Abstract

Encouraged by recent advances in radially-polarized laser technology, simulations have been performed of electron acceleration by a tightly-focused, ultra-short pulse in a parabolic plasma micro-channel. Milli-joule laser pulses, generated at kHz repetition rates, are shown to produce electron bunches of MeV energy, pC charge, low emittance and low divergence. The pivotal role played by the channel length in controlling the process is demonstrated, and the roles of direct and wakefield acceleration are distinguished.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

A. Döpp, C. Thaury, E. Guillaume, F. Massimo, A. Lifschitz, I. Andriyash, J.-P. Goddet, A. Tazfi, K. Ta Phuoc, and V. Malka, “Energy-Chirp Compensation in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 074802 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (8)

A. Martinez de la Ossa, Z. Hu, M. J. V. Streeter, T. J. Mehrling, O. Kononenko, B. Sheeran, and J. Osterhoff, “Optimizing density down-ramp injection for beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20, 091301 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Zaïm, M. Thévenet, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic acceleration of electrons injected by a plasma mirror into a radially polarized laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 094801 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Shaw, N. Lemos, L. D. Amorim, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, K. A. Marsh, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Role of direct laser acceleration of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator with ionization injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 064801 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Teubner, Y. Kai, T. Schlegel, D. E. Zeitoun, and W. Garen, “Laser-plasma induced shock waves in micro shock tubes,” New J. Phys. 19, 103016 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. J. Wong, K.-H. Hong, S. Carbajo, A. Fallahi, P. Piot, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, F. X. Kärtner, and I. Kaminer, “Laser-induced linear-field particle acceleration in free space,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11159 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Salehi, A. J. Goers, G. A. Hine, L. Feder, D. Kuk, B. Miao, D. Woodbury, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “MeV electron acceleration at 1 kHz with ∼10 mJ laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 42, 215–218 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feister, D. R. Austin, J. T. Morrison, K. D. Frische, C. Orban, G. Ngirmang, A. Handler, J. R. H. Smith, M. Schillaci, J. A. LaVerne, E. A. Chowdhury, R. R. Freeman, and W. M. Roquemore, “Relativistic electron acceleration by mj-class kHz lasers normally incident on liquid targets,” Opt. Express 25, 18736–18750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

M. Bocoum, M. Thévenet, F. Böhle, B. Beaurepaire, A. Vernier, A. Jullien, J. Faure, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Anticorrelated emission of high harmonics and fast electron beams from plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 185001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Varin, V. Marceau, P. Hogan-Lamarre, T. Fennel, M. Piché, and T. Brabec, “Mev femtosecond electron pulses from direct-field acceleration in low density atomic gases,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 49, 024001 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Kononenko, N. Lopes, J. Cole, C. Kamperidis, S. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, J. Osterhoff, K. Poder, D. Rusby, D. Symes, J. Warwick, J. Wood, and C. Palmer, “2d hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas target for density down-ramp injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 829, 125–129 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Carbajo, E. A. Nanni, L. J. Wong, G. Moriena, P. D. Keathley, G. Laurent, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

X. Zhang, V. N. Khudik, and G. Shvets, “Synergistic laser-wakefield and direct-laser acceleration in the plasma-bubble regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 184801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thévenet, A. Leblanc, S. Kahaly, H. Vincenti, A. Vernier, F. Quéré, and J. Faure, “Vacuum laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using plasma mirror injectors,” Nat. Phys. 12, 355–360 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrence-Douglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57, 113001 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Marceau, P. Hogan-Lamarre, T. Brabec, M. Piché, and C. Varin, “Tunable high-repetition-rate femtosecond few-hundred kev electron source,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 48, 045601 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. van Tilborg, S. Steinke, C. G. R. Geddes, N. H. Matlis, B. H. Shaw, A. J. Gonsalves, J. V. Huijts, K. Nakamura, J. Daniels, C. B. Schroeder, C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, S. S. Bulanov, N. A. Bobrova, P. V. Sasorov, and W. P. Leemans, “Active plasma lensing for relativistic laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 184802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, B. Liu, H. Lu, M. Zhou, C. Lin, Z. Sheng, C. Chen, X. He, and X. Yan, “Dense helical electron bunch generation in near-critical density plasmas with ultrarelativistic laser intensities,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15499 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Goers, G. A. Hine, L. Feder, B. Miao, F. Salehi, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Multi-MeV electron acceleration by subterawatt laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 194802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Carbajo, E. Granados, D. Schimpf, A. Sell, K.-H. Hong, J. Moses, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient generation of ultra-intense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2487–2490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Beaurepaire, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Electron acceleration in sub-relativistic wakefields driven by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 16, 023023 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

