Abstract

The trade-off between lateral resolution and depth of focus (DOF) severely limits the capability of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-resolution deep-tissue imaging. To address this issue, we developed a novel miniature all-fiber axicon OCT probe by inserting a segment of gradient-index (GRIN) fiber between a piece of single-mode fiber (SMF) and an axicon polished from a no-core fiber. The GRIN lens served as a beam expander extending the probe DOF by 5.2 times while maintaining a high lateral resolution of 2 μm. The DOF extension was experimentally verified by measuring the axial profile of the probe output beam and further by imaging multilayered polymer tapes and onion samples. The designed probe with a tight focus over a large DOF holds great potential in endoscopic OCT imaging of deep tissues at the cellular level.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

2016 (4)

2014 (4)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

K. S. Lee and J. P. Rolland, “Bessel beam spectral-domain high-resolution optical coherence tomography with micro-optic axicon providing extended focusing range,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1696–1698 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 3118–3122 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31(12), 2640–2643 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

Adams, D. C.

D. C. Adams, Y. Wang, L. P. Hariri, and M. J. Suter, “Advances in endoscopic optical coherence tomography catheter designs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adler, D. C.

Ahsen, O. O.

Altarejos, J. Y.

Applegate, M. B.

Baldwin, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birket, S. E.

Bo, E.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

K. M. Tan, M. Shishkov, A. Chee, M. B. Applegate, B. E. Bouma, and M. J. Suter, “Flexible transbronchial optical frequency domain imaging smart needle for biopsy guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1947–1954 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braganza, C. S.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Brown, C. T. A.

Cable, A. E.

Carruth, R. W.

Chak, A.

Chang, S.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chee, A.

Chen, N.

Chen, S.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chow, T. H.

Chu, K. K.

Chung, E.

Cui, D.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Chu, C. Unglert, T. N. Ford, D. Cui, R. W. Carruth, K. Singh, L. Liu, S. E. Birket, G. M. Solomon, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “In vivo imaging of airway cilia and mucus clearance with micro-optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2494–2505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

De Koninck, Y.

Dholakia, K.

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dufour, P.

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emonin, S.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 3118–3122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Figueiredo, M.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flueraru, C.

Ford, T. N.

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gardecki, J. A.

B. Yin, C. Hyun, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Extended depth of focus for coherence-based cellular imaging,” Optica 4(8), 959–965 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gazdar, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giacomelli, M. G.

Gora, M. J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ha, W.

Han, J.

J. Kim, J. Han, and J. Jeong, “Common-Path Optical Coherence Tomography Using a Conical-Frustum-Tip Fiber Probe,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800407 (2014).

Hariri, L. P.

D. C. Adams, Y. Wang, L. P. Hariri, and M. J. Suter, “Advances in endoscopic optical coherence tomography catheter designs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al(2)O(3) laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20(13), 1486–1488 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Held, T.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 3118–3122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Herrington, C. S.

Hollricher, O.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 3118–3122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Howe, W. C.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Huber, R.

Hyun, C.

Iftimia, N.

Ikeda, N.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jayaraman, V.

Jeong, J.

J. Kim, J. Han, and J. Jeong, “Common-Path Optical Coherence Tomography Using a Conical-Frustum-Tip Fiber Probe,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800407 (2014).

Jeong, Y.

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. W.

Kirk, R. W.

Ko, T. H.

Kobayashi, K.

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, H.-S.

Lam, S.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

Lee, H.-C.

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S.

Lee, W. M.

Leitgeb, R. A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

leRiche, J.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liang, K.

Liang, W.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Liu, L.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Chu, C. Unglert, T. N. Ford, D. Cui, R. W. Carruth, K. Singh, L. Liu, S. E. Birket, G. M. Solomon, S. M. Rowe, and G. J. Tearney, “In vivo imaging of airway cilia and mucus clearance with micro-optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2494–2505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, C. Liu, W. C. Howe, C. J. R. Sheppard, and N. Chen, “Binary-phase spatial filter for real-time swept-source optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2375–2377 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Y.

Marti, O.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 3118–3122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mashimo, H.

Mavadia-Shukla, J.

Mazilu, M.

McArdle, N.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31(12), 2640–2643 (1992).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, N.

McLaughlin, R. A.

McLeod, J. H.

McWilliams, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miceli, J.

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, H. S.

Nelson, J. S.

Ng, B. K.

Oh, K.

Piché, M.

Potsaid, B. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

Ren, H.

Rolland, J. P.

Rollins, A. M.

Rowe, S. M.

Ryu, Y.

