Abstract

AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) still suffer from poor quantum efficiency and low optical power. In this work, we proposed a DUV LED structure that includes five unique AlxGa1-xN quantum barriers (QBs); Each QB has a linear-increment of Al composition by 0.03 along the growth direction, unlike those commonly used flat QBs in conventional LEDs. As a result, the electron and hole concentration in the active region was considerably increased, attributing to the success of the electron blocking effect and enhanced hole injection efficiency. Importantly, the optical power was remarkably improved by 65.83% at the injection current of 60 mA. After in-depth device optimization, we found that a relatively thinner graded QB layer could further boost the LED performance because of the increased carrier concentrations and enhanced electron and hole wave function overlap in the QW, triggering a much higher radiative recombination efficiency. Hence, the proposed graded QBs, which have a continuous increment of Al composition along the growth direction, provide us with an effective solution to boost light output power in the pursuit of high-performance DUV emitters.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (11)

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Ci, H. Chang, R. Wang, T. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Y. Sun, Z. Dou, Z. Liu, J. Li, P. Gao, and Z. Liu, “Enhancement of Heat Dissipation in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes by a Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanowall Buffer Layer,” Adv. Mater. 31(29), 1901624 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Che, H. Shao, J. Kou, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Wang, Y. Zhu, and Z.-H. Zhang, “On the origin of enhanced hole injection for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AlN insertion layer in p-electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 27(12), A620–A628 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pandey, W. J. Shin, X. Liu, and Z. Mi, “Effect of electron blocking layer on the efficiency of AlGaN mid-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A738–A745 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, J. Kou, S.-W. H. Chen, H. Shao, J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and H.-C. Kuo, “Increasing the hole energy by grading the alloy composition of the p-type electron blocking layer for very high-performance deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 7(4), B1–B6 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Luo, S. Li, and Z. Chen, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by using a AlxGa1-xN carrier reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(6), 062013 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Chang, B.-T. Liou, M.-F. Huang, Y.-H. Shih, F.-M. Chen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “High-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with efficient carrier confinement and high light extraction,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 66(2), 976–982 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, Q. Chen, Z. Ren, M. Tian, S. Long, J. Dai, C. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced Performance of an AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED Having Graded Quantum Well Structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(4), 1–6 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H.-H. Yao, H. Sun, C.-H. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J.-H. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. R. Haughn, G. Rupper, T. Wunderer, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Wraback, and G. A. Garrett, “Highly radiative nature of ultra-thin c-plane Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells for deep ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 102101 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral-Polarity Structure of AlGaN Quantum Wells: A Promising Approach to Enhancing the Ultraviolet Luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(32), 1802395 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Status of growth of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Crystals 7(10), 300 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, J. Yin, E. Pecora, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “Deep-ultraviolet emitting AlGaN multiple quantum well graded-index separate-confinement heterostructures grown by MBE on SiC substrates,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Islam, K. Lee, J. Verma, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, S. Bharadwaj, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “MBE-grown 232-270 nm deep-UV LEDs using monolayer thin binary GaN/AlN quantum heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(4), 041108 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakas and R. Paiella, “Optoelectronic device physics and technology of nitride semiconductors from the UV to the terahertz,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(10), 106501 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Chang, H.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Shih, F.-M. Chen, M.-F. Huang, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Efficient carrier confinement in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with composition-graded configuration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(12), 4980–4984 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, F.-M. Chen, Y.-H. Shih, and H.-T. Chang, “Numerical investigation on the carrier transport characteristics of AlGaN deep-UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(4), 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipor, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. J. J. Yan, Y. Guo, L. Sun, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, F. Yang, and J. Li, “Tailoring of energy band in electron-blocking structure enhancing the efficiency of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Y. A. Yin, N. Wang, S. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Fan, “Advantages of deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN/AlGaN superlattices electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 119(1), 41–44 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Fan, H. Sun, X. Li, H. Sun, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Guo, “Efficiency improvements in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using inverted-V-shaped graded Al composition electron blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 88, 467–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Cong, L. Sun, Y. Tian, C. Zhao, and J. Li, “AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on high-quality AlN template using MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 254–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yun, J. I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, and X. W. Sun, “Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, X. Zhang, L. Wang, Z. Kyaw, and X. W. Sun, “Polarization self-screening in [0001] oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for improving the electron injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with gradually increased barrier thicknesses from n-layers to p-layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111114 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7-8), 2031–2033 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Hirayama, Y. Tusukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. R. Hang, C. H. Chen, and Y. F. Chen, “AlxGa1− xN/GaN band offsets determined by deep-level emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(4), 1887–1890 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Status of growth of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Crystals 7(10), 300 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bharadwaj, S.

