Abstract

A laser tuned tunneling detection is observed in SiO2(50nm)/p-Si/SiO2 structure. In comparison of dark condition, the tunneling current get amplified considerably over 250 times when irradiated with a low intensity laser (5mW) directly on the oxide layers. This huge amplified tunneling is unusual and rarely seen. Interestingly, this amplified tunneling effect is of position-dependent, and has a wide adjustment scope (centimeter level). Different from the traditional tunneling effect, where tremendous research efforts were directed only towards the influence of applied voltage or magnetic field, we demonstrate that this laser tuned amplifying process strongly associates with the interface states existing at SiO2/p-Si interface. These interface states can largely collect the light-induced careers and regulate its diffusion in a controllable manner. This work, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate a novel tunneling detection based on the interface states, suggesting a new approach for light and position sensitive tunneling devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

E. C. Anderson, T. L. Bougher, and B. A. Cola, “High performance multiwall carbon nanotube–insulator–metal tunnel diode arrays for optical rectification,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 4(3), 1700446 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Kobayashi, Y. Anno, K. Takei, T. Arie, and S. Akita, “Photoresponse of graphene field-effect-transistor with n-type Si depletion layer gate,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4811 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Song, X. Cai, M. W. Y. Tu, X. Zhang, B. Huang, N. P. Wilson, K. L. Seyler, L. Zhu, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, M. A. McGuire, D. H. Cobden, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 360(6394), 1214–1218 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Klein, D. MacNeill, J. L. Lado, D. Soriano, E. Navarro-Moratalla, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. Manni, P. Canfield, J. Fernández-Rossier, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Probing magnetism in 2D van der Waals crystalline insulators via electron tunneling,” Science 360(6394), 1218–1222 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Zhou, Z. K. Gan, A. H. Dong, S. P. Wang, and H. Wang, “Sensitive Photodetection Based on the Surface States of p-Type Silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39(2), 236–239 (2018).

Y. Song, C. Zhang, W. Liu, X. Li, H. Long, K. Wang, B. Wang, and P. Lu, “High-efficiency energy transfer in perovskite heterostructures,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18448–18456 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

J. B. You, H. Kwon, J. Kim, H. H. Park, and K. Yu, “Photon-assisted tunneling for sub-bandgap light detection in silicon PN-doped waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4284–4297 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Mei, S. Liu, X. Huang, Z. Gan, P. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Localized Surface Plasmon Induced Position-Sensitive Photodetection in Silicon-Nanowire-Modified Ag/Si,” Small 13(41), 1701726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Essig, C. Allebe, T. Remo, J. F. Geisz, M. A. Steiner, K. Horowitz, L. Barraud, J. S. Ward, M. Schnabel, A. Descoeudres, D. L. Young, M. Woodhouse, M. Despeisse, C. Ballif, and A. Tamboli, “Raising the one-sun conversion efficiency of III-V/Si solar cells to 32.8% for two junctions and 35.9% for three junctions,” Nat. Energy 2(9), 17144 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Zang, X. Jiang, Y. Huo, X. Ding, M. Morea, X. Chen, C. Y. Lu, J. Ma, M. Zhou, Z. Xia, Z. Yu, T. I. Kamins, Q. Zhang, and J. S. Harris, “Silicon single-photon avalanche diodes with nano-structured light trapping,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, P. Strasberg, J. C. Bayer, E. P. Rugeramigabo, T. Brandes, and R. J. Haug, “Strong suppression of shot noise in a feedback-controlled single-electron transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 218–222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, C. L. Mei, Z. K. Gan, P. Q. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect in p-type silicon induced by surface states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. Azuma, M. Sakamoto, T. Teranishi, and Y. Majima, “Memory operations in Au nanoparticle single-electron transistors with floating gate electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 223106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. Mori, Y. Morita, N. Miyata, S. Migita, K. Fukuda, W. Mizubayashi, M. Masahara, T. Yasuda, and H. Ota, “Study of tunneling transport in Si-based tunnel field-effect transistors with ON current enhancement utilizing isoelectronic trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 083501 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

