Abstract

Here, we report on a new record in the acquisition time for fast neutron tomography. With an optimized imaging setup, it was possible to acquire single radiographic projection images with 10 ms and full tomographies with 155 projections images and a physical spatial resolution of 200 µm within 1.5 s. This is about 6.7 times faster than the current record. We used the technique to investigate the water infiltration in the soil with a living lupine root system. The fast imaging setup will be part of the future NeXT instrument at ILL in Grenoble with a great field of possible future applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Carminati and H. Flühler, “Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Soil Aggregate Packings,” Vadose Zone J. 8(1), 150–157 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. A. Hall, “Characterization of fluid flow in a shear band in porous rock using neutron radiography,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(11), 2613–2618 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. C. de Beer, W. J. Strydom, and E. J. Griesel, “The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(4), 617–623 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.
  12. A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).
  19. A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, and A. Tengattini, “Tracking 3D water flow and root uptake in soil by means of ultrafast neutron tomography,”Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), ed. (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

2019 (2)

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hall, “Characterization of fluid flow in a shear band in porous rock using neutron radiography,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(11), 2613–2618 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Carminati and H. Flühler, “Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Soil Aggregate Packings,” Vadose Zone J. 8(1), 150–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. C. de Beer, W. J. Strydom, and E. J. Griesel, “The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(4), 617–623 (2004).
[Crossref]

Allu, S.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ando, E.

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

Archibald, R.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arlt, T.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Atkins, D.

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

Banhart, J.

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beaucour, J.

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

Bilheux, H.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bilheux, H. Z.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cai, J. C.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carminati, A.

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati and H. Flühler, “Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Soil Aggregate Packings,” Vadose Zone J. 8(1), 150–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Charalampidou, E.-M.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. L.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Couples, G. D.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dara, A.

A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M.

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Beer, F. C.

F. C. de Beer, W. J. Strydom, and E. J. Griesel, “The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(4), 617–623 (2004).
[Crossref]

DiStefano, V. H.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Donnelly, B.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dudney, N. J.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Etxegarai, M.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

Figiel, H.

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Flühler, H.

A. Carminati and H. Flühler, “Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Soil Aggregate Packings,” Vadose Zone J. 8(1), 150–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

Giroud, B.

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

Gondek, L

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gout, J.

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Graf, W.

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gragg, M. J.

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Griesel, E. J.

F. C. de Beer, W. J. Strydom, and E. J. Griesel, “The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(4), 617–623 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hall, S. A.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hall, “Characterization of fluid flow in a shear band in porous rock using neutron radiography,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(11), 2613–2618 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartnig, C.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M. P.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herbrig, K.

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Herppich, W. B.

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hilger, A.

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Hopmans, J. W.

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Kaestner, A.

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, M.

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kardjilov, N.

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, and A. Tengattini, “Tracking 3D water flow and root uptake in soil by means of ultrafast neutron tomography,”Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), ed. (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Kieback, B.

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. X.

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

Konrad, W.

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, R.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kupsch, A.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lamanna, J. M.

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lange, A.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lehmann, E.

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Lenoir, N.

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, and A. Tengattini, “Tracking 3D water flow and root uptake in soil by means of ultrafast neutron tomography,”Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), ed. (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Lewis, H.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

Manke, I.

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Markötter, H.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Martin, C. E.

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

Matsushima, U.

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

McKay, L. D.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Menon, M.

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Miranda, T.

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moradi, A.

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moradi, A. B.

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Moradi, B. A.

A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nanda, J.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oswald, S.

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oswald, S. E.

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Pannala, S.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perfect, E.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pohlmann, C.

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Röntzsch, L.

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roth-Nebelsick, A.

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Santodonato, L. J.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scholta, J.

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Strydom, W. J.

F. C. de Beer, W. J. Strydom, and E. J. Griesel, “The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(4), 617–623 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tengattini, A.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, and A. Tengattini, “Tracking 3D water flow and root uptake in soil by means of ultrafast neutron tomography,”Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), ed. (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

Tötzke, C.

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, and A. Tengattini, “Tracking 3D water flow and root uptake in soil by means of ultrafast neutron tomography,”Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), ed. (2018).
[Crossref]

Tremsin, A. S.

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tudisco, E.

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

Veith, G. M.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vetterlein, D.

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Viggiani, G.

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

Vogel, H.-J.

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Voisin, S.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vontobel, P.

A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walker, L.

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weller, U.

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Woracek, R.

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wright, D. M.

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zarebanadkouki, M.

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Water Resour. (1)

C. L. Cheng, E. Perfect, B. Donnelly, H. Z. Bilheux, A. S. Tremsin, L. D. McKay, V. H. DiStefano, J. C. Cai, and L. J. Santodonato, “Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock,” Adv. Water Resour. 77, 82–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ann. Bot. (1)

C. Tötzke, T. Miranda, W. Konrad, J. Gout, N. Kardjilov, M. Dawson, I. Manke, and A. Roth-Nebelsick, “Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography,” Ann. Bot. 111(4), 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Radiat. Isot. (1)

F. C. de Beer, W. J. Strydom, and E. J. Griesel, “The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61(4), 617–623 (2004).
[Crossref]

Earth-Sci. Rev. (1)

E. Perfect, C. L. Cheng, M. Kang, H. Z. Bilheux, J. M. Lamanna, M. J. Gragg, and D. M. Wright, “Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 129, 120–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

S. A. Hall, “Characterization of fluid flow in a shear band in porous rock using neutron radiography,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(11), 2613–2618 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, I. Manke, R. Woracek, and J. Banhart, “CONRAD-2: the new neutron imaging instrument at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49(1), 195–202 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth (1)

