Abstract

A single-tone mid-infrared frequency modulation (MIR-FM) spectrometer consisting of a cw-OPO-based laser system, a 500 MHz LiTaO$_3$ electro-optical modulator (EOM), and a high-bandwidth GaAs mid-infrared detector has been developed. In order to assess the instrument’s sensitivity and time resolution, FM spectra of selected CH$_4$ transitions around $3070$ cm$^{-1}$ were measured and the reaction Cl + CH$_4$ following the $193$ nm excimer laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride was investigated by recording concentration-time profiles of HCl at $2925.90$ cm$^{-1}$ in a low-pressure slow-flow reactor. Furthermore, OH radicals were generated by UV photolysis of H$_2$O$_2$ and its transients were recorded at $3447.27$ cm$^{-1}$. The minimal detectable absorption of the spectrometer was determined to be $A_{\textrm {min}} = 4 \cdot 10 ^{-4}$ ($\Delta f_{\textrm {BW}} = 1$ MHz, $\tilde {\nu } = 3447$ cm$^{-1}$) by using the Allan approach. Mainly due to thermal noise contributions of the easy-to-saturate photodetector, the detection limit is about a factor of 4 above the shot-noise limit. To the best of our knowledge, this work reports the first implementation of a single-tone MIR-FM spectrometer based on an external EOM modulation scheme and its use for the detection of transient molecular species.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy

G. R. Janik, C. B. Carlisle, and T. F. Gallagher
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(8) 1070-1074 (1986)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5(1), 15–17 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Friedrichs, “Sensitive absorption methods for quantitative gas phase kinetic measurements. part 1: Frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. Chem. 222(1), 1–30 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. W. Crofton and E. L. Petersen, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy in a particle-forming environment for the detection of SiH$_2$2,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 1583–1589 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. B.-C. Chang and T. J. Sears, “Transient frequency-modulation absorption spectroscopy of free radicals in supersonic free jet expansions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(3), 288–292 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Alagappan, M. L. Costen, and K. G. McKendrick, “Frequency modulated spectroscopy as a probe of molecular collision dynamics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 63(5), 910–922 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Colberg and G. Friedrichs, “Room temperature and shock tube study of the reaction HCO + O$_2$2 using the photolysis of glyoxal as an efficient HCO source,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(1), 160–170 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Faßheber, M. C. Schmidt, and G. Friedrichs, “Quantitative HNO detection behind shock waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(1), 607–615 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Friedrichs and H. G. Wagner, “Quantitative FM spectroscopy at high temperatures: The detection of 1CH2 behind shock waves,” Z. Phys. Chem. 214(12), 1723–1746 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “Ultra-sensitive spectroscopy of OH radical in high-temperature transient reactions,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3518–3521 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. T. Farrell and C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation probing of Cl + C3H4 (allene, propyne) reactions: kinetics of HCl production from 292 to 850 K,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(25), 4846–4856 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation measurements of absolute rate coefficients for Cl+HD $\rightarrow$→ HCl(DCl)+D(H) between 295 and 700 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306(1-2), 33–40 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. R. Janik, C. B. Carlisle, and T. F. Gallagher, “Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(8), 1070–1074 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. Avetisov and P. Kauranen, “Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of gaseous species: theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation of line shapes,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4705–4723 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31(6), 707–717 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, B. Adhimoolam, and K.-J. Boller, “Mid-infrared wavelength- and frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a pump-modulated singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12341–12346 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, “Purified frequency modulation of a quantum cascade laser with an all-optical approach,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4506–4509 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Shehzad, P. Brochard, R. Matthey, S. Blaser, T. Gresch, R. Maulini, A. Muller, T. Südmeyer, and S. Schilt, “Electrically-driven pure amplitude and frequency modulation in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12306 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  30. N. Wong and J. L. Hall, “Servo control of amplitude modulation in frequency-modulation spectroscopy: demonstration of shot-noise-limited detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(9), 1527–1533 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Gehrtz, G. C. Bjorklund, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum-limited laser frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(9), 1510–1526 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Sathian and E. Jaatinen, “Reducing residual amplitude modulation in electro-optic phase modulators by erasing photorefractive scatter,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12309–12317 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, C. Benko, J. L. Hall, J. Ye, C. Hagemann, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, G. D. Cole, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Reduction of residual amplitude modulation to 1$\times$×10$^{-6}$−6 for frequency modulation and laser stabilization,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1980–1983 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  35. I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. A. V. Baklanov and L. N. Krasnoperov, “Oxalyl chloride - a clean source of chlorine atoms for kinetic studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(1), 97–103 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  37. R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  38. D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “High-sensitivity 308.6-nm laser absorption diagnostic optimized for OH measurement in shock tube combustion studies,” Appl. Phys. B 124(3), 37 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  41. D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  43. J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  44. J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  45. P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  46. Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  47. W. Ren, L. Luo, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive detection of formaldehyde using an interband cascade laser near 3.6 $\mu$μm,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 1062–1068 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (4)

