Abstract

An approach for peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) reduction and security improvement in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) is proposed by using optimum block dividing with 2-dimensional logistic adjusted sine map (2D-LASM) and dynamic key assignment technique. One frame of OFDM signal can be regarded as a symbol matrix. All the divisors of length and width of matrix can be calculated out, and each divisor of length and width can be arbitrarily combined to divide the matrix into blocks. A 4D hyperchaotic system is applied to generate a cipher book for 2D-LASM. And we assign different dynamic key groups from the cipher book for 2D-LASM to encrypt different block dividing situations. Different encrypted divisor blocks can obtain different values of PAPR. The optimum dividing situation is obtained by calculating out the minimum value of PAPR (VPAPR). The values of optimum encryption signal (VPAPR-op), the original signal (VPAPR-or) and the optimization ratio (η) are gradually equal to 146, 269 and 1.82, respectively, with the number of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols in each subcarrier increasing. Simulating 1000 sets of 120×200 QAM symbols, the distribution of η approximately meets the Rayleigh distribution and its central distribution is around 1.7. The processing time decreases with the number of QAM symbols increasing in each block. The performance of PAPR reduction is more than 3 dB between the secure optimum signal and the original signal. In addition, the hyper-threading technique with two algorithms is applied to improve the performance of the encryption method. They promote the processing time by 38.6% and 50%, respectively. Finally, a 22.06 Gb/s optimum encryption OFDM signal transmits through a back-to-back (BTB) system and a 25-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). These experimental results verify that the proposed approach is a promising candidate for solving both of PAPR reduction and security improvement in access network systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (11)

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, D. Lei, and X. M. Chen, “Arbitrary Bias Point Control Technique for Optical IQ Modulator Based on Dither-Correlation Detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(18), 3824–3836 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu and C. Chan, “A 7-D Hyperchaotic System-Based Encryption Scheme for Secure Fast-OFDM-PON,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(16), 3373–3381 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Sultan, X. L. Yang, A. E. Hajomer, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Constellation Mapping for Physical-Layer Data Encryption in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 339–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. W. Wu, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. D. Hou, H. H. Wei, and K. Qiu, “Security enhancement for OFDM-PON using Brownian motion and chaos in cell,” Opt. Express 26(18), 22857–22865 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Xie, and Z. Xie, “FISTA-Based PAPR Reduction Method for Tone Reservation’s OFDM System,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett. 7(3), 300–303 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. DelMarco, “A Constrained Optimization Approach to Compander Design for OFDM PAPR Reduction,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 64(2), 307–318 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, W. Lee, and D. Cho, “A Novel PAPR Reduction Scheme for OFDM System Based on Deep Learning,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 22(3), 510–513 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Xing, G. Qiao, and L. Ma, “A Blind Side Information Detection Method for Partial Transmitted Sequence Peak-to-Average Power Reduction Scheme in OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communication System,” IEEE Access. 6, 24128–24136 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhong, X. L. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Performance-Improved Secure OFDM Transmission Using Chaotic Active Constellation Extension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 991–994 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

S. Y. Jung, C. H. Kim, S. M. Jung, and S. K. Han, “Optical pulse division multiplexing-based OBI reduction for single wavelength uplink multiple access in IM/DD OFDMA-PON,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29198–29208 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Shen, X. L. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure Transmission of Optical DFT-S-OFDM Data Encrypted by Digital Chaos,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Hua and Y. Zhou, “Image encryption using 2D Logistic-adjusted-Sine map,” Inf. Sci. 339(1), 237–253 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Lin, B. Huang, and C. Li, “PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Active Constellation Extension and Subcarrier Grouping Techniques,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(12), 2378–2381 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

L. J. Zhang, B. Liu, X. J. Xin, and Y. J. Wang, “Joint robustness security in optical OFDM access system with Turbo-coded subcarrier rotation,” Opt. Express 23(1), 13–18 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. J. Zhang, B. Liu, and X. J. Xin, “Secure coherent optical multi-carrier system with four-dimensional modulation space and Stokes vector scrambling,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2858–2861 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-Efficient Data Migration and Backup for Big Data Applications in Elastic Optical Inter-Data-Center Networks,” IEEE Network 29(5), 36–42 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Chaos-based selected mapping scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 51(18), 1429–1431 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

