Abstract

Multimode fibres have recently shown promise as miniature endoscopic probes. When used for non-linear microscopy, the bandwidth of the imaging system limits the ability to focus light from broadband pulsed lasers as well as the possibility of wavelength tuning during the imaging. We demonstrate that the bandwidth is limited by the dispersion of the off-axis hologram displayed on the SLM, which can be corrected for, and by the limited bandwidth of the fibre itself. The selection of the fibre is therefore crucial for these experiments. In addition, we show that a standard prism pulse compressor is sufficient for material dispersion compensation for multi-photon imaging with a fibre endoscope.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

2018 (7)

M. Hoffmann, I. N. Papadopoulos, and B. Judkewitz, “Kilohertz binary phase modulator for pulsed laser sources using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Lett. 43(1), 22–25 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. R. Parsons, R. Patterson, J. Young, and P. F. Kolesar, “The Impact of Effective Modal Bandwidth on 100G SWDM Transmission Over 250 m OM5 and Left-Tilt OM4 Multimode Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(24), 5841–5848 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ohayon, A. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, and J. J. DiCarlo, “Minimally invasive multimode optical fiber microendoscope for deep brain fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1492–1509 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

E. E. Morales-Delgado, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Two-photon imaging through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32158–32170 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. E. Morales-Delgado, S. Farahi, I. N. Papadopoulos, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Delivery of focused short pulses through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9109–9120 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1983 (1)

Ahmed, G.

Altwegg-Boussac, T.

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amitonova, L. V.

Andresen, E. R.

Babic, F.

Barton-Owen, T.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baumgartl, M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boonzajer Flaes, D. E.

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bouwmans, G.

Brehm, B. R.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

Caravaca-Aguirre, A.

Chemnitz, M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chen, S.-C.

Cheng, J.

Chmelík, R.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: Complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19(20), 18871–18884 (2011).
[Crossref]

Conkey, D. B.

Cossart, R.

Cuschieri, A.

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J. F.

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deng, S.

Descloux, A.

Dholakia, K.

I. Gusachenko, M. Chen, and K. Dholakia, “Raman imaging through a single multimode fibre,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13782–13798 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: Complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19(20), 18871–18884 (2011).
[Crossref]

DiCarlo, J. J.

Dietzek, B.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dostál, Z.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Emptage, N. J.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Esposito, E.

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Farahi, S.

Feng, Y.

Ferrier, D. E. K.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Frosz, M. H.

Geng, Q.

Gibson, G. M.

Gigan, S.

S. Rotter and S. Gigan, “Light fields in complex media: Mesoscopic scattering meets wave control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(1), 015005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Girkin, J. M.

Goodman, J. W.

Gottschall, T.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

Gu, R. Y.

Guo, X.

Gusachenko, I.

Hoffmann, M.

Jafari, R.

Jiang, X.

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. V. Amitonova, A. Descloux, J. Petschulat, M. H. Frosz, G. Ahmed, F. Babic, X. Jiang, A. P. Mosk, P. S. Russell, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 497–500 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, T.

Judkewitz, B.

Kahn, J. M.

Kakkava, E.

Kim, M.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolesar, P. F.

Kollárová, V.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Konstantinou, G.

Koren, V.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leach, J.

Lee, K. J.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leite, I. T.

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Limpert, J.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loterie, D.

Luo, J.

Mahalati, R. N.

Matthäus, C.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

McConnell, G.

Meyer, T.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monneret, S.

Morales-Delgado, E. E.

Moser, C.

Mosk, A. P.

Moslehi, B.

Nylk, J.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohayon, S.

Padamsey, Z.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Pakan, J. M. P.

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

Papadopoulos, I. N.

Parsons, E. R.

Pascher, T.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patterson, R.

Petschulat, J.

Piestun, R.

Pinkse, P. W. H.

Plöschner, M.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

Popoff, S. M.

Popp, J.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Rawson, E. G.

Redding, B.

Rigneault, H.

Rochefort, N. L.

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

Romeike, B. F. M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Romito, M.

Rotter, S.

S. Rotter and S. Gigan, “Light fields in complex media: Mesoscopic scattering meets wave control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(1), 015005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Šiler, M.

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sivankutty, S.

Stankovic, K. M.

Stopka, J.

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

Tünnermann, A.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turcotte, R.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Turtaev, S.

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tyc, T.

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vasquez-Lopez, S. A.

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vellekoop, I. M.

Wright, A. J.

Wu, Z.

Yang, T. D.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Young, J.

Zhu, P.

Ziegler, D.

Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Expanding Multimodal Microscopy by High Spectral Resolution Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging for Clinical Disease Diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

S. A. Vasquez-Lopez, R. Turcotte, V. Koren, M. Plöschner, Z. Padamsey, M. J. Booth, T. Čižmár, and N. J. Emptage, “Subcellular spatial resolution achieved for deep-brain imaging in vivo using a minimally invasive multimode fiber,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 110 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Turtaev, I. T. Leite, T. Altwegg-Boussac, J. M. P. Pakan, N. L. Rochefort, and T. Čižmár, “High-fidelity multimode fibre-based endoscopy for deep brain in vivo imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 92 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1027 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. T. Leite, S. Turtaev, X. Jiang, M. Šiler, A. Cuschieri, P. S. J. Russell, and T. Čižmár, “Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 33–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (12)