S. M. Islam, K. Lee, J. Verma, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, S. Bharadwaj, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “MBE-grown 232-270 nm deep-UV LEDs using monolayer thin binary GaN/AlN quantum heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(4), 041108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bi, W.

Z.-H. Zhang, J. Kou, S.-W. H. Chen, H. Shao, J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and H.-C. Kuo, “Increasing the hole energy by grading the alloy composition of the p-type electron blocking layer for very high-performance deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 7(4), B1–B6 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

H. Ci, H. Chang, R. Wang, T. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Y. Sun, Z. Dou, Z. Liu, J. Li, P. Gao, and Z. Liu, “Enhancement of Heat Dissipation in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes by a Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanowall Buffer Layer,” Adv. Mater. 31(29), 1901624 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-T.

J.-Y. Chang, H.-T. Chang, Y.-H. Shih, F.-M. Chen, M.-F. Huang, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Efficient carrier confinement in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with composition-graded configuration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(12), 4980–4984 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
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H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
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K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
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H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
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H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

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K. Ding, V. Avrutin, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Status of growth of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Crystals 7(10), 300 (2017).
[Crossref]

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T. D. Moustakas and R. Paiella, “Optoelectronic device physics and technology of nitride semiconductors from the UV to the terahertz,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(10), 106501 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, J. Yin, E. Pecora, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “Deep-ultraviolet emitting AlGaN multiple quantum well graded-index separate-confinement heterostructures grown by MBE on SiC substrates,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Pecora, E.

H. Sun, J. Yin, E. Pecora, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “Deep-ultraviolet emitting AlGaN multiple quantum well graded-index separate-confinement heterostructures grown by MBE on SiC substrates,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–9 (2017).
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H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
[Crossref]

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S. M. Islam, K. Lee, J. Verma, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, S. Bharadwaj, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “MBE-grown 232-270 nm deep-UV LEDs using monolayer thin binary GaN/AlN quantum heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(4), 041108 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

H. Yu, Q. Chen, Z. Ren, M. Tian, S. Long, J. Dai, C. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced Performance of an AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED Having Graded Quantum Well Structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(4), 1–6 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H.-H. Yao, H. Sun, C.-H. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J.-H. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rice, A.

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(7-8), 2031–2033 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

Roqan, I.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rouvimov, S.

S. M. Islam, K. Lee, J. Verma, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, S. Bharadwaj, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “MBE-grown 232-270 nm deep-UV LEDs using monolayer thin binary GaN/AlN quantum heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(4), 041108 (2017).
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[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

C. R. Haughn, G. Rupper, T. Wunderer, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Wraback, and G. A. Garrett, “Highly radiative nature of ultra-thin c-plane Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells for deep ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 102101 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yao, H.-H.

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H.-H. Yao, H. Sun, C.-H. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J.-H. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yen, S. H.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with gradually increased barrier thicknesses from n-layers to p-layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

H. Sun, J. Yin, E. Pecora, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “Deep-ultraviolet emitting AlGaN multiple quantum well graded-index separate-confinement heterostructures grown by MBE on SiC substrates,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y. A.

Y. A. Yin, N. Wang, S. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Fan, “Advantages of deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN/AlGaN superlattices electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 119(1), 41–44 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, Q. Chen, Z. Ren, M. Tian, S. Long, J. Dai, C. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced Performance of an AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED Having Graded Quantum Well Structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(4), 1–6 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, T. J.

Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yun, J.

