Abstract

Since the electromagnetic resonance that happens in dielectric nanobricks can be meticulously designed to control both amplitude and polarization of light, an ultracompact, high-resolution and continuous grayscale image display method based on resonant dielectric metasurfaces is proposed. Magnetic resonance occurs in dielectric nanobricks can yield unusual high reflectivity depending on the polarization state of incident light, which paves a new way for ultracompact image display when the resonant metasurfaces consisting of nano-polarizer arrays operate. Governed by Malus’s law, nano-polarizer arrays featured with different orientations have been demonstrated to continuously manipulate the intensity of linearly polarized light cell-by-cell. Hence, it can practically enable recording a high fidelity grayscale image right at the sample surface with resolution as high as 84,667 dpi (dots per inch). This proposed resonant metasurface image (meta-image) display enjoys the advantages including continuous grayscale modulation, broadband working window, high-stability and high-density, which can easily find promising applications in ultracompact displays, high-end anti-counterfeiting, high-density optical information storage and information encryption, etc.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

R. Fu, Z. Li, G. Zheng, M. Chen, Y. Yang, J. Tao, L. Wu, and Q. Deng, “Reconfigurable step-zoom metalens without optical and mechanical compensations,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12221–12230 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Deng, Y. Yang, J. Tao, L. Deng, D. Liu, Z. Guan, G. Li, Z. Li, S. Yu, G. Zheng, Z. Li, and S. Zhang, “Spatial frequency multiplexed meta-holography and meta-nanoprinting,” ACS Nano 13(8), 9237–9246 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. T. P. Lim, H. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Holographic colour prints for enhanced optical security by combined phase and amplitude control,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 25 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (11)

A. Tittl, A. Leitis, M. Liu, F. Yesilkoy, D. Y. Choi, D. N. Neshev, Y. S. Kivshar, and H. Altug, “Imaging-based molecular barcoding with pixelated dielectric metasurfaces,” Science 360(6393), 1105–1109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagasaki, I. Hotta, M. Suzuki, and J. Takahara, “Metal-masked Mie-resonant full-color printing for achieving free-space resolution limit,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3849–3855 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, W. Liu, Z. Li, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Polarization-sensitive structural colors with hue-and-saturation tuning based on all-dielectric nanopixels,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701009 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Shaltout, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Ultrathin and multicolour optical cavities with embedded metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2673 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Yue, C. Zhang, X. Zang, D. Wen, B. D. Gerardot, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “High-resolution grayscale image hidden in a laser beam,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17129 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. F. Zang, F. Dong, F. Yue, C. Zhang, L. Xu, Z. Song, M. Chen, P. Y. Chen, G. S. Buller, Y. Zhu, S. Zhuang, W. Chu, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Polarization encoded color image embedded in a dielectric metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 30(21), 1707499 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Direction-controlled bifunctional metasurface polarizers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(12), 1800198 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Q. Dai, M. Q. Mehmood, G. Hu, B. L. Yanchuk, J. Tao, C. Hao, I. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Zheng, S. Yu, A. Alù, J. Rho, and C. W. Qiu, “Full-space cloud of random points with a scrambling metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 63 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Deng, Z. Li, G. Zheng, J. Tao, Q. Dai, L. Deng, P. He, Q. Deng, and Q. Mao, “Depth perception based 3D holograms enabled with polarization-independent metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11843–11849 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Koirala, S. S. Lee, and D. Y. Choi, “Highly transmissive subtractive color filters based on an all-dielectric metasurface incorporating TiO2 nanopillars,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18320–18330 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

K. Xiong, D. Tordera, G. Emilsson, O. Olsson, U. Linderhed, M. P. Jonsson, and A. B. Dahlin, “Switchable plasmonic metasurfaces with high chromaticity containing only abundant metals,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 7033–7039 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-dimensional active tuning of an aluminum plasmonic array for full-spectrum response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, W. Wu, Z. Li, S. Zhang, M. Q. Mehmood, P. He, and S. Li, “Dual field-of-view step-zoom metalens,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1261–1264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, I. Kim, L. Zhang, M. Q. Mehmood, M. S. Anwar, M. Saleem, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, S. Zhang, B. Luk’Yanchuk, Y. Wang, G. Zheng, J. Rho, and C. W. Qiu, “Dielectric meta-holograms enabled with dual magnetic resonances in visible light,” ACS Nano 11(9), 9382–9389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, J. Ho, Y. F. Yu, Y. H. Fu, R. Paniagua-Dominguez, S. Wang, A. I. Kuznetsov, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing beyond sRGB color gamut by mimicking silicon nanostructures in free-space,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7620–7628 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagasaki, M. Suzuki, and J. Takahara, “All-dielectric dual-color pixel with subwavelength resolution,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7500–7506 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon Mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, E. C. Walter, A. Agrawal, C. Bohn, J. Velmurugan, W. Zhu, H. J. Lezec, and A. A. Talin, “High-contrast and fast electrochromic switching enabled by plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10479 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, G. Liu, M. G. Kenney, Z. Li, P. He, S. Li, Z. Ren, and Q. Deng, “Ultracompact high-efficiency polarising beam splitter based on silicon nanobrick arrays,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6749–6757 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk Yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), aag2472 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, G. Zheng, P. He, S. Li, Q. Deng, J. Zhao, and Y. Ai, “All-silicon nanorod-based Dammann gratings,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4285–4288 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultra-compact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, B. A. Slovick, W. Li, I. I. Kravchencko, D. P. Briggs, S. Krishnamurthy, and J. Valentine, “Large-scale all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflectors,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 692–698 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. A. Ochoa and C. Pérez-Santos, “Super-resolution with complex masks using a phase-only LCD,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5389–5392 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(1), 59 (2010).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