L. Deng, M. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, L. J. Zhang, X. J. Xin, and Y. J. Wang, “Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON Based on Dimension-Transformed Chaotic Permutation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 127–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gong and Z. Zhu, “Virtual Optical Network Embedding (VONE) over Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(3), 450–460 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sahin, I. Guvenc, and H. Arslan, “A Survey on Multicarrier Communications: Prototype Filters, Lattice Structures, and Implementation Aspects,” IEEE Commun. Survey Tuts. 16(3), 1312–1338 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

J. Silva, A. Cartaxo, and M. Segatto, “A PAPR Reduction Technique Based on a Constant Envelope OFDM Approach for Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation in Optical Direct-Detection Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(4), 296–303 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Sundarapandian and R. Karthikeyan, “Anti-synchronization of hyperchaotic lorenz and hyperchaotic chen systems by adaptive control,” Inf. Sci. 3(5), 41–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Wang and Z. Luo, “Optimized Iterative Clipping and Filtering for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 59(1), 33–37 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Naeiny and F. Marvasti, “Selected Mapping Algorithm for PAPR Reduction of Space-Frequency Coded OFDM Systems without Side Information,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60(3), 1211–1216 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (2)

T. Jiang and G. Zhu, “Complement Block Coding for Reduction in Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(9), S17–S22 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Annovazzi, V.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ansari, N.

Argyris, A.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

Arora, N. S.

N. S. Arora, R. D. Blumofe, and C. G. Plaxton, “Thread scheduling for multiprogrammed multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, (Academic, 1998), pp. 119–129.

Arslan, H.

A. Sahin, I. Guvenc, and H. Arslan, “A Survey on Multicarrier Communications: Prototype Filters, Lattice Structures, and Implementation Aspects,” IEEE Commun. Survey Tuts. 16(3), 1312–1338 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, C.

X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bi, M. H.

M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blumofe, R. D.

N. S. Arora, R. D. Blumofe, and C. G. Plaxton, “Thread scheduling for multiprogrammed multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, (Academic, 1998), pp. 119–129.

Cartaxo, A.

Chan, C.

Chen, C.

T. W. Wu, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. D. Hou, H. H. Wei, and K. Qiu, “Security enhancement for OFDM-PON using Brownian motion and chaos in cell,” Opt. Express 26(18), 22857–22865 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. M.

Cheng, M.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
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L. Deng, M. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
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M. Kim, W. Lee, and D. Cho, “A Novel PAPR Reduction Scheme for OFDM System Based on Deep Learning,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 22(3), 510–513 (2018).
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Y. Yin, H. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Xia, Z. Zhu, S. Dahfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Spectral and Spatial 2D Fragmentation-Aware Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 5(10), A100–A106 (2013).
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S. DelMarco, “A Constrained Optimization Approach to Compander Design for OFDM PAPR Reduction,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 64(2), 307–318 (2018).
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M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
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L. Deng, M. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Secure OFDM-PON system based on chaos and fractional Fourier transform techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(15), 2629–2635 (2014).
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A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fu, S. N.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, X. S.

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
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Guvenc, I.

A. Sahin, I. Guvenc, and H. Arslan, “A Survey on Multicarrier Communications: Prototype Filters, Lattice Structures, and Implementation Aspects,” IEEE Commun. Survey Tuts. 16(3), 1312–1338 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hajomer, A. E.

A. Sultan, X. L. Yang, A. E. Hajomer, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Constellation Mapping for Physical-Layer Data Encryption in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 339–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, S. K.

He, H.

Z. W. Shen, X. L. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure Transmission of Optical DFT-S-OFDM Data Encrypted by Digital Chaos,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, X. J.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
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Hu, W.

X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
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X. Hu, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Chaos-based selected mapping scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 51(18), 1429–1431 (2015).
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A. Sultan, X. L. Yang, A. E. Hajomer, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Constellation Mapping for Physical-Layer Data Encryption in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 339–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhong, X. L. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Performance-Improved Secure OFDM Transmission Using Chaotic Active Constellation Extension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 991–994 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Shen, X. L. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure Transmission of Optical DFT-S-OFDM Data Encrypted by Digital Chaos,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

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X. Hu, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Chaos-based selected mapping scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 51(18), 1429–1431 (2015).
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X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
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S. Wang, W. Lin, B. Huang, and C. Li, “PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Active Constellation Extension and Subcarrier Grouping Techniques,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(12), 2378–2381 (2016).
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M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
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Jung, S. Y.

