Abstract

The requirements in quantum optics experiments for high single-photon detection efficiency, low timing jitter, low dark count rate and short dead time have been fulfilled with the development of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Although they offer a detection efficiency above 90%, achieving a high time resolution in devices made of amorphous materials is a challenge, particularly at temperatures above 0.8 K. Devices made from niobium nitride and niobium titanium nitride allow us to reach the best timing jitter but, in turn, have stronger requirements in terms of film quality to achieve a high efficiency. Here we take advantage of the flexibility of reactive co-sputter deposition to tailor the composition of NbxTi1-xN superconducting films and show that a Nb fraction of x = 0.62 allows for the fabrication of detectors from films as thick as 9 nm and covering an active area of 20 µm, with a wide detection saturation plateau at telecom wavelengths and in particular at 1550 nm. This is a signature of an internal detection efficiency saturation, achieved while maintaining the high time resolution associated with NbTiN and operation at 2.5K. With our optimized recipe, we reliably fabricated detectors with high critical current densities reaching a saturation plateau at 1550 nm with 80% system detection efficiency and with a FWHM timing jitter as low as 19.5 ps.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (3)

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ferrari, C. Schuck, and W. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1725–1758 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Schweickert, K. D. Jöns, K. D. Zeuner, S. F. Covre da Silva, H. Huang, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. Zichi, R. Trotta, A. Rastelli, and V. Zwiller, “On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(9), 093106 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, W. Peng, L. X. You, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting properties and chemical composition of NbTiN thin films with different thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 122603 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 98–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. N. Zotova and D. Y. Vodolazov, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single photon detector in the modified hot spot model,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(12), 125001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental Test of Theories of the Detection Mechanism in a Nanowire Superconducting Single Photon Detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Schuck, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

G. A. Steudle, S. Schietinger, D. Höckel, S. N. Dorenbos, I. E. Zadeh, V. Zwiller, and O. Benson, “Measuring the quantum nature of light with a single source and a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 86(5), 053814 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient Single Photon Detection from 500 nm to 5 μm Wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

K. Makise, H. Terai, M. Takeda, Y. Uzawa, and Z. Wang, “Characterization of NbTiN Thin Films Deposited on Various Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21(3), 139–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Miller, A. E. Lita, B. Calkins, I. Vayshenker, S. M. Gruber, and S. W. Nam, “Compact cryogenic self-aligning fiber-to-detector coupling with losses below one percent,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9102–9110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Gammer, C. Mangler, C. Rentenberger, and H. P. Karnthaler, “Quantitative local profile analysis of nanomaterials by electron diffraction,” Scr. Mater. 63(3), 312–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

H. Myoren, T. Shimizu, T. Iizuka, and S. Takada, “Properties of NbTiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 3828–3831 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. K. Mc Manus, J. A. Kash, S. E. Steen, S. Polonsky, J. C. Tsang, D. R. Knebel, and W. Huott, “PICA: Backside failure analysis of CMOS circuits using Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(8–10), 1353–1358 (2000).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, “Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 106(1), 162–164 (1957).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, M. S.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amaya, W.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bardeen, J.

J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, “Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 106(1), 162–164 (1957).
[Crossref]

Bellei, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient Single Photon Detection from 500 nm to 5 μm Wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

G. A. Steudle, S. Schietinger, D. Höckel, S. N. Dorenbos, I. E. Zadeh, V. Zwiller, and O. Benson, “Measuring the quantum nature of light with a single source and a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 86(5), 053814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient Single Photon Detection from 500 nm to 5 μm Wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienfang, J. C.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bierhorst, P.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
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Bulgarini, G.

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C. Schuck, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweickert, L.

L. Schweickert, K. D. Jöns, K. D. Zeuner, S. F. Covre da Silva, H. Huang, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. Zichi, R. Trotta, A. Rastelli, and V. Zwiller, “On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(9), 093106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Semenov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shalm, L. K.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, M. D.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 98–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, T.

H. Myoren, T. Shimizu, T. Iizuka, and S. Takada, “Properties of NbTiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 3828–3831 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Steen, S. E.

M. K. Mc Manus, J. A. Kash, S. E. Steen, S. Polonsky, J. C. Tsang, D. R. Knebel, and W. Huott, “PICA: Backside failure analysis of CMOS circuits using Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(8–10), 1353–1358 (2000).
[Crossref]

Steinmetz, V.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stellari, F.

