Abstract

Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) can offer reliable and secure connectivity for enabling future internet-of-underwater-things (IoUT), owing to its unlicensed spectrum and high transmission speed. However, a critical bottleneck lies in the strict requirement of pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), for effective recovery of modulated optical signals at the receiver end. A large-area, high bandwidth, and wide-angle-of-view photoreceiver is therefore crucial for establishing a high-speed yet reliable communication link under non-directional pointing in a turbulent underwater environment. In this work, we demonstrated a large-area, of up to a few tens of cm2, photoreceiver design based on ultraviolet(UV)-to-blue color-converting plastic scintillating fibers, and yet offering high 3-dB bandwidth of up to 86.13 MHz. Tapping on the large modulation bandwidth, we demonstrated a high data rate of 250 Mbps at bit-error ratio (BER) of 2.2 × 10−3 using non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) 210-1 data stream, a 375-nm laser-based communication link over the 1.15-m water channel. This proof-of-concept demonstration opens the pathway for revolutionizing the photodetection scheme in UWOC, and for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space optical communication.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, N. D. Chatzidiamantis, Z. Xu, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “A survey on ultraviolet C-band (UV-C) communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 21(3), 2111–2133 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

J.-W. Min, D. Priante, M. Tangi, G. Liu, C. H. Kang, A. Prabaswara, C. Zhao, L. Al-Maghrabi, Y. Alaskar, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Unleashing the potential of molecular beam epitaxy grown AlGaN-based ultraviolet-spectrum nanowires devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12(4), 043511 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Bao, J. Yang, S. Bai, W. Xu, Z. Yan, Q. Xu, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and F. Gao, “High Performance and Stable All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite-Based Photodetectors for Optical Communication Applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(38), 1803422 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kong, B. Sun, R. Sarwar, J. Shen, Y. Chen, F. Qu, J. Han, J. Chen, H. Qin, and J. Xu, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a lens-free solar panel receiver,” Opt. Commun. 426, 94–98 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. A. Alatawi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, C. H. Kang, C. Shen, R. C. Subedi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “High-power blue superluminescent diode for high CRI lighting and high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(20), 26355–26364 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, Z. Wu, X. Liu, Z. Fang, S. Zhang, X. Zhou, K. Liu, M.-G. Liu, S.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, C. Cong, L. Hu, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Zheng, and R. Liu, “Large-signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based micro-LED for Gbps visible-light communication,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 044101 (2018).
[Crossref]

K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, G. Liu, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, A. A. Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “3.2 gigabit-per-second visible light communication link with InGaN/GaN MQW micro-photodetector,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3037–3045 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Kammoun, E. Zedini, K.-H. Park, X. Sun, G. Liu, C. H. Kang, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “Light based underwater wireless communications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(8S2), 08PA06 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, W. Cai, O. Alkhazragi, E.-N. Ooi, H. He, A. Chaaban, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12870–12877 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Haas, “LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology,” Rev. Phys. 3, 26–31 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (11)