Karthikeyan, R.

V. Sundarapandian and R. Karthikeyan, “Anti-synchronization of hyperchaotic lorenz and hyperchaotic chen systems by adaptive control,” Inf. Sci. 3(5), 41–50 (2012).
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Kim, C. H.

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M. Kim, W. Lee, and D. Cho, “A Novel PAPR Reduction Scheme for OFDM System Based on Deep Learning,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 22(3), 510–513 (2018).
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Kodama, T.

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A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
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M. Kim, W. Lee, and D. Cho, “A Novel PAPR Reduction Scheme for OFDM System Based on Deep Learning,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 22(3), 510–513 (2018).
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Li, C.

S. Wang, W. Lin, B. Huang, and C. Li, “PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Active Constellation Extension and Subcarrier Grouping Techniques,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(12), 2378–2381 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X. L.

Lin, W.

S. Wang, W. Lin, B. Huang, and C. Li, “PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Active Constellation Extension and Subcarrier Grouping Techniques,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(12), 2378–2381 (2016).
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Liu, D.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
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M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
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Y. Wang and Z. Luo, “Optimized Iterative Clipping and Filtering for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 59(1), 33–37 (2011).
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S. Xing, G. Qiao, and L. Ma, “A Blind Side Information Detection Method for Partial Transmitted Sequence Peak-to-Average Power Reduction Scheme in OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communication System,” IEEE Access. 6, 24128–24136 (2018).
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M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
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A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
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S. Xing, G. Qiao, and L. Ma, “A Blind Side Information Detection Method for Partial Transmitted Sequence Peak-to-Average Power Reduction Scheme in OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communication System,” IEEE Access. 6, 24128–24136 (2018).
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C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
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T. W. Wu, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. D. Hou, H. H. Wei, and K. Qiu, “Security enhancement for OFDM-PON using Brownian motion and chaos in cell,” Opt. Express 26(18), 22857–22865 (2018).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
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C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
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X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
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Z. W. Shen, X. L. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure Transmission of Optical DFT-S-OFDM Data Encrypted by Digital Chaos,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–9 (2016).
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A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia, C. R. Mirasso, L. Perquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature 438(7066), 343–346 (2005).
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M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
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A. Sultan, X. L. Yang, A. E. Hajomer, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Constellation Mapping for Physical-Layer Data Encryption in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 339–342 (2018).
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V. Sundarapandian and R. Karthikeyan, “Anti-synchronization of hyperchaotic lorenz and hyperchaotic chen systems by adaptive control,” Inf. Sci. 3(5), 41–50 (2012).
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Tang, M.

M. Cheng, L. Deng, X. Gao, H. Li, M. Tang, S. N. Fu, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Security-enhanced OFDM-PON using hybrid chaotic system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 326–329 (2015).
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Wang, S.

S. Wang, W. Lin, B. Huang, and C. Li, “PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Active Constellation Extension and Subcarrier Grouping Techniques,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(12), 2378–2381 (2016).
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Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, S. Xie, and Z. Xie, “FISTA-Based PAPR Reduction Method for Tone Reservation’s OFDM System,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett. 7(3), 300–303 (2018).
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Y. Wang and Z. Luo, “Optimized Iterative Clipping and Filtering for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 59(1), 33–37 (2011).
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[Crossref]

Wu, T. W.

C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

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M. H. Bi, T. C. Huang, L. Liu, X. Miao, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Performance Optimization by Nonparametric Histogram Estimation for Low Resolution in IMDD-OQAM-OFDM System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

Y. Wang, S. Xie, and Z. Xie, “FISTA-Based PAPR Reduction Method for Tone Reservation’s OFDM System,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett. 7(3), 300–303 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

Y. Wang, S. Xie, and Z. Xie, “FISTA-Based PAPR Reduction Method for Tone Reservation’s OFDM System,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett. 7(3), 300–303 (2018).
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Xin, X. J.

Xing, S.

S. Xing, G. Qiao, and L. Ma, “A Blind Side Information Detection Method for Partial Transmitted Sequence Peak-to-Average Power Reduction Scheme in OFDM Underwater Acoustic Communication System,” IEEE Access. 6, 24128–24136 (2018).
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C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
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M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
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Yang, X.