E. Tudisco, M. Etxegarai, S. A. Hall, E.-M. Charalampidou, G. D. Couples, H. Lewis, A. Tengattini, and N. Kardjilov, “Fast 4-D Imaging of Fluid Flow in Rock by High-Speed Neutron Tomography,” J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 124(4), 3557–3569 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Nanda, H. Bilheux, S. Voisin, G. M. Veith, R. Archibald, L. Walker, S. Allu, N. J. Dudney, and S. Pannala, “Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(15), 8401–8408 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Power Sources (2)

C. Pohlmann, K. Herbrig, Ł Gondek, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, H. Figiel, J. Banhart, B. Kieback, I. Manke, and L. Röntzsch, “In operando visualization of hydride-graphite composites during cyclic hydrogenation by high-resolution neutron imaging,” J. Power Sources 277, 360–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Markötter, I. Manke, R. Kuhn, T. Arlt, N. Kardjilov, M. P. Hentschel, A. Kupsch, A. Lange, C. Hartnig, J. Scholta, and J. Banhart, “Neutron tomographic investigations of water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks,” J. Power Sources 219, 120–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, R. Woracek, A. Hilger, and J. Banhart, “Advances in neutron imaging,” Mater. Today 21(6), 652–672 (2018).
[Crossref]

New Phytol. (1)

A. B. Moradi, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, J. W. Hopmans, H.-J. Vogel, and S. E. Oswald, “Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere,” New Phytol. 192(3), 653–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A (1)

U. Matsushima, W. B. Herppich, N. Kardjilov, W. Graf, A. Hilger, and I. Manke, “Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D2O tracer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 605(1–2), 146–149 (2009).
[Crossref]

Plant Soil (2)

A. Dara, B. A. Moradi, P. Vontobel, and S. E. Oswald, “Mapping compensating root water uptake in heterogeneous soil conditions via neutron radiography,” Plant Soil 397(1-2), 273–287 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Carminati, A. Moradi, D. Vetterlein, P. Vontobel, E. Lehmann, U. Weller, H.-J. Vogel, and S. Oswald, “Dynamics of soil water content in the rhizosphere,” Plant Soil 332(1-2), 163–176 (2010).
[Crossref]

Plant, Cell Environ. (1)

W. B. Herppich, C. E. Martin, C. Tötzke, I. Manke, and N. Kardjilov, “External water transport is more important than vascular transport in the extreme atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss),” Plant, Cell Environ. 42(5), 1645–1656 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, and S. E. Oswald, “Capturing 3D Water Flow in Rooted Soil by Ultra-fast Neutron Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6192 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vadose Zone J. (2)

A. Carminati and H. Flühler, “Water Infiltration and Redistribution in Soil Aggregate Packings,” Vadose Zone J. 8(1), 150–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Zarebanadkouki, Y. X. Kim, A. B. Moradi, H.-J. Vogel, A. Kaestner, and A. Carminati, “Quantification and Modeling of Local Root Water Uptake Using Neutron Radiography and Deuterated Water,” Vadose Zone J. 11(3), 0 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

C. Tötzke, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, and A. Tengattini, “Tracking 3D water flow and root uptake in soil by means of ultrafast neutron tomography,”Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), ed. (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Tengattini, N. Kardjilov, N. Lenoir, H. Markötter, A. Hilger, T. Arlt, and I. Manke, “High-speed sub-4 µm neutron imaging with a compact and flexible detector,” (2019 (submitted)).

A. Tengattini, N. Lenoir, E. Ando, B. Giroud, D. Atkins, J. Beaucour, and G. Viggiani, “NeXT-Grenoble, the Neutron and X-ray Tomograph in Grenoble,” (2019 (submitted)).

A. B. Moradi, J. W. Hopmans, S. E. Oswald, M. Menon, A. Carminati, and E. Lehmann, “Applications of Neutron Imaging in Soil–Water–Root Systems,” in Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging, S. H. Anderson and J. W. Hopmans, eds. (The Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 2013), pp. 113–136.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       High-speed neutron tomography of an water infiltration experiment. The 3D rendered visualization shows the rise of water in a soil column with a living lupine root system after injection of deuterated water through the bottom.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scheme of the neutron imaging station NeXT at the ILL. (a) General view on the instrument enclosing pinhole position, flight tubes guiding the neutron to the measuring position. (b) Neutron spectrum of the beam as measured at the end of the guide. (c) Enlarged view of the measuring position. (d) Scheme of the camera box. Adapted from [18].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Physical spatial resolution of the applied detector system measured by a Siemens star. The spokes can be clearly distinguished from one another throughout the fourth inner ring, which corresponds to a resolution of about 200 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental set up of the water imbibition experiment. (a) Plant sample mounted on a rotation stage in front of the neutron detector. (b) Scheme of high-speed neutron tomography experiment.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. High-speed neutron tomography of a lupine root system grown in sandy soil. Time resolution is 1.5 s per tomogram marking a new speed record for neutron tomography. (a) Raw radiographic projection. Yellow rectangles indicate regions used for contrast calculation. (b) Vertical tomographic slice of the reconstructed sample volume. Yellow rectangles indicate regions used for contrast calculation. (c) 3D-rendered view of the sample. Roots are false-colored in green, qualitative soil water distribution in turquois. (d) 3D-rendered view of the segmented root system.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time series of neutron tomograms showing the rise of water in a soil column with a living lupine root system after injection of deuterated water through the bottom. Time resolution is 3 s per tomogram.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of key parameters of the high-speed tomography of a lupine root system performed at neutron imaging stations of NeXT and CONRAD IIa

Equations (1)

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C o n t r a s t = I s o i l I r o o t I s o i l + I r o o t 100 % ,

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