H. Zheng, A. Weismann, and R. Berndt, “Tuning the electron transport at single donors in zinc oxide with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 2992 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, Z. Li, G. Yin, M. Ge, D. He, and H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect co-observed with unipolar resistive switching behavior in Cu-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lu and H. Wang, “Improved lateral photovoltaic effect of Ti and carbon films by interface modification with single-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, L. Du, and H. Wang, “Bias-assisted improved lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu2O nano-films,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1661–1666 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ohshiro, M. Tsutsui, K. Yokota, M. Furuhashi, M. Taniguchi, and T. Kawai, “Detection of post-translational modifications in single peptides using electron tunnelling currents,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Çopuroğlu, H. Sezen, R. L. Opila, and S. Suzer, “Band-bending at buried SiO2/Si interface as probed by XPS,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(12), 5875–5881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, A. K. Geim, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. Mishchenko, M. T. Greenaway, T. M. Fromhold, K. S. Novoselov, and L. Eaves, “Resonant tunnelling and negative differential conductance in graphene transistors,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu and H. Wang, “Significant infrared lateral photovoltaic effect in Mn-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconducting film,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21552–21557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, C. Q. Yu, and H. Wang, “Colossal lateral photovoltaic effect observed in metal-oxide-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(3), 414–416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. Du and H. Wang, “Large irreversible lateral photovoltaic effect in Cu2O/Si heteroepitaxial junction,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(4), 539–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Lan, S. Liu, and H. Wang, “Enhanced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in CdSe quantum dots embedded structure of Zn/CdSe/Si,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 25–27 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chi, P. Zhu, H. Wang, X. Huang, and X. Li, “A high sensitivity position-sensitive detector based on Au-SiO2-Si structure,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015601 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Precise detection of two-dimensional displacement based on nonlinear lateral photovoltaic effect,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2514–2516 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Bias-induced offset effect overlapped on bipolar-resistance effect based on Co/SiO2/Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041105 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. C. Peters, E. J. H. Lee, M. Burghard, and K. Kern, “Gate dependent photocurrents at a graphene p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. L. Shang, T. Zhang, H. Wang, J. Xie, and G. J. Hu, “Effect of annealing temperature on microstructures and optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 95(3), 699–702 (2009).

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Improved metal-semiconductor position detector with oscillating lateral photovoltaic effect,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3770–3772 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect and magnetoresistance observed in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semi conductor structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(22), 6926–6929 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Kubatkin, A. Danilov, M. Hjort, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, N. Stuhr-Hansen, P. Hedegård, and T. Bjørnholm, “Single-electron transistor of a single organic molecule with access to several redox states,” Nature 425(6959), 698–701 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Wang, Q. Y. Jin, S. M. Zhou, Y. H. Shen, F. M. Li, L. Y. Chen, X. R. Zhu, H. L. Shen, M. H. Pan, and M. Lu, “Large change of the giant magnetoresistance behavior after changing the spacer from Cu to CuMn alloy in Co/spacer/Co structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(8), 5030–5032 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. P. Appourchaux, D. D. Martin, and U. Telljohann, “Temperature dependence of silicon photodiode quantum efficiency: theoretical and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 1679, 200–211 (1992).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

F. Capasso, K. Mohammed, A. Y. Cho, R. Hull, and A. L. Hutchinson, “New quantum photoconductivity and large photocurrent gain by effective-mass filtering in a forward-biased superlattice p-n junction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1152–1155 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. K. Ghosh, D. L. Morel, T. Feng, R. F. Shaw, and C. A. Rowe, “Photovoltaic and rectification properties of Al/Mg phthalocyanine/Ag schottky-barrier cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 230–236 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

H. C. Card and E. H. Rhoderick, “Studies of tunnel MOS diodes I. Interface effects in silicon Schottky diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 4(10), 1589–1601 (1971).
[Crossref]

Akita, S.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Anno, K. Takei, T. Arie, and S. Akita, “Photoresponse of graphene field-effect-transistor with n-type Si depletion layer gate,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4811 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allebe, C.