J. Yun, J. I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

X. Fan, H. Sun, X. Li, H. Sun, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Guo, “Efficiency improvements in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using inverted-V-shaped graded Al composition electron blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 88, 467–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Luo, S. Li, and Z. Chen, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by using a AlxGa1-xN carrier reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(6), 062013 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, X. Zhang, L. Wang, Z. Kyaw, and X. W. Sun, “Polarization self-screening in [0001] oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for improving the electron injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, and X. W. Sun, “Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, J. Kou, S.-W. H. Chen, H. Shao, J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and H.-C. Kuo, “Increasing the hole energy by grading the alloy composition of the p-type electron blocking layer for very high-performance deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 7(4), B1–B6 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Che, H. Shao, J. Kou, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Wang, Y. Zhu, and Z.-H. Zhang, “On the origin of enhanced hole injection for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AlN insertion layer in p-electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 27(12), A620–A628 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. J. J. Yan, Y. Guo, L. Sun, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, F. Yang, and J. Li, “Tailoring of energy band in electron-blocking structure enhancing the efficiency of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Yin, N. Wang, S. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Fan, “Advantages of deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN/AlGaN superlattices electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 119(1), 41–44 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Cong, L. Sun, Y. Tian, C. Zhao, and J. Li, “AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on high-quality AlN template using MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 254–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, C. Chu, K. Tian, and Y. Zhang, “Screen the Polarization Induced Electric Field Within the MQWs for DUV LEDs,” in Deep Ultraviolet LEDs (Springer, 2019), pp. 43–57.

Zhang, Z.

X. Fan, H. Sun, X. Li, H. Sun, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Guo, “Efficiency improvements in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using inverted-V-shaped graded Al composition electron blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 88, 467–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhang, J. Kou, S.-W. H. Chen, H. Shao, J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and H.-C. Kuo, “Increasing the hole energy by grading the alloy composition of the p-type electron blocking layer for very high-performance deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 7(4), B1–B6 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Che, H. Shao, J. Kou, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Wang, Y. Zhu, and Z.-H. Zhang, “On the origin of enhanced hole injection for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AlN insertion layer in p-electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 27(12), A620–A628 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, and X. W. Sun, “Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, X. Zhang, L. Wang, Z. Kyaw, and X. W. Sun, “Polarization self-screening in [0001] oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for improving the electron injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, C. Chu, K. Tian, and Y. Zhang, “Screen the Polarization Induced Electric Field Within the MQWs for DUV LEDs,” in Deep Ultraviolet LEDs (Springer, 2019), pp. 43–57.

Zhao, C.

H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Cong, L. Sun, Y. Tian, C. Zhao, and J. Li, “AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on high-quality AlN template using MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 254–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Luo, S. Li, and Z. Chen, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by using a AlxGa1-xN carrier reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(6), 062013 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhdanova, E. V.

Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Zverev, M. M.

Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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H. Sun, D. Priante, J.-W. Min, R. C. Subedi, M. K. Shakfa, Z. Ren, K.-H. Li, R. Lin, C. Zhao, T. Ng, J.-H. Ryou, X. Zhang, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Graded-Index Separated Confinement Heterostructure AlGaN Nanowires: Towards Ultraviolet Laser Diodes Implementation,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3305–3314 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. Guo, H. Sun, B. Torre, J. Li, M. Sheikhi, J. Jiang, H. Li, S. Guo, K. Li, and R. Lin, “Lateral-Polarity Structure of AlGaN Quantum Wells: A Promising Approach to Enhancing the Ultraviolet Luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(32), 1802395 (2018).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ci, H. Chang, R. Wang, T. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Y. Sun, Z. Dou, Z. Liu, J. Li, P. Gao, and Z. Liu, “Enhancement of Heat Dissipation in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes by a Vertically Oriented Graphene Nanowall Buffer Layer,” Adv. Mater. 31(29), 1901624 (2019).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. X. Wang, X. Rong, S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, Z. Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Wang, P. Wang, P. Jin, Y. N. Chen, V. I. Kozlovsky, D. E. Sviridov, M. M. Zverev, E. V. Zhdanova, N. A. Gamov, V. B. Studenov, H. Miyake, H. W. Li, S. P. Guo, X. L. Yang, F. J. Xu, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, B. Shen, and X. Q. Wang, “Deep Ultraviolet Light Source from Ultrathin GaN/AlN MQW Structures with Output Power Over 2 Watt,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1801763 (2019).
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Appl. Phys. Express (4)