S. Kahaly, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, T. Dzelzainis, B. Dromey, M. Zepf, P. Martin, and F. Quéré, “Direct observation of density-gradient effects in harmonic generation from plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 175001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Hooker, “Developments in laser-driven plasma accelerators,” Nat. Photonics 7, 775–782 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503, 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Marceau, C. Varin, T. Brabec, and M. Piché, “Femtosecond 240-kev electron pulses from direct laser acceleration in a low-density gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 224801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, J. M. Estudillo-Ayala, R. I. Mata-Chavez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and E. Alvarado-Mendez, “Experimental study on a broad and flat supercontinuum spectrum generated through a system of two pcfs,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. He, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, J. H. Easter, J. Faure, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas, “High repetition-rate wakefield electron source generated by few-millijoule, 30 fs laser pulses on a density downramp,” New J. Phys. 15, 053016 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Payeur, S. Fourmaux, B. E. Schmidt, J. P. MacLean, C. Tchervenkov, F. Légaré, M. Piché, and J. C. Kieffer, “Generation of a beam of fast electrons by tightly focusing a radially polarized ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 041105 (2012).
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V. Malka, “Laser plasma accelerators,” Phys. Plasmas 19, 055501 (2012).
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2011 (1)

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
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2010 (1)

Y. I. Salamin, “Low-diffraction direct particle acceleration by a radially polarized laser beam,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 4950–4953 (2010).
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2009 (2)

A. G. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, N. Naumova, K. Popov, P.-E. Masson-Laborde, B. Hou, I. Sokolov, G. Mourou, I. V. Glazyrin, W. Rozmus, V. Bychenkov, J. Nees, and K. Krushelnick, “Quasimonoenergetic electron beams with relativistic energies and ultrashort duration from laser-solid interactions at 0.5 kHz,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235001 (2009).
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E. N. Nerush and I. Y. Kostyukov, “Carrier-envelope phase effects in plasma-based electron acceleration with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 035001 (2009).
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2008 (4)

P. Jha, A. Malviya, A. K. Upadhyay, and V. Singh, “Simultaneous evolution of spot size and length of short laser pulses in a plasma channel,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 50, 015002 (2008).
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A. G. York, H. M. Milchberg, J. P. Palastro, and T. M. Antonsen, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
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T. P. Rowlands-Rees, C. Kamperidis, S. Kneip, A. J. Gonsalves, S. P. D. Mangles, J. G. Gallacher, E. Brunetti, T. Ibbotson, C. D. Murphy, P. S. Foster, M. J. V. Streeter, F. Budde, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Jaroszynski, K. Krushelnick, Z. Najmudin, and S. M. Hooker, “Laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a partially ionized plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 105005 (2008).
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L. M. Chen, M. Kando, M. H. Xu, Y. T. Li, J. Koga, M. Chen, H. Xu, X. H. Yuan, Q. L. Dong, Z. M. Sheng, S. V. Bulanov, Y. Kato, J. Zhang, and T. Tajima, “Study of x-ray emission enhancement via a high-contrast femtosecond laser interacting with a solid foil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 045004 (2008).
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2006 (2)

J. B. Hastings, F. M. Rudakov, D. H. Dowell, J. F. Schmerge, J. D. Cardoza, J. M. Castro, S. M. Gierman, H. Loos, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction with megavolt electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 184109 (2006).
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Y. I. Salamin, “Fields of a radially polarized gaussian laser beam beyond the paraxial approximation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2619–2621 (2006).
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2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
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2002 (2)