H. Haas, C. Chen, and D. O’Brien, “A guide to wireless networking by light,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 55, 88–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kong, W. Lv, T. Ali, R. Sarwar, C. Yu, Y. Qiu, F. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Han, and J. Xu, “10-m 9.51-Gb/s RGB laser diodes-based WDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 25(17), 20829–20834 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Yi, X. Zhou, Z. Fang, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Hu, C. Cong, L. Zheng, R. Liu, and P. Tian, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, J. Liu, Y. Liu, and N. Zhu, “High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system,” J. Semicond. 38(12), 121001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Kao, Y.-S. Lin, G.-D. Wu, and C.-J. Huang, “A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models,” Sensors 17(7), 1477 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Pera, X. Tan, J. Runnels, N. Sardesai, C. P. Lin, and M. Niedre, “Diffuse fluorescence fiber probe for in vivo detection of circulating cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 037004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, M. Shi, X. Yang, P. Zeng, J. Gong, S. Zheng, M. Zhang, R. Liang, Q. Ou, N. Chi, and S. Zhang, “Nanopatterned luminescent concentrators for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21926–21934 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zeng, S. Fu, H. Zhang, Y. Dong, and J. Cheng, “A Survey of Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 19(1), 204–238 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, S. Chaturvedi, and M. N. Deo, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of polystyrene under laser driven shock compression,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(7), 1007–1012 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, M. N. Deo, S. Chaturvedi, and S. M. Sharma, “Raman spectroscopy of laser shocked polystyrene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(3), 458–464 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Dursun, C. Shen, M. R. Parida, J. Pan, S. P. Sarmah, D. Priante, N. Alyami, J. Liu, M. I. Saidaminov, M. S. Alias, A. L. Abdelhady, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, B. S. Ooi, and O. M. Bakr, “Perovskite nanocrystals as a color converter for visible light communication,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1150–1156 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K.-H. Park, K.-T. Ho, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. M. Qureshi, F. K. Shaikh, Z. Aziz, S. M. Z. S. Shah, A. A. Sheikh, E. Felemban, and S. B. Qaisar, “RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments,” Sensors 16(6), 890 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Peyronel, K. J. Quirk, S. C. Wang, and T. G. Tiecke, “Luminescent detector for free-space optical communication,” Optica 3(7), 787–792 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar $(20 \overline{21})$(2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
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P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible Light Communication, Networking, and Sensing: A Survey, Potential and Challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K.-H. Park, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
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H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H.-C. Kuo, J.-H. He, M.-S. Alouini, G.-R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
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O. Graydon, “Underwater link,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 707 (2015).
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C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
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S.-C. Zhu, Z.-G. Yu, L.-X. Zhao, J.-X. Wang, and J.-M. Li, “Enhancement of the modulation bandwidth for GaN-based light-emitting diode by surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 23(11), 13752–13760 (2015).
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2014 (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride mu LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Che, I. Wells, G. Dickers, and P. Kear, “TDMA frame design for a prototype underwater RF communication network,” Ad Hoc Netw. 10(3), 317–327 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. C. Domingo, “An overview of the internet of underwater things,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 35(6), 1879–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Shi and S. Nihtianov, “Comparative study of silicon-based ultraviolet photodetectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(7), 2453–2459 (2012).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. d. Graaf and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Illumination source identification using a CMOS optical microsystem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(2), 238–242 (2004).
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1994 (2)

J. Farenc, R. Mangeret, A. Boulanger, P. Destruel, and M. Lescure, “A fluorescent plastic optical fiber sensor for the detection of corona discharges in high voltage electrical equipment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(1), 155–160 (1994).
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P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Slow neutron imaging using scintillating glass optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 349(2-3), 526–531 (1994).
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1991 (2)

M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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R. Mangeret, J. Farenc, B. Ai, P. Destruel, D. Puretolas, and J. Casanovas, “Optical detection of partial discharges using fluorescent fiber,” IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26(4), 783–789 (1991).
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I. Dursun, C. Shen, M. R. Parida, J. Pan, S. P. Sarmah, D. Priante, N. Alyami, J. Liu, M. I. Saidaminov, M. S. Alias, A. L. Abdelhady, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, B. S. Ooi, and O. M. Bakr, “Perovskite nanocrystals as a color converter for visible light communication,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1150–1156 (2016).
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Ai, B.

R. Mangeret, J. Farenc, B. Ai, P. Destruel, D. Puretolas, and J. Casanovas, “Optical detection of partial discharges using fluorescent fiber,” IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26(4), 783–789 (1991).
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Alaskar, Y.

J.-W. Min, D. Priante, M. Tangi, G. Liu, C. H. Kang, A. Prabaswara, C. Zhao, L. Al-Maghrabi, Y. Alaskar, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Unleashing the potential of molecular beam epitaxy grown AlGaN-based ultraviolet-spectrum nanowires devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12(4), 043511 (2018).
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Albadri, A. M.

A. A. Alatawi, J. A. Holguin-Lerma, C. H. Kang, C. Shen, R. C. Subedi, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “High-power blue superluminescent diode for high CRI lighting and high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(20), 26355–26364 (2018).
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J.-W. Min, D. Priante, M. Tangi, G. Liu, C. H. Kang, A. Prabaswara, C. Zhao, L. Al-Maghrabi, Y. Alaskar, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Unleashing the potential of molecular beam epitaxy grown AlGaN-based ultraviolet-spectrum nanowires devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12(4), 043511 (2018).
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Alias, M. S.