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, “Purified frequency modulation of a quantum cascade laser with an all-optical approach,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4506–4509 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Faßheber, M. C. Schmidt, and G. Friedrichs, “Quantitative HNO detection behind shock waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(1), 607–615 (2017).
[Crossref]

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Ren, L. Luo, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive detection of formaldehyde using an interband cascade laser near 3.6 $\mu$μm,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 1062–1068 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2011 (1)

Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Friedrichs, “Sensitive absorption methods for quantitative gas phase kinetic measurements. part 1: Frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. Chem. 222(1), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (8)

A. Alagappan, M. L. Costen, and K. G. McKendrick, “Frequency modulated spectroscopy as a probe of molecular collision dynamics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 63(5), 910–922 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Colberg and G. Friedrichs, “Room temperature and shock tube study of the reaction HCO + O$_2$2 using the photolysis of glyoxal as an efficient HCO source,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(1), 160–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, B. Adhimoolam, and K.-J. Boller, “Mid-infrared wavelength- and frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a pump-modulated singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12341–12346 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. W. Crofton and E. L. Petersen, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy in a particle-forming environment for the detection of SiH$_2$2,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 1583–1589 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. V. Baklanov and L. N. Krasnoperov, “Oxalyl chloride - a clean source of chlorine atoms for kinetic studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(1), 97–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Friedrichs and H. G. Wagner, “Quantitative FM spectroscopy at high temperatures: The detection of 1CH2 behind shock waves,” Z. Phys. Chem. 214(12), 1723–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation measurements of absolute rate coefficients for Cl+HD $\rightarrow$→ HCl(DCl)+D(H) between 295 and 700 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306(1-2), 33–40 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. T. Farrell and C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation probing of Cl + C3H4 (allene, propyne) reactions: kinetics of HCl production from 292 to 850 K,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(25), 4846–4856 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

B.-C. Chang and T. J. Sears, “Transient frequency-modulation absorption spectroscopy of free radicals in supersonic free jet expansions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(3), 288–292 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Avetisov and P. Kauranen, “Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of gaseous species: theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation of line shapes,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4705–4723 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31(6), 707–717 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1971 (1)

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[Crossref]

Adhimoolam, B.

Agner, J. A.

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agnese, M.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alagappan, A.

A. Alagappan, M. L. Costen, and K. G. McKendrick, “Frequency modulated spectroscopy as a probe of molecular collision dynamics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 63(5), 910–922 (2006).
[Crossref]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[Crossref]

Asakawa, T.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

Atkinson, R.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

Auwera, J. V.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avetisov, V.

Baklanov, A. V.

A. V. Baklanov and L. N. Krasnoperov, “Oxalyl chloride - a clean source of chlorine atoms for kinetic studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(1), 97–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. A.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baulch, D. L.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Benko, C.

Bernath, P.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Blaser, S.

Boller, K.-J.

Borri, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bowman, C. T.

S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brandt, B.

W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brochard, P.

Campargue, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carlisle, C. B.

Chance, K.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, B.-C.

B.-C. Chang and T. J. Sears, “Transient frequency-modulation absorption spectroscopy of free radicals in supersonic free jet expansions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(3), 288–292 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

C. Peng, H. Zhou, L. Zhu, T. Chen, Q. Liu, D. Wang, J. Li, Q. Peng, G. Chen, and Z. Li, “Purified frequency modulation of a quantum cascade laser with an all-optical approach,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4506–4509 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

Chi, A. R.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Cho, A.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cobos, C. J.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Colberg, M.

M. Colberg and G. Friedrichs, “Room temperature and shock tube study of the reaction HCO + O$_2$2 using the photolysis of glyoxal as an efficient HCO source,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(1), 160–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cole, G. D.

Costen, M. L.

A. Alagappan, M. L. Costen, and K. G. McKendrick, “Frequency modulated spectroscopy as a probe of molecular collision dynamics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 63(5), 910–922 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cox, R. A.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Crofton, M. W.

M. W. Crofton and E. L. Petersen, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy in a particle-forming environment for the detection of SiH$_2$2,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 1583–1589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Crowley, J. N.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

Császár, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cutler, L. S.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Davidson, D.

M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davidson, D. F.

G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deppe, J.

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

Devi, V.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dudek, R.

