Abstract

A vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) with a twisted-mode configuration is demonstrated. This architecture is particularly advantageous for power scaling of single-frequency VECSELs employing multiple gain mirrors in folded cavities. In such a configuration, some of the gain mirrors are inherently at the fold, and the lasing spectrum becomes unstable. This is caused by four waves interfering, destabilizing the standing wave pattern at the quantum wells. We show that the lasing spectrum can be narrowed by employing a twisted-mode configuration, which stabilizes the standing-wave pattern at the gain mirror. Furthermore, single-frequency output of more than 10 W at 1178 nm is demonstrated for a VECSEL employing two gain mirrors in a standing-wave cavity. In comparison, the output power for operation with one gain mirror only was 7.4 W when operating in single frequency. The choice of wavelength for the work reported in this paper is motivated by the opportunity to demonstrate compact VECSEL-based guide star lasers for adaptive optics via frequency doubling to the sodium D2 resonance at 589 nm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

E. Kantola, J.-P. Penttinen, S. Ranta, and M. Guina, “72-W vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 1180-nm emission for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Electron. Lett. 54(19), 1135–1137 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Schuhmann, K. Kirch, F. Nez, R. Pohl, G. Wichmann, and A. Antognini, “Spatial hole burning in thin-disk lasers and twisted-mode operation,” Appl. Opt. 57(11), 2900–2908 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

M. Enderlein and W. G. Kaenders, “Sodium guide star (r)evolution,” Optik & Photonik 11(5), 31–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. Vorholt and U. Wittrock, “Spatial hole burning in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 711–721 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

F. Zhang, B. Heinen, M. Wichmann, C. Möller, B. Kunert, A. Rahimi-Iman, W. Stolz, and M. Koch, “A 23-watt single-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12817–12822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kantola, T. Leinonen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, and M. Guina, “High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6372–6380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Jiang, S. Cui, J. Hu, and Y. Feng, “Versatile Raman fiber laser for sodium laser guide star,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 889–895 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Antognini, A.

Bauer, D.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Caprara, A. L.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Chilla, J. R.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Clements, W. R. L.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, S.

L. Zhang, H. Jiang, S. Cui, J. Hu, and Y. Feng, “Versatile Raman fiber laser for sodium laser guide star,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 889–895 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dineen, C.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Enderlein, M.

M. Enderlein and W. G. Kaenders, “Sodium guide star (r)evolution,” Optik & Photonik 11(5), 31–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ernstberger, B.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evtuhov, V.

Feng, Y.

L. Zhang, H. Jiang, S. Cui, J. Hu, and Y. Feng, “Versatile Raman fiber laser for sodium laser guide star,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 889–895 (2014).
[Crossref]

Friedenauer, A.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

E. Kantola, J.-P. Penttinen, S. Ranta, and M. Guina, “72-W vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 1180-nm emission for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Electron. Lett. 54(19), 1135–1137 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kantola, T. Leinonen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, and M. Guina, “High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6372–6380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hader, J.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heinen, B.

F. Zhang, B. Heinen, M. Wichmann, C. Möller, B. Kunert, A. Rahimi-Iman, W. Stolz, and M. Koch, “A 23-watt single-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12817–12822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Zhang, H. Jiang, S. Cui, J. Hu, and Y. Feng, “Versatile Raman fiber laser for sodium laser guide star,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 889–895 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hunziker, L. E.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Ihli, C.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

L. Zhang, H. Jiang, S. Cui, J. Hu, and Y. Feng, “Versatile Raman fiber laser for sodium laser guide star,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 889–895 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaenders, W. G.

M. Enderlein and W. G. Kaenders, “Sodium guide star (r)evolution,” Optik & Photonik 11(5), 31–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kantola, E.

E. Kantola, J.-P. Penttinen, S. Ranta, and M. Guina, “72-W vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 1180-nm emission for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Electron. Lett. 54(19), 1135–1137 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kantola, T. Leinonen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, and M. Guina, “High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6372–6380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpov, V.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kirch, K.

Koch, M.

F. Zhang, B. Heinen, M. Wichmann, C. Möller, B. Kunert, A. Rahimi-Iman, W. Stolz, and M. Koch, “A 23-watt single-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12817–12822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kunert, B.

F. Zhang, B. Heinen, M. Wichmann, C. Möller, B. Kunert, A. Rahimi-Iman, W. Stolz, and M. Koch, “A 23-watt single-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12817–12822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leinonen, T.

Leisching, P.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mahnke, G. J.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Möller, C.

Moloney, J. V.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nez, F.

Penttinen, J.-P.

E. Kantola, J.-P. Penttinen, S. Ranta, and M. Guina, “72-W vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 1180-nm emission for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Electron. Lett. 54(19), 1135–1137 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pohl, R.

Rahimi-Iman, A.

Ranta, S.

E. Kantola, J.-P. Penttinen, S. Ranta, and M. Guina, “72-W vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 1180-nm emission for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Electron. Lett. 54(19), 1135–1137 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kantola, T. Leinonen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, and M. Guina, “High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6372–6380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rebut, M.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Reed, M. K.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehme, P.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schuhmann, K.

Schwerdt, R.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shu, Q.-Z.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

Sparenberg, M.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stoltz, W.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stolz, W.

Tavast, M.

Vorholt, C.

C. Vorholt and U. Wittrock, “Spatial hole burning in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 711–721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.-L.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weber, A.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stoltz, “Quantum design strategy pushes high-power vertical external cavity surface emitteing lasers beyond 100W,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), L12–L14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, D.

M. Enderlein, A. Friedenauer, R. Schwerdt, P. Rehme, D. Wei, V. Karpov, B. Ernstberger, P. Leisching, W. R. L. Clements, and W. G. Kaenders, “Series production of next-generation guide-star lasers at TOPTICA and MPBC,” Proc. SPIE 9148, 914807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weiss, E. S.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Wichmann, G.

Wichmann, M.

Wittrock, U.

C. Vorholt and U. Wittrock, “Spatial hole burning in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 711–721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, H. Jiang, S. Cui, J. Hu, and Y. Feng, “Versatile Raman fiber laser for sodium laser guide star,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 889–895 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

L. E. Hunziker, Q.-Z. Shu, D. Bauer, C. Ihli, G. J. Mahnke, M. Rebut, J. R. Chilla, A. L. Caprara, H. Zhou, E. S. Weiss, and M. K. Reed, “Power-scaling of optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510A (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Vorholt and U. Wittrock, “Spatial hole burning in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 711–721 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Kantola, J.-P. Penttinen, S. Ranta, and M. Guina, “72-W vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 1180-nm emission for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Electron. Lett. 54(19), 1135–1137 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Standing wave pattern at the fold, with different phase relationship in the forward and backward beams. The plot in the middle shows the intensity distribution on the first quantum well.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Standing wave pattern at the fold, with twisted-mode configuration.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the folded VECSEL cavity with twisted-mode configuration. Letters in gray indicate the nominal dimensions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Longitudinal mode observation on a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer with 10 GHz FSR and 67 MHz resolution. (a) twisted-mode cavity, (b) QWP rotated, (c) no QWP in cavity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Lasing spectrum of 2-devices VECSEL at 1178 nm.

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