B. Redding, S. M. Popoff, and H. Cao, “All-fiber spectrometer based on speckle pattern reconstruction,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6584–6600 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Farahi, D. Ziegler, I. N. Papadopoulos, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Dynamic bending compensation while focusing through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22504–22514 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. E. Morales-Delgado, S. Farahi, I. N. Papadopoulos, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Delivery of focused short pulses through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9109–9120 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. E. Morales-Delgado, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Two-photon imaging through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32158–32170 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sivankutty, E. R. Andresen, R. Cossart, G. Bouwmans, S. Monneret, and H. Rigneault, “Ultra-thin rigid endoscope: Two-photon imaging through a graded-index multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(2), 825–841 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, E. Esposito, G. McConnell, A. J. Wright, and J. M. Girkin, “Generation of achromatic Bessel beams using a compensated spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5581–5587 (2006).
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T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: Complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19(20), 18871–18884 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. N. Mahalati, R. Y. Gu, and J. M. Kahn, “Resolution limits for imaging through multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1656–1668 (2013).
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S. Deng, D. Loterie, G. Konstantinou, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Raman imaging through multimode sapphire fiber,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1090–1098 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Luo, Y. Feng, X. Guo, Y. Shen, and Z. Li, “Controlling 1550-nm light through a multimode fiber using a Hadamard encoding algorithm,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5570–5580 (2019).
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I. Gusachenko, M. Chen, and K. Dholakia, “Raman imaging through a single multimode fibre,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13782–13798 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, R. Jafari, T. Jones, and R. Trebino, “Complete measurement of spatiotemporally complex multi-spatial-mode ultrashort pulses from multimode optical fibers using delay-scanned wavelength-multiplexed holography,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24015–24023 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. E. Boonzajer Flaes, J. Stopka, S. Turtaev, J. F. de Boer, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Robustness of Light-Transport Processes to Bending Deformations in Graded-Index Multimode Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 233901 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. Rotter and S. Gigan, “Light fields in complex media: Mesoscopic scattering meets wave control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(1), 015005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18050 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup used for fibre characterization. LC SLM – liquid crystal spatial light modulator, L – lens, PD – photodiode, BS – non-polarising beamsplitter, MD – D-shaped mirror, HWP – half-wave plate, PBS – polarising beamsplitter, POL – polariser, CAM – camera, P – right-angle prism mirror, RR – roof prism mirror. The inset shows hologram generation and the corresponding focused points at the Fourier plane of the modulator as well as how the mirrors MD1 and MD2 pick off the signal for the reference and the vertical polarisation, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SLM dispersion compensation. (a) Drawing of the top half of the Fourier plane of the SLM for two gratings creating the two focused points for the two polarisation directions (see inset in Fig. 1). Different wavelengths are represented by different colours. Arrows show polarisation direction and dashed lines represent the image of the fibre core. (b) Focused points at the fibre input facet for different wavelengths without and with the dispersion correction. The arrows showing the polarisation direction are omitted for clarity in the two bottom figures. (c) Intensity enhancement for output points $50$ µm in front of the fibre facet at a different position ($x_{\mathrm {sample}}$) along a radius in the focal plane as a function of wavelength when tuning the laser from the calibration wavelength of $780\,\mathrm {nm}$. (d) Comparison of different dispersion compensation methods for a point in the centre of the focal plane. The numbers in the legend are the measured bandwidths calculated as the FWHM of the enhancement measured as a function of the wavelength.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dependence of the bandwidth of a graded-index fibre (Prysmian DrakaElite) on its length. (a) Intensity enhancement and spot size (for spots ${\leq }2.5$ µm) as a function of the position of the output points ($x_{\mathrm {sample}}$) and wavelength for three fibre lengths. (b) Comparison of the intensity enhancement for an output point in the centre of the facet. (c) Fibre bandwidth as a function of the fibre length. The vertical error bars show the standard deviation of the values measured in a line across the fibre facet and the horizontal error bars the uncertainty of the fibre length.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Imaging with a graded-index fibre (Prysmian DrakaElite, $50\,\textrm {mm}$ long) at different wavelengths with and without SLM-based dispersion correction. The top panels show a focused point at the imaging plane in a logarithmic scale (PR is the power ratio and Enh is the intensity enhancement). The middle panels show images of group 8 of a 1951 USAF resolution test chart, imaged in transmission. The bottom graphs are cross-sections of the images at the red mark.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Bandwidth for different fibre types. (a) Intensity enhancement for different output point positions ($x_{\mathrm {sample}}$) after tuning from the calibration wavelength of $780\,\textrm {nm}$. All fibres were $50\,\textrm {mm}$ long. (b) Comparison of different fibres for an output point at the centre of the facet. The values in the legend are the measured bandwidths.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. A focused point plotted in a logarithmic scale at the focal plane after wavelength tuning from the calibration wavelength for (a) the step-index fibre (Thorlabs FG050LGA) and (b) a graded-index fibre (Thorlabs GIF50E). SLM-based dispersion correction was used.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison of two techniques for fibre bandwidth measurement (intensity enhancement measurement in the focused output point and speckle decorrelation measurement) for (a) the step-index fibre (Thorlabs FG050LGA) and (b) a graded-index fibre (Thorlabs GIF50E). The error bars for the enhancement show a standard deviation across a $30$ µm long line centred at the fibre axis. The lines in the simulation results are a guide to the eye.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Focusing the femtosecond laser through a multimode fibre. (a) Focused output points created with three different fibres — with higher, similar and lower bandwidth compared to the laser spectral width. PR is the power ratio and Enh is the intensity enhancement. (b) Comparison of the laser spectrum and the bandwidth of the entire system. No SLM dispersion compensation was used.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Spectral phase measurement results for Prysmian DrakaElite fibre. (a) Spectral phase of a focused output point in the focal plane measured without the fibre and with two different fibre lengths. (b) Phase after subtracting values without the fibre for different spot positions. The fit is a quadratic function (corresponding to a second-order dispersion).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Fibres Used in the Experiment and Number of Input Points Used for the Calibration.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Specified and Measured Bandwidths of the Fibres Used in the Experiment. Parameters of the Fibres Are in Table 1.

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