I. Dursun, C. Shen, M. R. Parida, J. Pan, S. P. Sarmah, D. Priante, N. Alyami, J. Liu, M. I. Saidaminov, M. S. Alias, A. L. Abdelhady, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, B. S. Ooi, and O. M. Bakr, “Perovskite nanocrystals as a color converter for visible light communication,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1150–1156 (2016).
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Alkhazragi, O.

Al-Maghrabi, L.

J.-W. Min, D. Priante, M. Tangi, G. Liu, C. H. Kang, A. Prabaswara, C. Zhao, L. Al-Maghrabi, Y. Alaskar, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Unleashing the potential of molecular beam epitaxy grown AlGaN-based ultraviolet-spectrum nanowires devices,” J. Nanophotonics 12(4), 043511 (2018).
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Alouini, M.-S.

H. M. Oubei, C. Shen, A. Kammoun, E. Zedini, K.-H. Park, X. Sun, G. Liu, C. H. Kang, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “Light based underwater wireless communications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(8S2), 08PA06 (2018).
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K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, G. Liu, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, A. A. Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “3.2 gigabit-per-second visible light communication link with InGaN/GaN MQW micro-photodetector,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3037–3045 (2018).
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X. Sun, W. Cai, O. Alkhazragi, E.-N. Ooi, H. He, A. Chaaban, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Z. M. Khan, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12870–12877 (2018).
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C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K.-H. Park, K.-T. Ho, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K.-H. Park, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, Y.-C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H.-C. Kuo, J.-H. He, M.-S. Alouini, G.-R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
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A. Kammoun, Z. Jiusi, B. S. Ooi, and M.-S. Alouini, “Impact of wavelength on the path loss of turbid water communication systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, (IEEE, 2019), p. 1.

Al-Saggaf, A. A.

Alyamani, A. Y.

Alyami, N.

I. Dursun, C. Shen, M. R. Parida, J. Pan, S. P. Sarmah, D. Priante, N. Alyami, J. Liu, M. I. Saidaminov, M. S. Alias, A. L. Abdelhady, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, B. S. Ooi, and O. M. Bakr, “Perovskite nanocrystals as a color converter for visible light communication,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1150–1156 (2016).
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M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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Atac, M.

M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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U. M. Qureshi, F. K. Shaikh, Z. Aziz, S. M. Z. S. Shah, A. A. Sheikh, E. Felemban, and S. B. Qaisar, “RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments,” Sensors 16(6), 890 (2016).
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Bai, S.

C. Bao, J. Yang, S. Bai, W. Xu, Z. Yan, Q. Xu, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and F. Gao, “High Performance and Stable All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite-Based Photodetectors for Optical Communication Applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(38), 1803422 (2018).
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I. Dursun, C. Shen, M. R. Parida, J. Pan, S. P. Sarmah, D. Priante, N. Alyami, J. Liu, M. I. Saidaminov, M. S. Alias, A. L. Abdelhady, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, B. S. Ooi, and O. M. Bakr, “Perovskite nanocrystals as a color converter for visible light communication,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1150–1156 (2016).
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Bao, C.

C. Bao, J. Yang, S. Bai, W. Xu, Z. Yan, Q. Xu, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and F. Gao, “High Performance and Stable All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite-Based Photodetectors for Optical Communication Applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(38), 1803422 (2018).
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Boulanger, A.

J. Farenc, R. Mangeret, A. Boulanger, P. Destruel, and M. Lescure, “A fluorescent plastic optical fiber sensor for the detection of corona discharges in high voltage electrical equipment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(1), 155–160 (1994).
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Bowers, J. E.

Cai, W.

Cantore, M.

Casanovas, J.

R. Mangeret, J. Farenc, B. Ai, P. Destruel, D. Puretolas, and J. Casanovas, “Optical detection of partial discharges using fluorescent fiber,” IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26(4), 783–789 (1991).
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Chaaban, A.