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dyroff, C.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Esser, C.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Farrell, J. T.

J. T. Farrell and C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation probing of Cl + C3H4 (allene, propyne) reactions: kinetics of HCl production from 292 to 850 K,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(25), 4846–4856 (1998).
[Crossref]

Faßheber, N.

N. Faßheber, M. C. Schmidt, and G. Friedrichs, “Quantitative HNO detection behind shock waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(1), 607–615 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fei, R.

S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Frank, P.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fried, A.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Friedrichs, G.

N. Faßheber, M. C. Schmidt, and G. Friedrichs, “Quantitative HNO detection behind shock waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(1), 607–615 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Friedrichs, “Sensitive absorption methods for quantitative gas phase kinetic measurements. part 1: Frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. Chem. 222(1), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Colberg and G. Friedrichs, “Room temperature and shock tube study of the reaction HCO + O$_2$2 using the photolysis of glyoxal as an efficient HCO source,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(1), 160–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Friedrichs and H. G. Wagner, “Quantitative FM spectroscopy at high temperatures: The detection of 1CH2 behind shock waves,” Z. Phys. Chem. 214(12), 1723–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

Furtenbacher, T.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, T. F.

Gamache, R.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gehrtz, M.

Gmachl, C.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Golden, D. M.

S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grant, P. D.

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gresch, T.

Gross, E. C.

J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
[Crossref]

Groß, P.

Hagemann, C.

Hall, G. E.

J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

Hampson, R. F.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R.

M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R. K.

S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “Ultra-sensitive spectroscopy of OH radical in high-temperature transient reactions,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3518–3521 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “High-sensitivity 308.6-nm laser absorption diagnostic optimized for OH measurement in shock tube combustion studies,” Appl. Phys. B 124(3), 37 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Healey, D. J.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Herbon, J. T.

G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
[Crossref]

Herndon, S. C.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hodgkinson, J.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hollenstein, U.

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hynes, R. G.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, A.

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

Inguscio, M.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jaatinen, E.

Jacquemart, D.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Janik, G. R.

Jenkin, M. E.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jervis, D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnson, T.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jolly, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Just, T.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Karman, T.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kauranen, P.

Kerr, J. A.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kleiner, I.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kochanov, R.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krasnoperov, L. N.

A. V. Baklanov and L. N. Krasnoperov, “Oxalyl chloride - a clean source of chlorine atoms for kinetic studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(1), 97–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kyuberis, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. J.

Leeson, D. B.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Legero, T.

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Lindsay, I.

Liu, H. C.

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Lockhart, J. P. A.

J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
[Crossref]

Loos, J.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ludwig, W.

W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.

W. Ren, L. Luo, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive detection of formaldehyde using an interband cascade laser near 3.6 $\mu$μm,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 1062–1068 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lyulin, O.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. J.

Martini, R.

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Massie, S.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matthey, R.

Maulini, R.

McGovern, R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

McGunigal, T. E.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

McKendrick, K. G.

A. Alagappan, M. L. Costen, and K. G. McKendrick, “Frequency modulated spectroscopy as a probe of molecular collision dynamics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 63(5), 910–922 (2006).
[Crossref]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Merkt, F.

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mikhailenko, S.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mullen, J. A.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Muller, A.

Müller, H.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Natale, P. D.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

North, S. W.

S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

Peng, Q.

Perevalov, V.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Petersen, E. L.

M. W. Crofton and E. L. Petersen, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy in a particle-forming environment for the detection of SiH$_2$2,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 1583–1589 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pilling, M. J.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Polyansky, O.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ren, W.

W. Ren, L. Luo, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive detection of formaldehyde using an interband cascade laser near 3.6 $\mu$μm,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 1062–1068 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rey, M.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richter, D.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Riehle, F.

Römming, H.-J.

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roscioli, J. R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rossi, M. J.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rotger, M.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, Y.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sathian, J.

Schilt, S.

Schmidt, M. C.

N. Faßheber, M. C. Schmidt, and G. Friedrichs, “Quantitative HNO detection behind shock waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(1), 607–615 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmutz, H.

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sears, T. J.

J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

B.-C. Chang and T. J. Sears, “Transient frequency-modulation absorption spectroscopy of free radicals in supersonic free jet expansions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(3), 288–292 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, S.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shehzad, A.

Shine, K.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Silver, J. A.

Sivco, D.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, M.-A.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. L.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Sommavilla, M.

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

Subcommittee, IUPAC

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Sung, K.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sydnor, R. L.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Taatjes, C. A.