S.-J. Qin and W. Li, “Micromachining of complex channel systems in 3d quartz substrates using q-switched nd:yag laser,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 773–777 (2002).
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A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
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2001 (1)

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Q. L. Dong, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, L. Z. Zhao, and Z. Y. Wei, “Hot electron generation via vacuum heating process in femtosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2925–2929 (2001).
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2000 (2)

E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, B. A. Shadwick, J. S. Wurtele, and W. P. Leemans, “Nonlinear theory of nonparaxial laser pulse propagation in plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3081–3084 (2000).
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P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, “Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110–5113 (2000).
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1999 (2)

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, “Multi-mev electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772–4775 (1999).
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E. Esarey and W. P. Leemans, “Nonparaxial propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1082–1095 (1999).
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1993 (1)

C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light pipe for high intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409–2412 (1993).
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1985 (1)

W. L. Kruer and K. Estabrook, “J×B heating by very intense laser light,” Phys. Fluids 28, 430–432 (1985).
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Alvarado-Mendez, E.

J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, J. M. Estudillo-Ayala, R. I. Mata-Chavez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and E. Alvarado-Mendez, “Experimental study on a broad and flat supercontinuum spectrum generated through a system of two pcfs,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 075101 (2013).
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Amorim, L. D.

J. L. Shaw, N. Lemos, L. D. Amorim, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, K. A. Marsh, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, and C. Joshi, “Role of direct laser acceleration of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator with ionization injection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 064801 (2017).
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Andriyash, I.

A. Döpp, C. Thaury, E. Guillaume, F. Massimo, A. Lifschitz, I. Andriyash, J.-P. Goddet, A. Tazfi, K. Ta Phuoc, and V. Malka, “Energy-Chirp Compensation in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 074802 (2018).
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Antonsen, T. M.

A. G. York, H. M. Milchberg, J. P. Palastro, and T. M. Antonsen, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
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P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, “Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110–5113 (2000).
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Arber, T. D.

T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrence-Douglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57, 113001 (2015).
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Austin, D. R.

Bane, K.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1337–1389 (2014).
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Beaurepaire, B.

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
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M. Bocoum, M. Thévenet, F. Böhle, B. Beaurepaire, A. Vernier, A. Jullien, J. Faure, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Anticorrelated emission of high harmonics and fast electron beams from plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 185001 (2016).
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B. Beaurepaire, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Electron acceleration in sub-relativistic wakefields driven by few-cycle laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 16, 023023 (2014).
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Bell, A. R.

T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrence-Douglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57, 113001 (2015).
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Benedetti, C.

J. van Tilborg, S. Steinke, C. G. R. Geddes, N. H. Matlis, B. H. Shaw, A. J. Gonsalves, J. V. Huijts, K. Nakamura, J. Daniels, C. B. Schroeder, C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, S. S. Bulanov, N. A. Bobrova, P. V. Sasorov, and W. P. Leemans, “Active plasma lensing for relativistic laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 184802 (2015).
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Bennett, K.

T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrence-Douglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57, 113001 (2015).
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Bobrova, N. A.

J. van Tilborg, S. Steinke, C. G. R. Geddes, N. H. Matlis, B. H. Shaw, A. J. Gonsalves, J. V. Huijts, K. Nakamura, J. Daniels, C. B. Schroeder, C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, S. S. Bulanov, N. A. Bobrova, P. V. Sasorov, and W. P. Leemans, “Active plasma lensing for relativistic laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 184802 (2015).
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Bocoum, M.

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bocoum, M. Thévenet, F. Böhle, B. Beaurepaire, A. Vernier, A. Jullien, J. Faure, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Anticorrelated emission of high harmonics and fast electron beams from plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 185001 (2016).
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Böhle, F.