S. Essig, C. Allebe, T. Remo, J. F. Geisz, M. A. Steiner, K. Horowitz, L. Barraud, J. S. Ward, M. Schnabel, A. Descoeudres, D. L. Young, M. Woodhouse, M. Despeisse, C. Ballif, and A. Tamboli, “Raising the one-sun conversion efficiency of III-V/Si solar cells to 32.8% for two junctions and 35.9% for three junctions,” Nat. Energy 2(9), 17144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. C.

E. C. Anderson, T. L. Bougher, and B. A. Cola, “High performance multiwall carbon nanotube–insulator–metal tunnel diode arrays for optical rectification,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 4(3), 1700446 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anno, Y.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Anno, K. Takei, T. Arie, and S. Akita, “Photoresponse of graphene field-effect-transistor with n-type Si depletion layer gate,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4811 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appourchaux, T. P.

T. P. Appourchaux, D. D. Martin, and U. Telljohann, “Temperature dependence of silicon photodiode quantum efficiency: theoretical and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 1679, 200–211 (1992).
[Crossref]

Arie, T.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Anno, K. Takei, T. Arie, and S. Akita, “Photoresponse of graphene field-effect-transistor with n-type Si depletion layer gate,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4811 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Azuma, M. Sakamoto, T. Teranishi, and Y. Majima, “Memory operations in Au nanoparticle single-electron transistors with floating gate electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 223106 (2016).
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J. Lu, Z. Li, G. Yin, M. Ge, D. He, and H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect co-observed with unipolar resistive switching behavior in Cu-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123102 (2014).
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S. Kubatkin, A. Danilov, M. Hjort, J. Cornil, J. L. Brédas, N. Stuhr-Hansen, P. Hedegård, and T. Bjørnholm, “Single-electron transistor of a single organic molecule with access to several redox states,” Nature 425(6959), 698–701 (2003).
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X. Huang, C. L. Mei, Z. K. Gan, P. Q. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect in p-type silicon induced by surface states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121103 (2017).
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F. Capasso, K. Mohammed, A. Y. Cho, R. Hull, and A. L. Hutchinson, “New quantum photoconductivity and large photocurrent gain by effective-mass filtering in a forward-biased superlattice p-n junction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1152–1155 (1985).
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D. R. Klein, D. MacNeill, J. L. Lado, D. Soriano, E. Navarro-Moratalla, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. Manni, P. Canfield, J. Fernández-Rossier, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Probing magnetism in 2D van der Waals crystalline insulators via electron tunneling,” Science 360(6394), 1218–1222 (2018).
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S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect and magnetoresistance observed in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semi conductor structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(22), 6926–6929 (2007).
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Xu, X.

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S. Liu, C. Q. Yu, and H. Wang, “Colossal lateral photovoltaic effect observed in metal-oxide-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(3), 414–416 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Precise detection of two-dimensional displacement based on nonlinear lateral photovoltaic effect,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2514–2516 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Bias-induced offset effect overlapped on bipolar-resistance effect based on Co/SiO2/Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041105 (2010).
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C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Improved metal-semiconductor position detector with oscillating lateral photovoltaic effect,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3770–3772 (2009).
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Zhang, X.

T. Song, X. Cai, M. W. Y. Tu, X. Zhang, B. Huang, N. P. Wilson, K. L. Seyler, L. Zhu, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, M. A. McGuire, D. H. Cobden, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 360(6394), 1214–1218 (2018).
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Zhao, Z. C.

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect and magnetoresistance observed in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semi conductor structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(22), 6926–6929 (2007).
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H. Zheng, A. Weismann, and R. Berndt, “Tuning the electron transport at single donors in zinc oxide with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 2992 (2014).
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B. W. Zhou, Z. K. Gan, A. H. Dong, S. P. Wang, and H. Wang, “Sensitive Photodetection Based on the Surface States of p-Type Silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39(2), 236–239 (2018).

Zhou, M.