T. Xu, E. C. Walter, A. Agrawal, C. Bohn, J. Velmurugan, W. Zhu, H. J. Lezec, and A. A. Talin, “High-contrast and fast electrochromic switching enabled by plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10479 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ai, Y.

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. Tittl, A. Leitis, M. Liu, F. Yesilkoy, D. Y. Choi, D. N. Neshev, Y. S. Kivshar, and H. Altug, “Imaging-based molecular barcoding with pixelated dielectric metasurfaces,” Science 360(6393), 1105–1109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

Z. Li, Q. Dai, M. Q. Mehmood, G. Hu, B. L. Yanchuk, J. Tao, C. Hao, I. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Zheng, S. Yu, A. Alù, J. Rho, and C. W. Qiu, “Full-space cloud of random points with a scrambling metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 63 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anwar, M. S.

Z. Li, I. Kim, L. Zhang, M. Q. Mehmood, M. S. Anwar, M. Saleem, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, S. Zhang, B. Luk’Yanchuk, Y. Wang, G. Zheng, J. Rho, and C. W. Qiu, “Dielectric meta-holograms enabled with dual magnetic resonances in visible light,” ACS Nano 11(9), 9382–9389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Basu, T.

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ACS Nano (5)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration and simulated results of the resonant dielectric metasurface based on SOI material. (a) Schematic diagram of the unit-cell nanostructure based on SOI material for polarization separation. The orientation angle α is defined as an angle between the x-axis and the long axis of the nanobrick. (b) Simulated reflectivity versus wavelength (540 ∼ 740 nm) when normally incident light is linearly polarized along the long and short axes, respectively. (c) Normalized electric fields at the cross-section of the nanostructure with incident light polarized along the long and short axes, respectively. (d-e) The vortex-like electric and enhanced magnetic field distributions at the cross-section of a nanobrick unit-cell when the incident light is polarized along the long axis direction. The orientation angle of the nanobrick in (b-e) is 0°, and the operating wavelength is 610 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Beam intensity of the simulated and theoretical results with different orientation angles, the normally incident beam is x-axis polarized and the nanostructure works at a design wavelength of 610 nm. All results are divided by I0 and then normalized to a range of 0 ∼ 1, where I0 is the beam intensity of the reflected beam when α = 0°. (b) Schematic diagram of the meta-image display. (c) Target grayscale image with 500 × 500 pixels and 256 grayscale levels. (d) Nanobrick orientations, modulated amplitudes of light and polarization profiles of the selected area from a square region with 5 × 5 pixels.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Photo and (b) partial SEM image of the fabricated dielectric metasurface. (c) The experimentally captured image with the sample illuminated by an x-axis polarized incident beam (θ = 0°). (d) A zoom-in view of the meta-image shown in (c). (e-h) Optical micrographs with other different polarization states of incident light at an operating wavelength of 610 nm. The scale bars and polarization directions are marked in the figures. (c, e-h) are captured with an objective of 50 × and (d) is captured with an objective of 100 × .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical micrographs of the metasurface sample illuminated by a halogen lamp of an optical microscope with (a) and without (b) a red light filter and (c) a general flashlight.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Dispersion characteristics of (a) crystalline silicon and (b) silica versus wavelength (540 ∼ 740 nm).

Equations (3)

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[ cos 2 α 1 2 sin 2 α 1 2 sin 2 α sin 2 α ] [ cos θ sin θ ] = cos ( θ α ) [ cos α sin α ] ,
I = I 0 cos 2 α .
I 2 = I 0 cos 2 α + I 1 sin 2 α ,

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