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Y. A. Yin, N. Wang, S. Li, Y. Zhang, and G. Fan, “Advantages of deep-UV AlGaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN/AlGaN superlattices electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 119(1), 41–44 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Luo, S. Li, and Z. Chen, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by using a AlxGa1-xN carrier reservoir layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(6), 062013 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Yun, J. I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with gradually increased barrier thicknesses from n-layers to p-layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, and X. W. Sun, “Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 243501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, X. Zhang, L. Wang, Z. Kyaw, and X. W. Sun, “Polarization self-screening in [0001] oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for improving the electron injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251108 (2014).
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M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
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[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. R. Haughn, G. Rupper, T. Wunderer, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Wraback, and G. A. Garrett, “Highly radiative nature of ultra-thin c-plane Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells for deep ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 102101 (2019).
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Crystals (1)

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Status of growth of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Crystals 7(10), 300 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, F.-M. Chen, Y.-H. Shih, and H.-T. Chang, “Numerical investigation on the carrier transport characteristics of AlGaN deep-UV light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(4), 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (4)

X. J. J. Yan, Y. Guo, L. Sun, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, F. Yang, and J. Li, “Tailoring of energy band in electron-blocking structure enhancing the efficiency of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, Q. Chen, Z. Ren, M. Tian, S. Long, J. Dai, C. Chen, and H. Sun, “Enhanced Performance of an AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED Having Graded Quantum Well Structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(4), 1–6 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Ren, Y. Lu, H.-H. Yao, H. Sun, C.-H. Liao, J. Dai, C. Chen, J.-H. Ryou, J. Yan, J. Wang, J. Li, and X. Li, “III-Nitride Deep UV LED Without Electron Blocking Layer,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, J. Yin, E. Pecora, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, “Deep-ultraviolet emitting AlGaN multiple quantum well graded-index separate-confinement heterostructures grown by MBE on SiC substrates,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

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X. Fan, H. Sun, X. Li, H. Sun, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Guo, “Efficiency improvements in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using inverted-V-shaped graded Al composition electron blocking layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 88, 467–473 (2015).
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Other (3)

http://www.crosslight.com/ . Accessed on June 2019.

J. Piprek, ed. Nitride Semiconductor Devices: Principles and Simulation, Vol. 590. (Wiley-vch, 2007).

Z.-H. Zhang, C. Chu, K. Tian, and Y. Zhang, “Screen the Polarization Induced Electric Field Within the MQWs for DUV LEDs,” in Deep Ultraviolet LEDs (Springer, 2019), pp. 43–57.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the reference DUV LED (Sample A) and Al composition profiles for Sample A, B, and C respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Measured and calculated L-I-V characteristics of Sample A, B, C. (b) Calculated EQE under different injection current for Sample A, B, and C, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Electron concentration profiles in the last three QWs and p-type region. (b) Electron concentration profiles, (c) Hole concentration profiles and (d) Radiative recombination rate profiles in the MQWs. In order to present the curves more clearly, the relative position of the peaks was deliberately changed in figs. 3(b), 3(c) and 3(d). The data are calculated at the injection current of 60 mA.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Energy band profiles of the MQW region, p-EBL layers and part of the p-type hole injection layers for (a) Sample A, (b) Sample B and (c) Sample C at the injection current of 60 mA.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) LOP and Гe-hh as a function of the QB thickness for step-like QB with IAC grading structure. (b) Electron concentration profiles. (c) Hole concentration profiles. (d) The radiative recombination rate profiles in the MQWs for IAC grading step-like QB structure with a thickness of 6 nm, 8 nm, and 12 nm, respectively. The data are calculated at the injection current of 60 mA.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summarized values of ΔΦCB and ΔΦVB of the QBs for Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The electron and hole wave function overlap for QW 1, QW 2, QW 3 and QW 4, QW 5 in Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ P ( z ) = σ S 1 P o l z = 0 ρ B P o l z ( z < l b ) ,
E b l w Δ P l b ε w + l w ε b ,
E b l b + E w l w = 0 ,

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