C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation measurements of absolute rate coefficients for Cl+HD $\rightarrow$→ HCl(DCl)+D(H) between 295 and 700 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306(1-2), 33–40 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Farrell and C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation probing of Cl + C3H4 (allene, propyne) reactions: kinetics of HCl production from 292 to 850 K,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(25), 4846–4856 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Temps, F.

W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

W. Ren, L. Luo, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive detection of formaldehyde using an interband cascade laser near 3.6 $\mu$μm,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 1062–1068 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tonokura, K.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toon, G.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tran, H.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Troe, J.

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vessot, R. F.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Votsmeier, M.

M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wagner, H. G.

G. Friedrichs and H. G. Wagner, “Quantitative FM spectroscopy at high temperatures: The detection of 1CH2 behind shock waves,” Z. Phys. Chem. 214(12), 1723–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

Walega, J.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Walker, R. W.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Wang, S.

S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “Ultra-sensitive spectroscopy of OH radical in high-temperature transient reactions,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3518–3521 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “High-sensitivity 308.6-nm laser absorption diagnostic optimized for OH measurement in shock tube combustion studies,” Appl. Phys. B 124(3), 37 (2018).
[Crossref]

Warnatz, J.

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wcislo, P.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weibring, P.

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, E. A.

Wilzewski, J.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winkler, G. M. R.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Wong, N.

Yacovitch, T. I.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Yu, S.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zak, E.

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zheng, X. S.

S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zhu, L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (6)

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. D. Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy for ambient-air trace gas detection using a portable difference-frequency source around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 219–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Wang and R. K. Hanson, “High-sensitivity 308.6-nm laser absorption diagnostic optimized for OH measurement in shock tube combustion studies,” Appl. Phys. B 124(3), 37 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. C. Herndon, D. Jervis, M. Agnese, R. McGovern, T. I. Yacovitch, and J. R. Roscioli, “Recent progress in laser-based trace gas instruments: performance and noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 203–218 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J. Walega, and C. Dyroff, “Ultra-high-precision mid-IR spectrometer II: system description and spectroscopic performance,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 207–218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Chen, C. G. Bethea, R. Martini, P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, and H. C. Liu, “High-speed all-optical modulation of a standard quantum cascade laser by front facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, and J. Troe, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume I - gas phase reactions of O$_{\textrm {x}}$x, HO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, NO$_{\textrm {x}}$x, and SO$_{\textrm {x}}$x species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(6), 1461–1738 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Atkinson, D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, R. F. Hampson, R. G. Hynes, M. E. Jenkin, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and IUPAC Subcommittee, “Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II - gas phase reactions of organic species,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(11), 3625–4055 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Deppe, G. Friedrichs, A. Ibrahim, H.-J. Römming, and H. G. Wagner, “The thermal decomposition of NH$_{2}$2 and NH radicals,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102(10), 1474–1485 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation measurements of absolute rate coefficients for Cl+HD $\rightarrow$→ HCl(DCl)+D(H) between 295 and 700 K,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306(1-2), 33–40 (1999).
[Crossref]

B.-C. Chang and T. J. Sears, “Transient frequency-modulation absorption spectroscopy of free radicals in supersonic free jet expansions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(3), 288–292 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. McGunigal, J. A. Mullen, W. L. Smith, R. L. Sydnor, R. F. Vessot, and G. M. R. Winkler, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20(2), 105–120 (1971).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Chem. Kinet. (3)

S. W. North, R. Fei, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “CN radical reaction rate measurements by time-resolved FM spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 29(2), 127–129 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. P. A. Lockhart, E. C. Gross, T. J. Sears, and G. E. Hall, “Kinetic study of the OH + ethylene reaction using frequency-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 51(6), 412–421 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Votsmeier, S. Song, D. Davidson, and R. Hanson, “Sensitive detection of NH$_{2}$2 in shock tube experiments using frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31(6), 445–453 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

U. Hollenstein, H. Schmutz, J. A. Agner, M. Sommavilla, and F. Merkt, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 146(1), 014201 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. W. North, X. S. Zheng, R. Fei, and G. E. Hall, “Line shape analysis of Doppler broadened frequency-modulated line spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(6), 2129–2135 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. A (5)

J. T. Farrell and C. A. Taatjes, “Infrared frequency-modulation probing of Cl + C3H4 (allene, propyne) reactions: kinetics of HCl production from 292 to 850 K,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(25), 4846–4856 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Song, D. M. Golden, R. K. Hanson, and C. T. Bowman, “A shock tube study of benzylamine decomposition: overall rate coefficient and heat of formation of the benzyl radical,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(25), 6094–6098 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Colberg and G. Friedrichs, “Room temperature and shock tube study of the reaction HCO + O$_2$2 using the photolysis of glyoxal as an efficient HCO source,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(1), 160–170 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Ludwig, B. Brandt, G. Friedrichs, and F. Temps, “Kinetics of the reaction C$_2$2H$_5$5 + HO$_2$2 by time-resolved mass spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(9), 3330–3337 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. V. Baklanov and L. N. Krasnoperov, “Oxalyl chloride - a clean source of chlorine atoms for kinetic studies,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(1), 97–103 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