Chaney, R.

M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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Chaturvedi, S.

V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, S. Chaturvedi, and M. N. Deo, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of polystyrene under laser driven shock compression,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(7), 1007–1012 (2017).
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V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, M. N. Deo, S. Chaturvedi, and S. M. Sharma, “Raman spectroscopy of laser shocked polystyrene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(3), 458–464 (2017).
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Chatzidiamantis, N. D.

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, N. D. Chatzidiamantis, Z. Xu, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “A survey on ultraviolet C-band (UV-C) communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 21(3), 2111–2133 (2019).
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Chaurasia, S.

V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, M. N. Deo, S. Chaturvedi, and S. M. Sharma, “Raman spectroscopy of laser shocked polystyrene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(3), 458–464 (2017).
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V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, S. Chaturvedi, and M. N. Deo, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of polystyrene under laser driven shock compression,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(7), 1007–1012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Che, X.

X. Che, I. Wells, G. Dickers, and P. Kear, “TDMA frame design for a prototype underwater RF communication network,” Ad Hoc Netw. 10(3), 317–327 (2012).
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Chen, C.

H. Haas, C. Chen, and D. O’Brien, “A guide to wireless networking by light,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 55, 88–111 (2017).
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Chen, J.

M. Kong, B. Sun, R. Sarwar, J. Shen, Y. Chen, F. Qu, J. Han, J. Chen, H. Qin, and J. Xu, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a lens-free solar panel receiver,” Opt. Commun. 426, 94–98 (2018).
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Chen, R.

Chen, S.-J.

P. Tian, Z. Wu, X. Liu, Z. Fang, S. Zhang, X. Zhou, K. Liu, M.-G. Liu, S.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, C. Cong, L. Hu, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Zheng, and R. Liu, “Large-signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based micro-LED for Gbps visible-light communication,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 044101 (2018).
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Chen, Y.

M. Kong, B. Sun, R. Sarwar, J. Shen, Y. Chen, F. Qu, J. Han, J. Chen, H. Qin, and J. Xu, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a lens-free solar panel receiver,” Opt. Commun. 426, 94–98 (2018).
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Cheng, J.

Z. Zeng, S. Fu, H. Zhang, Y. Dong, and J. Cheng, “A Survey of Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 19(1), 204–238 (2017).
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Chi, N.

Y. Dong, M. Shi, X. Yang, P. Zeng, J. Gong, S. Zheng, M. Zhang, R. Liang, Q. Ou, N. Chi, and S. Zhang, “Nanopatterned luminescent concentrators for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21926–21934 (2017).
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N. Chi, “Visible Light Communication Technology Development Trend,” in LED-Based Visible Light Communications, N. Chi, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2018).

Chi, Y.-C.

Chrisman, D.

M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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Chun, H.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride mu LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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Cline, D.

M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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Collins, S.

Cong, C.

P. Tian, Z. Wu, X. Liu, Z. Fang, S. Zhang, X. Zhou, K. Liu, M.-G. Liu, S.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, C. Cong, L. Hu, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Zheng, and R. Liu, “Large-signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based micro-LED for Gbps visible-light communication,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 044101 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Yi, X. Zhou, Z. Fang, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Hu, C. Cong, L. Zheng, R. Liu, and P. Tian, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cozzan, C.

Dawson, M. D.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride mu LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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DenBaars, S. P.

Deng, N.

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
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J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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Deo, M. N.

V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, S. Chaturvedi, and M. N. Deo, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of polystyrene under laser driven shock compression,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(7), 1007–1012 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Rastogi, S. Chaurasia, U. Rao, C. D. Sijoy, V. Mishra, M. Kumar, M. N. Deo, S. Chaturvedi, and S. M. Sharma, “Raman spectroscopy of laser shocked polystyrene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(3), 458–464 (2017).
[Crossref]

Destruel, P.

J. Farenc, R. Mangeret, A. Boulanger, P. Destruel, and M. Lescure, “A fluorescent plastic optical fiber sensor for the detection of corona discharges in high voltage electrical equipment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(1), 155–160 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Mangeret, J. Farenc, B. Ai, P. Destruel, D. Puretolas, and J. Casanovas, “Optical detection of partial discharges using fluorescent fiber,” IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26(4), 783–789 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dickers, G.

