Abstract

We apply the antenna coherence theory in order to evaluate characteristic behavior of phase-coherent VCSEL arrays. Large 19-element phase-locked VCSEL arrays with a near-diffraction-limited beam were firstly realized using proton implantation technology. The central lobe intensity is about four times that of side lobes in far-field patterns. The angular full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the far field lobes is only 1.42 degrees. A good matching between theory and experiment opens new perspectives for optimizing devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. L. D. A. Lundeberg, D. L. Boiko, and E. Kapon, “Coupled islands of photonic crystal heterostructures implemented with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241120 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1074–1080 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. C. Lehman, D. F. Siriani, and K. D. Choquette, “Two-dimensional electronic beam-steering with implant-defined coherent vcsel arrays,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1202 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-Phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 167–169 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. R. Hadley, “Modes of a two-dimensional phase-locked array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15(21), 1215–1217 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307–2309 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 652–664 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).
  15. M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46(10), 712–713 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant defined vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1421–1423 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. T. Ma, Theory and Application of Antenna Arrays (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974).
  22. A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

2014 (1)

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-Phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46(10), 712–713 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant defined vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, D. F. Siriani, and K. D. Choquette, “Two-dimensional electronic beam-steering with implant-defined coherent vcsel arrays,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. D. A. Lundeberg, D. L. Boiko, and E. Kapon, “Coupled islands of photonic crystal heterostructures implemented with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241120 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1074–1080 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307–2309 (2000).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. R. Hadley, “Modes of a two-dimensional phase-locked array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15(21), 1215–1217 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

Asom, M.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Boiko, D. L.

L. D. A. Lundeberg, D. L. Boiko, and E. Kapon, “Coupled islands of photonic crystal heterostructures implemented with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Botez, D.

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

Carney, P. S.

A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. D.

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K. D.

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-Phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46(10), 712–713 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant defined vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, D. F. Siriani, and K. D. Choquette, “Two-dimensional electronic beam-steering with implant-defined coherent vcsel arrays,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z.

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

Florez, L. T.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Focht, M. W.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Guth, G. D.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hadley, G. R.

Harbison, J. P.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hayashida, P.

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J. R.

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kan, Q.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kapon, E.

L. D. A. Lundeberg, D. L. Boiko, and E. Kapon, “Coupled islands of photonic crystal heterostructures implemented with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241120 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kojima, K.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y. S.

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.-S.

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. M.

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lehman, A. C.

A. C. Lehman, D. F. Siriani, and K. D. Choquette, “Two-dimensional electronic beam-steering with implant-defined coherent vcsel arrays,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant defined vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leibenguth, R. E.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.-Y.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lundeberg, L. D. A.

L. D. A. Lundeberg, D. L. Boiko, and E. Kapon, “Coupled islands of photonic crystal heterostructures implemented with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mao, M.

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mao, M. M.

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mawst, L.

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mawst, L. J.

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307–2309 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morgan, R. A.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mullally, T.

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1074–1080 (2003).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan, T.

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Orenstein, M.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

Paek, E. G.

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Peterson, G.

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

Raftery, J. J.

A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ren, H. Q.

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roth, T. J.

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sarmiento, T.

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Siriani, D. F.

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-Phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46(10), 712–713 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, D. F. Siriani, and K. D. Choquette, “Two-dimensional electronic beam-steering with implant-defined coherent vcsel arrays,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stoffel, N. G.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Van der Gaag, B. P.

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Von Lehmen, A.

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. X.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.-X.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wullert, J.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y. Y.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.-Y.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xun, M.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, M.

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1074–1080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yoo, H. J.

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yoo, H.-J.

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307–2309 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J. T.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.-T.

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. A. Morgan, K. Kojima, T. Mullally, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, R. E. Leibenguth, and M. Asom, “High-power coherently coupled 8×8 vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1160–1162 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Botez, L. Mawst, P. Hayashida, G. Peterson, and T. J. Roth, “High-power, diffraction-limited-beam operation from phase-locked diode-laser arrays of closely spaced “leaky” waveguides (antiguides),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(6), 464–466 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, “Two-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804–806 (1991).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Yoo, A. Scherer, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. G. Paek, B. P. Van der Gaag, J. R. Hayes, A. Von Lehmen, E. Kapon, and Y.-S. Kwon, “Fabrication of a two-dimensional phased array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(13), 1198–1200 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Zhou and L. J. Mawst, “Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307–2309 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. D. A. Lundeberg, D. L. Boiko, and E. Kapon, “Coupled islands of photonic crystal heterostructures implemented with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Xun, Y. Sun, C. Xu, Y.-Y. Xie, Z. Jin, J.-T. Zhou, X.-Y. Liu, and D.-X. Wu, “Beam steering analysis in optically phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser array,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(3), 034202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Xun, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. Xu, H. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Xie, C. Xu, and M. Mao, “High-power in-phase coherently coupled VCSEL array based on proton implantation,” Electron. Lett. 50(15), 1085–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “In-phase, coherent photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with low divergence,” Electron. Lett. 46(10), 712–713 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yoo, J. R. Hayes, E. G. Paek, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and Y. S. Kwon, “Phase-locked two-dimensional arrays of implant isolated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 26(23), 1944–1946 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, D. F. Siriani, and K. D. Choquette, “Two-dimensional electronic beam-steering with implant-defined coherent vcsel arrays,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, and Z. Dai, “Modal properties of two-dimensional antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 652–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Xun, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, J. Deng, K. Xu, and H. D. Chen, “Modal properties of 2-D implant-defined coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2600106 (2015).

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1074–1080 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lehman, J. J. Raftery, P. S. Carney, and K. D. Choquette, “Coherence of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 25–30 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

A. C. Lehman and K. D. Choquette, “One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant defined vertical cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1421–1423 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Siriani and K. D. Choquette, “Electronically controlled two-dimensional steering of in-Phase coherently coupled vertical-cavity laser arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 167–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

M. Xun, Y. Sun, J. T. Zhou, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, H. Wang, Q. Kan, Z. Jin, X. Liu, and D. X. Wu, “Supermode switching and beam steering in phased vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 173, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Photon. J. (1)

M. M. Mao, C. Xu, Y. Y. Xie, Q. Kan, M. Xun, K. Xu, J. Wang, H. Q. Ren, and H. D. Chen, “Implant defined 3×3 in phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array,” Photon. J. 5(6), 1502606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. S. Harris, T. O’Sullivan, T. Sarmiento, M. M. Lee, and S. Vo, “Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 14010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. T. Ma, Theory and Application of Antenna Arrays (John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Beam far-field patterns at different separations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Intensity of side lobes versus separations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Far-field patterns versus array number.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Far-field patterns versus emitted wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Far-field patterns versus phase difference (β) between elements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of 19-element VCSEL arrays.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Output power versus current of 19-element VCSEL array under continuous wave conditions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Far-field patterns of 19-element coherent VCSEL arrays of 8μm separation under different currents.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Intensity of side lobes of 19-element VCSEL array under different injection currents.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Simulated far-filed patterns of 19-element array with different phase distributions.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Spectra of 19-element VCSEL array under different injection currents.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Far-field patterns of 19-element coherent VCSEL arrays with 11μm separation under different currents.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the array in numerical calculation

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E T = E S F
F=1+ e j(kdcosθ+β) + e j2(kdcosθ+β) +...+ e j(N1)(kdcosθ+β)
φ=kdcosθ+β
F=| sin(Nφ/2) sin(φ/2) |

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