K. Zang, X. Jiang, Y. Huo, X. Ding, M. Morea, X. Chen, C. Y. Lu, J. Ma, M. Zhou, Z. Xia, Z. Yu, T. I. Kamins, Q. Zhang, and J. S. Harris, “Silicon single-photon avalanche diodes with nano-structured light trapping,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 628 (2017).
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C. Mei, S. Liu, X. Huang, Z. Gan, P. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Localized Surface Plasmon Induced Position-Sensitive Photodetection in Silicon-Nanowire-Modified Ag/Si,” Small 13(41), 1701726 (2017).
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X. Huang, C. L. Mei, Z. K. Gan, P. Q. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Lateral photovoltaic effect in p-type silicon induced by surface states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121103 (2017).
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C. Q. Yu and H. Wang, “Bias-induced offset effect overlapped on bipolar-resistance effect based on Co/SiO2/Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041105 (2010).
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B. W. Zhou, Z. K. Gan, A. H. Dong, S. P. Wang, and H. Wang, “Sensitive Photodetection Based on the Surface States of p-Type Silicon,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39(2), 236–239 (2018).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Dark current and photo current of four wavelengths in structure as a function of the applied voltage (−20V to + 20V) displaying in logarithmic coordinates. Inset is the diagram of structures with electrodes deposited on the oxide layers. (b) Dark current and photo current of four wavelengths in structure as a function of the applied voltage displaying in logarithmic coordinates. Inset is the diagram of structures with electrodes deposited directly on p-Si.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Diagram of electric characteristics and photocurrent amplifying mechanism in the structure with the frontal electrode applied with positive voltage and (c) with negative voltage. (b) Schematic of band bending at frontal SiO2/Si interface influenced by positive voltage. Electrons accumulate in a very thin region and the inversion layer appears. (d) Schematic of band bending at frontal SiO2/Si interface influenced by negative voltage. Holes accumulate in interfacial region and it owns high conductivity for holes. (e) Schematic of amplified tunneling effect respectively in dark condition and under light exposure. (f) Dark current of structure as a function of applied voltage. Inset is the diagram of structure with one electrode deposited on p-Si and the other on the oxide layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Applied with + 20V or (b) −20V, photo current in structure as a function of distance between the frontal electrode and irradiation point. (c) MOS capacitance versus oxide capacitance as a function of applied voltage. (d) Lateral photovoltage as a function of distance between one electrode and irradiation point. The distance between two electrodes is 2mm. Inset is the schematic of lateral photovoltaic experiments. (e) Schematic of the carrier motion trajectory in distribution simulation of electric field, whose width is 1mm, when the frontal electrode applied with positive or (f) negative voltage. In the schematic, the color gradient changes from red (with the relative scale of 5) to blue (with the relative scale of 0). The ecru regions represent the nature interface states and white lines represent the variation of depletion layers influenced by applied electric field.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Diagram of the structure with electrodes separated horizontally and the distance Lx is 1.8mm. (b) Photocurrent of 635nm as a function of applied voltage. The value in legend is the distance between the laser point and frontal electrode. Current of four wavelengths at (c) + 20V or (d) −20V as a function of the distance between the laser point and frontal electrode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the carrier motion trajectory in distribution simulation of electric filed. The electric polarity on the frontal electrode and laser irradiation position is respectively (a) positive voltage and position A. (b) positive voltage and position B. (c) negative voltage and position B. (d) negative voltage and position A, where the red arrows mean the direction of concentration diffusion motion (CDM) of carriers and the scale of simulation diagram is tailored to display the trajectory more clearly. (e) Diagram of our designed device and its equivalent circuits. (f) Distribution simulation of electric field in x or y axis. The horizontal distance between the edges of the electrodes is 1.8mm and the thickness of wafers is 0.5mm.

Equations (4)

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J= A * T 2 σ t exp( q ϕ B kT )[exp( qV ηkT 1)]
C FB = C OX ( ε s A λ ) C OX +( ε s A λ )
λ= ε s kT q 2 N X
N(r)=βexp( |ξr| λ d )