X. Hu, X. Yang, Z. Shen, H. He, W. Hu, and C. Bai, “Chaos based partial transmit sequence technique for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2429–2432 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Chaos-based selected mapping scheme for physical layer security in OFDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 51(18), 1429–1431 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

A. Sultan, X. L. Yang, A. E. Hajomer, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Constellation Mapping for Physical-Layer Data Encryption in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 339–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhong, X. L. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Performance-Improved Secure OFDM Transmission Using Chaotic Active Constellation Extension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 991–994 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Shen, X. L. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure Transmission of Optical DFT-S-OFDM Data Encrypted by Digital Chaos,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-Efficient Data Migration and Backup for Big Data Applications in Elastic Optical Inter-Data-Center Networks,” IEEE Network 29(5), 36–42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, H. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Xia, Z. Zhu, S. Dahfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Spectral and Spatial 2D Fragmentation-Aware Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 5(10), A100–A106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Y. Yin, H. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Xia, Z. Zhu, S. Dahfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Spectral and Spatial 2D Fragmentation-Aware Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 5(10), A100–A106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. F.

C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. W. Wu, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. D. Hou, H. H. Wei, and K. Qiu, “Security enhancement for OFDM-PON using Brownian motion and chaos in cell,” Opt. Express 26(18), 22857–22865 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Yin, H. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Xia, Z. Zhu, S. Dahfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Spectral and Spatial 2D Fragmentation-Aware Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 5(10), A100–A106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-Efficient Data Migration and Backup for Big Data Applications in Elastic Optical Inter-Data-Center Networks,” IEEE Network 29(5), 36–42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic Service Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks with Hybrid Single-/Multi-Path Routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 15–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. J.

Zhang, M.

Y. Yin, H. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Xia, Z. Zhu, S. Dahfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Spectral and Spatial 2D Fragmentation-Aware Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 5(10), A100–A106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, X. J. He, and K. Qiu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy for OFDMA-PON using chaos and deoxyribonucleic acid encoding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1706–1712 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, and K. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of security-enhanced OFDMA-PON using chaotic constellation transformation and pilot-aided secure key agreement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1524–1530 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. L.

C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

Zhong, J.

J. Zhong, X. L. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Performance-Improved Secure OFDM Transmission Using Chaotic Active Constellation Extension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 991–994 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Zhou, X. F.

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
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Zhou, Y.

Z. Hua and Y. Zhou, “Image encryption using 2D Logistic-adjusted-Sine map,” Inf. Sci. 339(1), 237–253 (2016).
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[Crossref]

