Abstract

Integrated multi-color micron-sized light emitting diode (micro-LED) arrays have been demonstrated in recent years for display applications; however, their potential as visible light communication (VLC) transmitters is yet to be fully explored. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of on-chip dual-color micro-LED arrays and their application in VLC. For this purpose, blue-green and blue-violet micro-LED arrays were fabricated by transfer printing blue-emitting micro-LEDs onto the substrate of green and violet micro-LEDs, respectively. The potential of these dual-color micro-LED arrays as VLC transmitters is demonstrated with respective error-free data rates of 1.79 and 3.35 Gbps, achieved by the blue-green and blue-violet devices in a dual wavelength multiplexing scheme.

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (1)

H. Zhang and J. A. Rogers, “Recent Advances in Flexible Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes: From Materials Design to Integrated Optoelectronic Platforms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800936 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C.-H. Teng, and P.-C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and Characterization of Active Matrix LED Microdisplays With Embedded Visible Light Communication Transmitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(14), 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: A very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 669–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond - a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3), A475 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bamiedakis, N.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bonafede, S.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bower, C. A.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brueckner, E.

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chae, S. I.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. H.-C.

D. Kang, A. Standley, J. H.-C. Chang, Y. Liu, and Y.-C. Tai, “Effects of deposition temperature on Parylene-C properties,” in 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 389–390.

Chen, Z.

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, M. K.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-Y.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chong, W. C.

Choquette, K.

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C.-H. Teng, and P.-C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
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S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
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C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
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Cooper, J. M.

Dawson, M. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
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M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
[Crossref]

Demory, B.

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C.-H. Teng, and P.-C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
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S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

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C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

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R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

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C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
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C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
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S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
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Guilhabert, B.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
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Haas, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
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J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
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S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
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A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
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M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
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M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
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R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
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Kim, H.

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
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Kim, S. J.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
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Kim, T. W.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
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Kim, T.-H.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kong, D.-J.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
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Ku, P.-C.

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C.-H. Teng, and P.-C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
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Laurand, N.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-S.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-J.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-Y.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

M. Choi, B. Jang, W. Lee, S. Lee, T. W. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Ahn, “Stretchable Active Matrix Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode Display Enabled by Overlay-Aligned Roll-Transfer Printing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(11), 1606005 (2017).
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Li, X.

Li, Y.

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
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Lin, J. Y.

Liu, J.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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D. Kang, A. Standley, J. H.-C. Chang, Y. Liu, and Y.-C. Tai, “Effects of deposition temperature on Parylene-C properties,” in 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (IEEE, 2013), pp. 389–390.

Liu, Z.

Lochner, Z.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M. A.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Melnik, G. A.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mi, Z.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moore, T.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mun, S.-H.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Neale, S. L.

Ng, H. M.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

H. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

M. K. Choi, J. Yang, K. Kang, D. C. Kim, C. Choi, C. Park, S. J. Kim, S. I. Chae, T.-H. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable red–green–blue quantum dot light-emitting diode array using high-resolution intaglio transfer printing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, M.-D.

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[Crossref]

Penty, R. V.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A35 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Prevatte, C.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ra, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Radauscher, E.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rae, B. R.

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
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H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(13), 3047–3052 (2016).
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J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
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S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
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J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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H. Zhang and J. A. Rogers, “Recent Advances in Flexible Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes: From Materials Design to Integrated Optoelectronic Platforms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800936 (2019).
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J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
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J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-Matrix GaN Micro Light-Emitting Diode Display With Unprecedented Brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

C.-M. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, D.-J. Kong, J.-P. Shim, S. Kim, S.-H. Mun, S.-Y. Choi, M.-D. Park, J. Kim, and D.-S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. J. Hong, C.-H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H.-K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Zhang and J. A. Rogers, “Recent Advances in Flexible Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes: From Materials Design to Integrated Optoelectronic Platforms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800936 (2019).
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AIP Adv. (1)

Y. Wang, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, Z. Gong, J. Mckendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C.-H. Teng, and P.-C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. Zhang, Z. Gong, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Watson, A. Cogman, E. Xie, P. Tian, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, A. E. Kelly, R. K. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “CMOS-Controlled Color-Tunable Smart Display,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1639–1646 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Atomic force microscopy image of the PSS (a) before and (b) after SU-8 coating; plan-view optical micrograph of the blue-green micro-LED array (c) before and (d) after transfer printing of the blue micro-LED platelet. A and K are the respective anode and common cathode contact pads. Plan-view optical micrograph of the (e) violet, (f) blue, and (g) green micro-LEDs individually driven at the current density of 318 A/cm2, 15 A/cm2, and 318 A/cm2, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a), (b), and (c) Violet, green, and blue micro-LEDs current density-voltage curve, current density-optical power curve, and electroluminescence spectra, respectively; (d) Violet, green, and blue micro-LEDs -6 dB electrical modulation bandwidth as a function of the current density.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Blue-green micro-LED array CIE1931 coordinates on the CIE1931 color space chromaticity diagram and photographs of the device at different biases; (b) blue-violet micro-LED array CIE1931 color coordinates at different biases; (c) electroluminescence spectra from the blue-green and blue-violet array at different integrated area ratios of blue-green and blue-violet, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic drawing of the experimental set-ups in wavelength division multiplexing data transmission experiments: (a) set-up 1 (WDM1); (b) set-up 2 (WDM2). The photograph inset in the schematics is the actual blue-green micro-LED array (wire bonded to a printed circuit board - PCB) being operated in WDM mode.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Signal-to-noise ratio and allocated bits (at maximum data rate below forward error correction threshold) in both WDM set-ups achieved by (a) the blue micro-LED and (b) the green micro-LED; (c) BER vs data rate for the blue and green micro-LEDs in both WDM set-ups.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Signal-to-noise ratio and allocated bits (at maximum data rate below forward error correction) in both WDM set-ups achieved by (a) the blue micro-LED and (b) the violet micro-LED; (c) BER vs data rate for blue and violet micro-LEDs in both WDM set-ups.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Error-free data rates for each channel and aggregated in WDM1 and WDM2 set-ups achieved by the blue-green micro-LEDs array.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Error-free data rates for each channel and aggregated in WDM1 and WDM2 set-ups achieved by the blue-violet micro-LED array.

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