Abstract

We report a novel design of an all-silicon temperature-independent filter employing a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with multimode waveguides. The two arms of the MZI have equal lengths and equal widths but propagate different modes having different effective indices to guarantee an optical path difference (OPD) but similar temperature-dependence to diminish any thermal shifts of the interference pattern. A temperature-independent MZI filter with only one channel is also proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Measurements verify the principle of operation and a low temperature sensitivity of −20 to 10 pm/°C in the C-band for both MZI filters is achieved. The one-channel MZI structure is furthermore employed to achieve a compact sensor exhibiting a high sensitivity of 826 nm/RIU (refractive index unit).

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, D. Englund, and M. Soljacic, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Juan-Colás, A. Parkin, K. E. Dunn, M. G. Scullion, T. F. Krauss, and S. D. Johnson, “The electrophotonic silicon biosensor,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12769 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Xing and J. Viegas, “Subwavelength grating waveguide-integrated athermal Mach-Zehnder interferometer with enhanced fabrication error tolerance and wide stable spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520U (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

T. Hiraki, H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, and T. Yamamoto, “Small Sensitivity to Temperature Variations of Si-Photonic Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Using Si and SiN Waveguides,” Front. Mater. 2, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang and Y. Shi, “Temperature insensitive lower-index-mode photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Xing and J. Viegas, “Broadband CMOS-compatible SOI temperature insensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24098–24107 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, K. Shang, J. T. Bovington, R. Wu, B. Guan, K.-T. Cheng, J. E. Bowers, and S. J. Yoo, “Athermal silicon ring resonators clad with titanium dioxide for 1.3µm wavelength operation,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25653–25660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

Q. Liu, K. W. Kim, Z. Gu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “Single-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometric biochemical sensor based on two-lateral-mode spiral waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27910–27920 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Dwivedi, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Compact thermally tunable silicon racetrack modulators based on an asymmetric waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 159–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Dwivedi, H. D’Heer, and W. Bogaerts, “A compact all-silicon temperature insensitive filter for WDM and bio-sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(22), 2167–2170 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Ultrahigh-efficiency apodized grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2732–2734 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guha, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon microring resonators with titanium oxide cladding,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26557–26563 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (6)

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Diéguez, N. Darwish, M. Mir, E. Martínez, M. Moreno, and J. Samitier, “Effect of the refractive index of buffer solutions in evanescent optical biosensors,” Sens. Lett. 7(5), 851–855 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Levy and S. Ruschin, “Design of a single-channel modal interferometer waveguide sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(2), 146–153 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. L. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Uenuma and T. Moooka, “Temperature-independent silicon waveguide optical filter,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 599–601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Först, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(14), R249–R271 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Absil, P.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Dwivedi, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Compact thermally tunable silicon racetrack modulators based on an asymmetric waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 159–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J. J.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. L. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartolozzi, I.

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. L. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Dwivedi, H. D’Heer, and W. Bogaerts, “A compact all-silicon temperature insensitive filter for WDM and bio-sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(22), 2167–2170 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Dwivedi, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Compact thermally tunable silicon racetrack modulators based on an asymmetric waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 159–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. K. Selvaraja, J. Teng, S. Pathak, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, M. Zhao, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “Athermal arrayed waveguide gratings in silicon-on-insulator by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed arrayed waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 51(9), 1251–1256 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

S. Feng, K. Shang, J. T. Bovington, R. Wu, B. Guan, K.-T. Cheng, J. E. Bowers, and S. J. Yoo, “Athermal silicon ring resonators clad with titanium dioxide for 1.3µm wavelength operation,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25653–25660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowman, A. L.

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

Cheben, P.

Chen, Y. H.

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Anal. Chem. (2)

A. L. Washburn, M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Bowman, and R. C. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82(1), 69–72 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Front. Mater. (1)

T. Hiraki, H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, and T. Yamamoto, “Small Sensitivity to Temperature Variations of Si-Photonic Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Using Si and SiN Waveguides,” Front. Mater. 2, 1–5 (2015).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100117 (2013).
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IEEE Micro (1)

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. L. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
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IEEE Sens. J. (1)

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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Dekker, N. Usechak, M. Först, and A. Driessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(14), R249–R271 (2007).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
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J. Juan-Colás, A. Parkin, K. E. Dunn, M. G. Scullion, T. F. Krauss, and S. D. Johnson, “The electrophotonic silicon biosensor,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12769 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, D. Englund, and M. Soljacic, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
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Nature (1)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Opt. Express (9)

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
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J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
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S. Feng, K. Shang, J. T. Bovington, R. Wu, B. Guan, K.-T. Cheng, J. E. Bowers, and S. J. Yoo, “Athermal silicon ring resonators clad with titanium dioxide for 1.3µm wavelength operation,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25653–25660 (2015).
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B. Guha, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon microring resonators with titanium oxide cladding,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26557–26563 (2013).
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Q. Liu, K. W. Kim, Z. Gu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “Single-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometric biochemical sensor based on two-lateral-mode spiral waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27910–27920 (2014).
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B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3487–3493 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Xing and J. Viegas, “Subwavelength grating waveguide-integrated athermal Mach-Zehnder interferometer with enhanced fabrication error tolerance and wide stable spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520U (2016).
[Crossref]

Sens. Lett. (1)

L. Diéguez, N. Darwish, M. Mir, E. Martínez, M. Moreno, and J. Samitier, “Effect of the refractive index of buffer solutions in evanescent optical biosensors,” Sens. Lett. 7(5), 851–855 (2009).
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Other (2)

X. Guan and L. H. Frandsen, “All-silicon thermal independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode waveguides,” IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 8–9, 2016.
[Crossref]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Microring resonance stabilization using thermal dithering,” IEEE OI Conf., pp.58–59, 2013.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Calculated effective indices (solid lines) and temperature dependences (dashed lines) for the TE0 (red), TE1 (blue), and TE2 (green) modes at 1550 nm in a silicon waveguide (shown in the inset) of height h = 250 nm buried in SiO2. The dotted line indicates the critical width for the TE0 mode and the TE1 mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the proposed TI-MZI with two channels (a) and one channel (b). (c) Calculated and normalized transmissions for the designed asymmetric DC with the inset showing light propagation of the asymmetric DC at 1550 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microscope images of the fabricated (a) two-channel and (b) one-channel TI-MZI with the inserted SEM images showing the connecting parts. The stair-casings in the curved parts of the SEM images are due to the low zoom used when scanning a large area.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured and normalized transmission spectra at different temperatures for (a) the two-channel TI-MZI filter with L = 1.097 mm, (b) the two-channel TI-MZI filter with L = 0.276 mm, and (c) the one-channel TI-MZI filter with L = 1.097 mm. (d) The temperature sensitivity as a function of wavelength for the above filters with points showing the destructive interference wavelengths.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Microscopy image of the one-channel MZI biosensor. (b) Calculated change of the effective mode index on the refractive index of the cladding analyte (nc) for different modes as a function of the waveguide width. Inset shows the cross section of the waveguide. Here, the wavelength is 1550 nm and h = 250 nm. The vertical dotted line indicates where w = 623 nm. (c) Measured and normalized transmission spectra and (d) the destructive interference wavelength shift of the biosensor immersed in DI water (black) or PBS with concentrations of 0.25x (red), 0.5x (green), 0.75x (light blue) and 1x (dark blue).

Equations (1)

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S= Δλ ΔT =λ (d n neff TE0 /dTd n neff TE1 /dT)L+Δ(d n ' eff /dT)2 L ' Δ n g L+Δ n ' g 2 L ' .

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