strip-loaded waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 4018–4028 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Chang, L.

Chen, L.

Chen, Z.

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Cai, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and H. Hu, “Amorphous silicon-lithium niobate thin film strip-loaded waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 4018–4028 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Jiang, R. Kong, and H. Hu, “Grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 72, 136–139 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chiles, J.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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Clemmen, S.

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E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, and G. J. McBrien, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
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Lee, W.-G.

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Lentine, A. L.

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Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

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M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
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B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
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Luo, R.

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Mudrick, J.

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E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, and G. J. McBrien, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
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A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, and L. Zhou, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, and L. Zhou, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th3J-1.

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M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
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Shi, S.

Silverstone, J. W.

J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, D. Bonneau, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7948 (2015).
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Sorel, M.

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A. Stoffel, A. Kovacs, W. Kronast, and B. Müller, “LPCVD against PECVD for micromechanical applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 1–13 (1996).
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J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, D. Bonneau, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7948 (2015).
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R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th3J-1.

Sun, S.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, and L. Zhou, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s-1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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Tan, B. X.

Z. Yao, K. Wu, B. X. Tan, J. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and A. W. Poon, “Integrated silicon photonic microresonators: Emerging Technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–11 (2018).
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B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 104–110 (2007).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the tunable hybrid Si3N4-LiNbO3 racetrack resonator with integrated electrodes (not drawn to scale). Simulated TE optical mode-field profile of a hybrid Si3N4-LiNbO3 waveguide formed by a 200 nm × 1.2 µm Si3N4 loading strip at 1550 nm (inset). (b) Microscope image of the hybrid Si3N4-LiNbO3 racetrack resonator with integrated electrodes.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the fabrication flow of the hybrid Si3N4-LiNbO3 based racetrack device (b) SEM image of the fabricated racetrack resonator (c) Close-up SEM image of the evaporated electrode and optical waveguide (d) Close-up SEM image of the racetrack coupling (e) Experimental setup for the racetrack transmission and DC tuning characterization. The green line indicates the optical domain and the yellow line indicates the electrical domain.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The measured transmission spectrum of the passive racetrack resonator at the through port for the TE mode using a tunable laser near 1550 nm. The free spectral range is measured to be 0.2 nm. (b) The Lorentz fitting (red curve) of the resonance dip at 1550.108 nm which corresponds to an intrinsic Q of 7.68 × 105. (c) The spectrum resonant shift for different DC voltages for TE mode at wavelength 1550.108 nm (black curve) of the racetrack resonator. The shift indicated a tunability of 2.9 pm/V. (d) Resonant wavelength shift as a function of the applied DC voltage shows excellent linearity.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Experimental setup for high-speed modulation. The normalized optical modulation spectra of the (b) modified racetrack modulator, and (c) standard micro-ring modulator with RF sinusoids at different frequencies. The inset shows the pictorial view of the respective modulator. The frequency detuning is chosen to ensure optimal gain for both modulators.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The normalized sideband power of the racetrack modulator (red) and standard micro-ring modulator (blue). The sideband power is calibrated to exclude the RF cable loss and probe loss. (b) Measured transmission (S21) and reflected coefficient (S11) of the fabricated CPS electrode configuration.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The simulated transmission spectrum of the passive racetrack resonator at the through port for the TE mode (b) The Lorentz fitting (blue curve) of the resonance dip at 1550.115 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Simulated absorption loss as a function of the electrode gap. (b) Experiment result of the intrinsic quality factor variation with the electrode gap.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) HFSS simulated electric field distribution over the entire electrode length for a 6 µm electrode gap at 1 GHz. (b) The simulated electric field plotted along the entire length of the electrode at 1 GHz.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Simulated electric field direction (blue arrow) between the two electrodes and inside the optical waveguide region. (b) Simulated S-parameters extracted from the HFSS model.