X. Che, I. Wells, G. Dickers, and P. Kear, “TDMA frame design for a prototype underwater RF communication network,” Ad Hoc Netw. 10(3), 317–327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Domingo, M. C.

M. C. Domingo, “An overview of the internet of underwater things,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 35(6), 1879–1890 (2012).
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Dong, Y.

Dosunmu, O.

M. Selim Ünlü, O. Dosunmu, and M. Emsley, “High-Speed Photodetectors for Optical Communications,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications (2003).

Duran, J. R.

Dursun, I.

I. Dursun, C. Shen, M. R. Parida, J. Pan, S. P. Sarmah, D. Priante, N. Alyami, J. Liu, M. I. Saidaminov, M. S. Alias, A. L. Abdelhady, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, B. S. Ooi, and O. M. Bakr, “Perovskite nanocrystals as a color converter for visible light communication,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1150–1156 (2016).
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El-Desouki, M. M.

Emsley, M.

M. Selim Ünlü, O. Dosunmu, and M. Emsley, “High-Speed Photodetectors for Optical Communications,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications (2003).

Fang, Z.

P. Tian, Z. Wu, X. Liu, Z. Fang, S. Zhang, X. Zhou, K. Liu, M.-G. Liu, S.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, C. Cong, L. Hu, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Zheng, and R. Liu, “Large-signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based micro-LED for Gbps visible-light communication,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 044101 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Yi, X. Zhou, Z. Fang, Z.-J. Qiu, L. Hu, C. Cong, L. Zheng, R. Liu, and P. Tian, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref]

Farenc, J.

J. Farenc, R. Mangeret, A. Boulanger, P. Destruel, and M. Lescure, “A fluorescent plastic optical fiber sensor for the detection of corona discharges in high voltage electrical equipment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(1), 155–160 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Mangeret, J. Farenc, B. Ai, P. Destruel, D. Puretolas, and J. Casanovas, “Optical detection of partial discharges using fluorescent fiber,” IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26(4), 783–789 (1991).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

Faulkner, G.

P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. C. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride mu LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Felemban, E.

U. M. Qureshi, F. K. Shaikh, Z. Aziz, S. M. Z. S. Shah, A. A. Sheikh, E. Felemban, and S. B. Qaisar, “RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments,” Sensors 16(6), 890 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible Light Communication, Networking, and Sensing: A Survey, Potential and Challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fenyves, E.

M. Atac, R. Chaney, D. Chrisman, D. Cline, E. Fenyves, J. Park, and P. Antich, “Development of a high resolution scintillating fiber gamma ray telescope,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38(2), 568–573 (1991).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scintillating fibers arranged in (a) large-area arrayed form and (b) while under excitation of a 375-nm UV LD. (c) Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) emission and (d) excitation spectra of the scintillating fibers used in this experiment. (e) Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) decay trace and (f) Raman spectrum measured at the core layer of scintillating fiber. Inset of (e) shows the micrograph image of the cross-section of the scintillating fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for UV-based UWOC over at 1.15-m long channel using scintillating-fiber-based photoreceiver with a large detection area of up to 30 cm × 1.2 cm (length × width). (b) Normalized small-signal frequency response of the scintillating-fiber-based photoreceiver, showing large 3-dB bandwidth at 86.13 MHz. (c) BER versus data rate over a propagation distance of 1.15 m using the designed photoreceiver.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Experimental setup for angle-dependent studies of scintillating-fiber-based photoreceiver in a 1.15-meter long water channel. (b) Received optical power, and (c) BER at 250 Mbps for different angles of incidence.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Photograph images of: (a) top-view, and (b) side-view of “underwater optical antenna” based on scintillating fibers. (c) Normalized frequency response, and (d) BER versus data rate of the “underwater optical antenna”. (e) Schematic illustration of the large-area, omnidirectional scintillating-fiber-based photoreceivers acting as sensor nodes for UWOC applications.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of photoreceivers employed for optical communication link

Equations (1)

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τ = 1 2 π f 3 d B