F. Stellari, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “CMOS Circuit Analysis with Luminescence Measurements and Simulations,” in 32nd European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 495–498.
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steudle, G. A.

G. A. Steudle, S. Schietinger, D. Höckel, S. N. Dorenbos, I. E. Zadeh, V. Zwiller, and O. Benson, “Measuring the quantum nature of light with a single source and a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 86(5), 053814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stevens, M. J.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, S.

H. Myoren, T. Shimizu, T. Iizuka, and S. Takada, “Properties of NbTiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 3828–3831 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

K. Makise, H. Terai, M. Takeda, Y. Uzawa, and Z. Wang, “Characterization of NbTiN Thin Films Deposited on Various Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21(3), 139–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

C. Schuck, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1893 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanner, M. G.

Terai, H.

K. Makise, H. Terai, M. Takeda, Y. Uzawa, and Z. Wang, “Characterization of NbTiN Thin Films Deposited on Various Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21(3), 139–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tortorici, E.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosi, A.

F. Stellari, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “CMOS Circuit Analysis with Luminescence Measurements and Simulations,” in 32nd European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 495–498.
[Crossref]

Trotta, R.

L. Schweickert, K. D. Jöns, K. D. Zeuner, S. F. Covre da Silva, H. Huang, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. Zichi, R. Trotta, A. Rastelli, and V. Zwiller, “On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(9), 093106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsang, J. C.

M. K. Mc Manus, J. A. Kash, S. E. Steen, S. Polonsky, J. C. Tsang, D. R. Knebel, and W. Huott, “PICA: Backside failure analysis of CMOS circuits using Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(8–10), 1353–1358 (2000).
[Crossref]

Uzawa, Y.

K. Makise, H. Terai, M. Takeda, Y. Uzawa, and Z. Wang, “Characterization of NbTiN Thin Films Deposited on Various Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21(3), 139–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M. P.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental Test of Theories of the Detection Mechanism in a Nanowire Superconducting Single Photon Detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Miller, A. E. Lita, B. Calkins, I. Vayshenker, S. M. Gruber, and S. W. Nam, “Compact cryogenic self-aligning fiber-to-detector coupling with losses below one percent,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9102–9110 (2011).
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Verma, V. B.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 98–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vodolazov, D. Y.

A. N. Zotova and D. Y. Vodolazov, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single photon detector in the modified hot spot model,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(12), 125001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental Test of Theories of the Detection Mechanism in a Nanowire Superconducting Single Photon Detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.-B.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, W. Peng, L. X. You, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting properties and chemical composition of NbTiN thin films with different thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 122603 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Makise, H. Terai, M. Takeda, Y. Uzawa, and Z. Wang, “Characterization of NbTiN Thin Films Deposited on Various Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21(3), 139–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wayne, M. A.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, G.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. M.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X. Y.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yin, H.-L.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, L.

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

You, L. X.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Peng, L. X. You, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting properties and chemical composition of NbTiN thin films with different thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 122603 (2015).
[Crossref]

You, L.-X.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.-W.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zadeh, I. E.

R. Gourgues, I. E. Zadeh, A. W. Elshaari, G. Bulgarini, J. W. N. Los, J. Zichi, D. Dalacu, P. J. Poole, S. N. Dorenbos, and V. Zwiller, “Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3710–3716 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Steudle, S. Schietinger, D. Höckel, S. N. Dorenbos, I. E. Zadeh, V. Zwiller, and O. Benson, “Measuring the quantum nature of light with a single source and a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 86(5), 053814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

F. Stellari, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “CMOS Circuit Analysis with Luminescence Measurements and Simulations,” in 32nd European Solid-State Device Research Conference (IEEE, 2002), pp. 495–498.
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(12), 98–101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeuner, K. D.

L. Schweickert, K. D. Jöns, K. D. Zeuner, S. F. Covre da Silva, H. Huang, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. Zichi, R. Trotta, A. Rastelli, and V. Zwiller, “On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(9), 093106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhai, J.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. J.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Peng, L. X. You, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting properties and chemical composition of NbTiN thin films with different thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 122603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. J.

W. J. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, L. X. You, C. L. Lv, L. Zhang, C. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with a bandpass filter on the fiber end-face,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 31(3), 035012 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.-J.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, F.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.-H.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental Test of Theories of the Detection Mechanism in a Nanowire Superconducting Single Photon Detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zichi, J.