D. Guénot, D. Gustas, A. Vernier, B. Beaurepaire, F. Böhle, M. Bocoum, M. Lozano, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, A. Lifschitz, and J. Faure, “Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11, 293–296 (2017).
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M. Bocoum, M. Thévenet, F. Böhle, B. Beaurepaire, A. Vernier, A. Jullien, J. Faure, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Anticorrelated emission of high harmonics and fast electron beams from plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 185001 (2016).
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Brabec, T.

C. Varin, V. Marceau, P. Hogan-Lamarre, T. Fennel, M. Piché, and T. Brabec, “Mev femtosecond electron pulses from direct-field acceleration in low density atomic gases,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 49, 024001 (2016).
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V. Marceau, P. Hogan-Lamarre, T. Brabec, M. Piché, and C. Varin, “Tunable high-repetition-rate femtosecond few-hundred kev electron source,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 48, 045601 (2015).
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V. Marceau, C. Varin, T. Brabec, and M. Piché, “Femtosecond 240-kev electron pulses from direct laser acceleration in a low-density gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 224801 (2013).
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Brady, C. S.

T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrence-Douglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57, 113001 (2015).
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Brunetti, E.

T. P. Rowlands-Rees, C. Kamperidis, S. Kneip, A. J. Gonsalves, S. P. D. Mangles, J. G. Gallacher, E. Brunetti, T. Ibbotson, C. D. Murphy, P. S. Foster, M. J. V. Streeter, F. Budde, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Jaroszynski, K. Krushelnick, Z. Najmudin, and S. M. Hooker, “Laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a partially ionized plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 105005 (2008).
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Budde, F.

T. P. Rowlands-Rees, C. Kamperidis, S. Kneip, A. J. Gonsalves, S. P. D. Mangles, J. G. Gallacher, E. Brunetti, T. Ibbotson, C. D. Murphy, P. S. Foster, M. J. V. Streeter, F. Budde, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Jaroszynski, K. Krushelnick, Z. Najmudin, and S. M. Hooker, “Laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a partially ionized plasma channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 105005 (2008).
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Bulanov, S. S.

J. van Tilborg, S. Steinke, C. G. R. Geddes, N. H. Matlis, B. H. Shaw, A. J. Gonsalves, J. V. Huijts, K. Nakamura, J. Daniels, C. B. Schroeder, C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, S. S. Bulanov, N. A. Bobrova, P. V. Sasorov, and W. P. Leemans, “Active plasma lensing for relativistic laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 184802 (2015).
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Bulanov, S. V.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, M. H. Xu, Y. T. Li, J. Koga, M. Chen, H. Xu, X. H. Yuan, Q. L. Dong, Z. M. Sheng, S. V. Bulanov, Y. Kato, J. Zhang, and T. Tajima, “Study of x-ray emission enhancement via a high-contrast femtosecond laser interacting with a solid foil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 045004 (2008).
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Butler, A.

A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
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Bychenkov, V.

A. G. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, N. Naumova, K. Popov, P.-E. Masson-Laborde, B. Hou, I. Sokolov, G. Mourou, I. V. Glazyrin, W. Rozmus, V. Bychenkov, J. Nees, and K. Krushelnick, “Quasimonoenergetic electron beams with relativistic energies and ultrashort duration from laser-solid interactions at 0.5 kHz,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 235001 (2009).
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Byer, R. L.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1337–1389 (2014).
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E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503, 91–94 (2013).
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Carbajo, S.

L. J. Wong, K.-H. Hong, S. Carbajo, A. Fallahi, P. Piot, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, F. X. Kärtner, and I. Kaminer, “Laser-induced linear-field particle acceleration in free space,” Sci. Rep. 7, 11159 (2017).
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S. Carbajo, E. A. Nanni, L. J. Wong, G. Moriena, P. D. Keathley, G. Laurent, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 19, 021303 (2016).
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S. Carbajo, E. Granados, D. Schimpf, A. Sell, K.-H. Hong, J. Moses, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient generation of ultra-intense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2487–2490 (2014).
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S. Carbajo, (private communication).

Cardoza, J. D.