Sampson, D. D.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

Scott, G.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31(12), 2640–2643 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sherif, S.

Shin, J. S.

Shin, Y.

Shishkov, M.

Sibbett, W.

Singh, K.

Sivak, M. V.

Solomon, G. M.

Song, J. W.

Standish, B.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taguichi, K.

Tan, K. M.

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-H.

Ung-Arunyawee, R.

Unglert, C.

Unterhuber, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, A. I.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

D. C. Adams, Y. Wang, L. P. Hariri, and M. J. Suter, “Advances in endoscopic optical coherence tomography catheter designs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 1–12 (2016).
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Wong, R. C.

Xi, J.

Xing, J.

Xiong, Q.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yin, B.

Yoo, H.

Yu, S.

Yu, X.

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, J. Mavadia-Shukla, J. Xi, W. Liang, X. Yu, S. Yu, and X. Li, “Optimal operational conditions for supercontinuum-based ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 250–253 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, W.

Yun, S.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. C. Adams, Y. Wang, L. P. Hariri, and M. J. Suter, “Advances in endoscopic optical coherence tomography catheter designs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. Han, and J. Jeong, “Common-Path Optical Coherence Tomography Using a Conical-Frustum-Tip Fiber Probe,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 6800407 (2014).

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

Y. Luo, D. Cui, X. Yu, E. Bo, X. Wang, N. Wang, C. S. Braganza, S. Chen, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, S. Chen, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Endomicroscopic optical coherence tomography for cellular resolution imaging of gastrointestinal tracts,” J. Biophotonics 11(4), e201700141 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31(12), 2640–2643 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (11)

J. Kim, Y. Jeong, S. Lee, W. Ha, J. S. Shin, and K. Oh, “Fourier optics along a hybrid optical fiber for Bessel-like beam generation and its applications in multiple-particle trapping,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 623–625 (2012).
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D. Lorenser, X. Yang, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin fiber probes with extended depth of focus for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1616–1618 (2012).
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L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, and D. D. Sampson, “High-sensitivity anastigmatic imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5247–5249 (2012).
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K. S. Lee and J. P. Rolland, “Bessel beam spectral-domain high-resolution optical coherence tomography with micro-optic axicon providing extended focusing range,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1696–1698 (2008).
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L. Liu, C. Liu, W. C. Howe, C. J. R. Sheppard, and N. Chen, “Binary-phase spatial filter for real-time swept-source optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2375–2377 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, J. Mavadia-Shukla, J. Xi, W. Liang, X. Yu, S. Yu, and X. Li, “Optimal operational conditions for supercontinuum-based ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 250–253 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Xing, H. S. Nam, J. W. Song, J. W. Kim, and H. Yoo, “Endoscopic micro-optical coherence tomography with extended depth of focus using a binary phase spatial filter,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 379–382 (2017).
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D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images by use of a spatially adaptive wavelet filter,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2878–2880 (2004).
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Z. Ding, H. Ren, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography over a large depth range with an axicon lens,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 243–245 (2002).
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B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging using a mode-locked Ti:Al(2)O(3) laser source,” Opt. Lett. 20(13), 1486–1488 (1995).
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A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Arunyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a novel efficient interferometer design,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1358–1360 (1999).
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Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(15), 1499–1501 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(8), 3118–3122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the EDOF axicon probe; (b) Microscope image of a fabricated EDOF axicon probe consisting of SMF, GRIN fiber, and NCF axicon; (c) Cross-sectional microscopic image of the fabricated EDOF axicon probe tip; (d) Microscope image of a fabricated SMF axicon probe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The beam profile of the output beam of the EDOF axicon probe at the focal plane. (b) and (c) represent normalized intensity distributions of the output beam profiles along the x and y axes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured FWHM beam diameter as a function of the defocus distance relative to the focal plane.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured collection efficiency by a mirror placed at different tilt angle for the EDOF axicon probe, the SMF axicon probe and the cleaved fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the SS-OCT system with FDML light source.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The linear PSF was measured at depth of 0.4 mm by using a mirror as the sample. The axial resolution is 11.7 μm. (b) Measured PSFs at different imaging depths in logarithmic scale. The amplitude of the PSFs decreased by 6 dB measured at a depth of 2 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 OCT images of phantom obtained from EDOF axicon probe (a) and SMF axicon probe (b). The scale bar represents 200 μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 OCT image of onion tissue obtained from EDOF axicon probe. Scale bar: 200 μm.

Equations (2)

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L DOF = ω 0 [ (tanβ) 1 tanα]
R BB = 2.4048λ 2πsinβ

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