R. Gourgues, I. E. Zadeh, A. W. Elshaari, G. Bulgarini, J. W. N. Los, J. Zichi, D. Dalacu, P. J. Poole, S. N. Dorenbos, and V. Zwiller, “Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3710–3716 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Schweickert, K. D. Jöns, K. D. Zeuner, S. F. Covre da Silva, H. Huang, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. Zichi, R. Trotta, A. Rastelli, and V. Zwiller, “On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(9), 093106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zotova, A. N.

A. N. Zotova and D. Y. Vodolazov, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single photon detector in the modified hot spot model,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(12), 125001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

R. Gourgues, I. E. Zadeh, A. W. Elshaari, G. Bulgarini, J. W. N. Los, J. Zichi, D. Dalacu, P. J. Poole, S. N. Dorenbos, and V. Zwiller, “Controlled integration of selected detectors and emitters in photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3710–3716 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Schweickert, K. D. Jöns, K. D. Zeuner, S. F. Covre da Silva, H. Huang, T. Lettner, M. Reindl, J. Zichi, R. Trotta, A. Rastelli, and V. Zwiller, “On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(9), 093106 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Steudle, S. Schietinger, D. Höckel, S. N. Dorenbos, I. E. Zadeh, V. Zwiller, and O. Benson, “Measuring the quantum nature of light with a single source and a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 86(5), 053814 (2012).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

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IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (2)

H. Myoren, T. Shimizu, T. Iizuka, and S. Takada, “Properties of NbTiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 3828–3831 (2001).
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Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

M. K. Mc Manus, J. A. Kash, S. E. Steen, S. Polonsky, J. C. Tsang, D. R. Knebel, and W. Huott, “PICA: Backside failure analysis of CMOS circuits using Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(8–10), 1353–1358 (2000).
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Nanophotonics (1)

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Nat. Photonics (2)

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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. A. Steudle, S. Schietinger, D. Höckel, S. N. Dorenbos, I. E. Zadeh, V. Zwiller, and O. Benson, “Measuring the quantum nature of light with a single source and a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A 86(5), 053814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental Test of Theories of the Detection Mechanism in a Nanowire Superconducting Single Photon Detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. (1)

W. Zhang, L. You, H. Li, J. Huang, C. Lv, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 60(12), 120314 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Zhu, Y. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Feng, G. Wu, X. Yan, J. Zhai, Y. Wu, Q. Chen, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15113 (2017).
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[Crossref]

A. N. Zotova and D. Y. Vodolazov, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single photon detector in the modified hot spot model,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(12), 125001 (2014).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the sputtering chamber. (b) Critical temperature Tc and Nb fraction x in the alloy NbxTi1-xN vs. Nb sputtering power. The power applied to the Ti target was kept constant at 240 W RF for all film depositions. (c) Critical temperature Tc and Nb fraction x vs. sputtering power for a constant power ratio. The lines are a guide to the eye.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of films with an Nb fraction x = 0.62. (a) AFM map showing the thickness measurement step, and the Rq roughness value of 0.763 nm extracted from the region of interest. (b) HRTEM micrograph of NbTiN deposited on a SiN support film. Inset: Fourier transform of a single grain (indicated by the white square on the micrograph) imaged along the [110] zone axis. (c) Selected area electron diffraction of the film. Inset: the extracted [200] lattice spacing scaled with Nb fraction x for different samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SEM micrograph of the SNSPD structures patterned from the films. Inset: close-up view on the meander nanowire lines. (b) Examples of normalized count rate at 1550 nm vs normalized bias current of representative detectors from three different film recipes, all with a thickness of 9 nm. (c) Average relative saturation plateau (Ic-Isat)/Ic for detectors made from films with different niobium sputtering powers. The power applied to the Ti target was kept constant at 240 W RF for all film depositions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measurement at 2.5 K of the System Detection Efficiency at 1550 nm of five detectors and the Dark Count Rate (DCR) of one of the detectors vs. bias current for 20 µm active area devices made on DBR substrates from a 9 nm thick film. (b) Coincidence histogram of the SNSPD on DBR wafer with the laser synchronization signal, revealing a FWHM timing jitter of 19.5 ps.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of films and corresponding detectors parameters

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