J. B. Hastings, F. M. Rudakov, D. H. Dowell, J. F. Schmerge, J. D. Cardoza, J. M. Castro, S. M. Gierman, H. Loos, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction with megavolt electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 184109 (2006).
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Castro, J. M.

J. B. Hastings, F. M. Rudakov, D. H. Dowell, J. F. Schmerge, J. D. Cardoza, J. M. Castro, S. M. Gierman, H. Loos, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast time-resolved electron diffraction with megavolt electron beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 184109 (2006).
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Chang, C.-M.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1337–1389 (2014).
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Chen, C.

R. Hu, B. Liu, H. Lu, M. Zhou, C. Lin, Z. Sheng, C. Chen, X. He, and X. Yan, “Dense helical electron bunch generation in near-critical density plasmas with ultrarelativistic laser intensities,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15499 (2015).
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Chen, L. M.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, M. H. Xu, Y. T. Li, J. Koga, M. Chen, H. Xu, X. H. Yuan, Q. L. Dong, Z. M. Sheng, S. V. Bulanov, Y. Kato, J. Zhang, and T. Tajima, “Study of x-ray emission enhancement via a high-contrast femtosecond laser interacting with a solid foil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 045004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Q. L. Dong, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, L. Z. Zhao, and Z. Y. Wei, “Hot electron generation via vacuum heating process in femtosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2925–2929 (2001).
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Chen, M.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, M. H. Xu, Y. T. Li, J. Koga, M. Chen, H. Xu, X. H. Yuan, Q. L. Dong, Z. M. Sheng, S. V. Bulanov, Y. Kato, J. Zhang, and T. Tajima, “Study of x-ray emission enhancement via a high-contrast femtosecond laser interacting with a solid foil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 045004 (2008).
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Chowdhury, E. A.

Colby, E. R.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503, 91–94 (2013).
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Cole, J.

O. Kononenko, N. Lopes, J. Cole, C. Kamperidis, S. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, J. Osterhoff, K. Poder, D. Rusby, D. Symes, J. Warwick, J. Wood, and C. Palmer, “2d hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas target for density down-ramp injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 829, 125–129 (2016).
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Cowan, B.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503, 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniels, J.

J. van Tilborg, S. Steinke, C. G. R. Geddes, N. H. Matlis, B. H. Shaw, A. J. Gonsalves, J. V. Huijts, K. Nakamura, J. Daniels, C. B. Schroeder, C. Benedetti, E. Esarey, S. S. Bulanov, N. A. Bobrova, P. V. Sasorov, and W. P. Leemans, “Active plasma lensing for relativistic laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 184802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, J.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q. L.

L. M. Chen, M. Kando, M. H. Xu, Y. T. Li, J. Koga, M. Chen, H. Xu, X. H. Yuan, Q. L. Dong, Z. M. Sheng, S. V. Bulanov, Y. Kato, J. Zhang, and T. Tajima, “Study of x-ray emission enhancement via a high-contrast femtosecond laser interacting with a solid foil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 045004 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, J. Zhang, Q. L. Dong, H. Teng, T. J. Liang, L. Z. Zhao, and Z. Y. Wei, “Hot electron generation via vacuum heating process in femtosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2925–2929 (2001).
[Crossref]

Döpp, A.