L. Gong and Z. Zhu, “Virtual Optical Network Embedding (VONE) over Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(3), 450–460 (2014).
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Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic Service Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks with Hybrid Single-/Multi-Path Routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 15–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, H. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Xia, Z. Zhu, S. Dahfort, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Spectral and Spatial 2D Fragmentation-Aware Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Elastic Optical Networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Networking 5(10), A100–A106 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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Z. W. Shen, X. L. Yang, H. He, and W. S. Hu, “Secure Transmission of Optical DFT-S-OFDM Data Encrypted by Digital Chaos,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–9 (2016).
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C. F. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. J. He, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Physically secured optical OFDM-PON by employing chaotic pseudorandom RF subcarriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–8 (2017).
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C. F. Zhang, Y. Y. Yan, T. W. Wu, X. L. Zhang, G. J. Wen, and K. Qiu, “Phase Masking and Time-Frequency Chaotic Encryption for DFMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
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M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. W. Yang, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “A Key Space Enhanced Chaotic Encryption Scheme for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–10 (2017).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Hybrid Chaotic Confusion and Diffusion for Physical Layer Security in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–10 (2017).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, W. Jin, C. Chen, N. Jiang, and K. Qiu, “Chaos coding based QAM IQ-encryption for improved security in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1964–1967 (2014).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Jin, and K. Qiu, “Joint PAPR reduction and physical layer security enhancement in OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(9), 998–1001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bi, X. S. Fu, X. F. Zhou, X. L. Yang, S. L. Xiao, and W. S. Hu, “Chaotic Nonlinear Encryption Scheme for CPAs Resistance and PAPR Reduction in OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(24), 2147–2150 (2017).
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J. Zhong, X. L. Yang, and W. S. Hu, “Performance-Improved Secure OFDM Transmission Using Chaotic Active Constellation Extension,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 991–994 (2017).
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W. Zhang, C. F. Zhang, C. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Brownian motion encryption for physical-layer security improvement in CO-OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1023–1026 (2017).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The scheme of PAPR reduction with security improvement based on 2D-LASM and dynamic key assignment.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The processing of transforming symbols into blocks.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The bifurcation diagrams of 2D-LASM; (a) Bifurcation project of δn, (b) Bifurcation project of τn.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The phase diagrams of 4D hyper chaos; (a) Diagram project of x-y-z, (b) Diagram project of x-y-w, (c) Diagram project of y-z-w.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The cipher book generated by 4D hyper chaos.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The match between each divisor of 120 and 200.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The CCDF curves of PAPR for 120×200 OFDM symbols. (a)PAPRs of all divisions. (b) The PAPRs of secure optimum and original signals.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The η distribution of 1000 sets of randomly generated bit sequences (120×200 QAM symbols).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The processing time of arbitrary combination of divisors (120×200 QAM symbols).
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The dynamic CCDF curves of PAPR with the number of QAM symbols in each subcarrier increasing. Insert: (i) 10 QAM symbols in each subcarrier, (ii) 10k QAM symbols in each subcarrier.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. The fitting curves of original values, optimum encryption values and η with different numbers of symbols. (a) The original CCDF curves, (b) The optimum CCDF curves, (c) The values of η.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Experimental setup of proposed scheme. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; LD: laser diode; IM: intensity modulator; SSMF: standard single mode fiber; TOA: tunable optical attenuator; PD: photodetector.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. The CCDF curves of PAPR for ONU2.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. The BERs of secure optimum signals, original signals and an illegal ONU.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. The iteration times for all combinations of divisors.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The comparisons of our method with other related methods.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Some reference of our method with other related methods.

Tables Icon

Table 3. The computational complexity of each combination of divisors

Tables Icon

Table 4. The values of different QAM symbols in each subcarrier

Tables Icon

Table 5. The comparisons of Algorithm 1, Algorithm 2 and one thread

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ δ n + 1 = sin ( π μ ( τ n + 3 ) δ n ( 1 δ n ) ) τ n + 1 = sin ( π β ( δ n + 1 + 3 ) τ n ( 1 τ n ) ) ,
{ { A i } = p [ mod ( N , p ) == 0 ] p = 1 , 2 , 3 . N { B i } = v [ mod ( F , v ) == 0 ] v = 1 , 2 , 3 . F ,
f e n = c e i l ( ( f + x f , n ) mod C ) n e n = c e i l ( ( n + y f , n ) mod E ) ,
M e n = f = 1 C n = 1 E scramble ( U ( f , n ) U ( f e n , n e n ) ) ,
{ x ˙ = a ( y x ) + w y ˙ = d x x z + c y z ˙ = x y b z w ˙ = y z + r w
{ μ n + 1 = ( μ n + P + J [ a b s ( x n f l o o r ( x n ) ) ] ) / 2 β n + 1 = ( β n + P + J [ a b s ( y n f l o o r ( y n ) ) ] ) / 2 δ n + 1 = ( δ n + a b s ( z n f l o o r ( z n ) ) ) / 2 τ n + 1 = ( τ n + a b s ( w n f l o o r ( w n ) ) ) / 2 ,
P A P R ( dB ) = 10 log 10 max n | x n | 2 E [ | x n | 2 ] ,
V P A P R = n = 1 K p ( n ) ε ( n ) ,
V PAPR op = min { V PAPR A i × B i } ,
η  =  V P A P R o r V P A P R o p .
P e f f = ( ( T i n i t i a l T h y p e r t h r e a d ) / T i n i t i a l ) × 100 % ,
{ μ n + 1 = ( μ n + 0.44 + 0.49 [ a b s ( x n f l o o r ( x n ) ) ] ) / 2 β n + 1 = ( β n + 0.44 + 0.49 [ a b s ( y n f l o o r ( y n ) ) ] ) / 2 δ n + 1 = ( δ n + a b s ( z n f l o o r ( z n ) ) ) / 2 τ n + 1 = ( τ n + a b s ( w n f l o o r ( w n ) ) ) / 2

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