A. Döpp, C. Thaury, E. Guillaume, F. Massimo, A. Lifschitz, I. Andriyash, J.-P. Goddet, A. Tazfi, K. Ta Phuoc, and V. Malka, “Energy-Chirp Compensation in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 074802 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic diagram showing the radially polarized laser pulse (orange) incident left-to-right (along the z-axis of the given coordinate system) on the parabolic plasma channel (PPC). The accelerated electron bunch is shown on the right (blue) behind the remnant laser pulse (orange).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Snapshots at (a) t = 7 τ and (b) t = 20 τ, showing the normalized electron density, n e / n c, and the normalized electric field intensity distribution, E 2 / E 0 2, in the xz-plane, after a radially-polarized laser pulse has been injected axially, from the left, into a PPC. The corresponding amplitude is E 0 2.35 E ˜, with E ˜ = m ω c / e 4.01 × 10 12 V/m. Axial electric field variations with the propagation distance are shown in the PPC (solid-green)and in vacuum (dashed-green). See text for the remaining parameters used.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Same as Fig. 2(a) but for a pulse power corresponding to P 0 = 600 GW, and without the axial electric field in vacuum. (b) Density plot of the axial field Ez, and the electron density in the channel. A red region corresponds to E z < 0, and displays an electron accelerating phase. For the pulse power used here, E 0 23.5 E ˜, and E z 0 = 2.5 E ˜. (c) and (d) are, respectively, the same as (a) and (b) but for a linearly polarized pulse.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Same as Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), but at t = 20 τ , and the electric field distribution is replaced by ( c B θ ) 2 / E 0 2 .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Snapshots of accelerated electron bunches after exiting the PPC. (a), (b) and (c): LWFA in a PPC of length z c h = 4 λ, and (d), (e) and (f): Combined DLA and LWFA in a PPC of length z c h = 14 λ. (a) and (d): Normalized electron density. (b) and (e): Phase space distributions, with ρ e d 2 Q e / d z d E. (e) and (f): Energy spectra presented by solid-black curves. Peak energies of solid-black curves in (c) and (f) are E p 6.14 MeV and 8.34 MeV, respectively. Spectra of electron beams driven by laser pulses with τ p = 2 τ and 3 τ are shown by the dashed-red and dotted-red curves, respectively, in (c). The solid-black, dashed-black and dotted-black curves in (c) and the inset correspond to the energy spectra driven by the first, third and fifth shots separated by Δ t = 100 τ. The efficiency parameter η (defined in Table 1) in the multi-shot case is shown in the inset. Energy spectra of the electron beam driven by the laser in a homogeneous plasma with density n0 and 0.5 n c are shown by the green and gray curves in (f).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Electron acceleration by mJ laser fields. Results from this work and recent studies, and the parameters used, are given. Here, E L is the laser pulse energy, P 0 = E L / τ p the paraxial beam power, τp the pulse duration, w0 the waist radius at focus, E p the peak electron energy, Qe the total charge, and η = ( Q e / e ) ( E p / E L ) measures acceleration efficiency.

Equations (10)

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E r = E { ϵ ρ C 2 + ϵ 3 [ ρ C 3 2 + ρ 3 C 4 ρ 5 C 5 4 ] + ϵ 5 [ 3 ρ C 4 8 3 ρ 3 C 5 8 + 17 ρ 5 C 6 16 3 ρ 7 C 7 8 + ρ 9 C 8 32 ] } ,
E z = E { ϵ 2 [ S 2 ρ 2 S 3 ] + ϵ 4 [ S 3 2 + ρ 2 S 4 2 5 ρ 4 S 5 4 + ρ 6 S 6 4 ] } ,
B θ = E c { ϵ ρ C 2 + ϵ 3 [ ρ C 3 2 + ρ 3 C 4 2 ρ 5 C 5 4 ] + ϵ 5 [ 3 ρ C 4 8 + 3 ρ 3 C 5 8 + 3 ρ 5 C 6 16 ρ 7 C 7 4 + ρ 9 C 8 32 ] } ,
E = E 0 exp  ( r 2 w 2 ) , w = w 0 1 + z 2 z r 2 ,
C n = ( w 0 w ) n cos  ( ψ + n ψ G ) ; n = 2 , 3 , ,
S n = ( w 0 w ) n sin  ( ψ + n ψ G ) ,
ψ = ψ 0 + ω t k z k r 2 2 R , R = z + z r 2 z , ψ G = tan 1 ( z z r ) .
f ( t ) = sech [ 2 ln  ( 1 + 2 ) t τ p ] ,
P = P 0 [ 1 + 3 4 ϵ 2 + 9 16 ϵ 4 ] ; P 0 = π ( ϵ w 0 E 0 ) 2 8 c μ 0 ,
n ( r ) = n 0 + Δ n ( r r c h ) 2 ,

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