D. L. Baulch, C. J. Cobos, R. A. Cox, C. Esser, P. Frank, T. Just, J. A. Kerr, M. J. Pilling, J. Troe, R. W. Walker, and J. Warnatz, “Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 21(3), 411–734 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

I. Gordon, L. Rothman, C. Hill, R. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. Chance, B. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. Shine, M.-A. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, H. Tran, V. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. Császár, V. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. Lyulin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, O. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sakamoto, K. Tanaka, T. Asakawa, and K. Tonokura, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy detection of N$_2$2O using a direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO$_3$3-ridge-waveguide mid-infrared laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(6R), 062401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Friedrichs, J. T. Herbon, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative detection of HCO behind shock waves: The thermal decomposition of HCO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(23), 5778–5788 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

M. W. Crofton and E. L. Petersen, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy in a particle-forming environment for the detection of SiH$_2$2,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 1583–1589 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Faßheber, M. C. Schmidt, and G. Friedrichs, “Quantitative HNO detection behind shock waves,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(1), 607–615 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators, B (1)

W. Ren, L. Luo, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive detection of formaldehyde using an interband cascade laser near 3.6 $\mu$μm,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 1062–1068 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part A (1)

A. Alagappan, M. L. Costen, and K. G. McKendrick, “Frequency modulated spectroscopy as a probe of molecular collision dynamics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 63(5), 910–922 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. Chem. (2)

G. Friedrichs, “Sensitive absorption methods for quantitative gas phase kinetic measurements. part 1: Frequency modulation spectroscopy,” Z. Phys. Chem. 222(1), 1–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Friedrichs and H. G. Wagner, “Quantitative FM spectroscopy at high temperatures: The detection of 1CH2 behind shock waves,” Z. Phys. Chem. 214(12), 1723–1746 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the MIR-FM setup. OPO: optical parametric oscillator; EOM: electro-optical modulator; AC/DC: alternating/direct current; RF: radio frequency; LO: local oscillator; IF: intermediate frequency; DSO: digital storage oscilloscope.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Frequency-spectrum of the modulated light at $M =~$0.60. (b) FM spectra of CH$_4$ at different modulation indices and corresponding absorption spectra in units of the FM factor $\Delta f$ ($p = 1.5~$mbar, $\theta = 180^{\circ }$, $\tilde {\nu }_{0} = 3071.39$ cm$^{-1}$, $A_{\textrm {c}}= 3.9 \cdot 10^{-2}$). (c) Typical uncorrected FM signal (blue curve) and corresponding baseline (black curve). (d) Experimental (solid curves) and simulated (dashed curves) FM spectra of four closely spaced CH$_4$ lines ($p = 2.0~$mbar, $M = 0.32$, $A_{\textrm {c}}= 5.2 \cdot 10^{-2}$ for the highest peak) as well as simulated direct absorption spectrum (dashed black curve).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) HCl profile (blue curve) and single exponential fit (red curve) in units of absorbance and mole fraction at $2925.90$ cm$^{-1}$ ($M = 0.48$, $\Delta f_{\textrm {max}} = 0.45$, $p = 31.0~$mbar, $\Delta f_{\textrm {BW}} = 1~$MHz, $P_0 = 0.6~$mW). The inset shows the noise level on the recorded signal. (b) OH profile (blue curve) in units of absorbance and mole fraction at $3447.90$ cm$^{-1}$ ($M = 0.48$, $\Delta f_{\textrm {max}} = 0.45$, $p = 8.6~$mbar, $\Delta f_{\textrm {BW}} = 1~$MHz, $10$ point moving average, $P_0 = 1.0~$mW) and kinetic simulation (red curve) of the experimental profile based on rate constants adopted from Atkinson et al. [37] and Baulch et al. [38].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Measured FM signal noise on five different timescales ($M = 0.20$, $P_0 = 480~\mu$W, $\tilde {\nu } = 3071$ cm$^{-1}$). The individual segments of FM noise were offset with $20~$mV relative to each other for better visualization. (b) Corresponding Allan plot regarding $I_{\textrm {FM}}$ with estimated errors.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Minimal detectable absorption $A_{\textrm {min}}$ derived from Allan analysis of FM signal noise at different light power levels $P_0$ as function of the averaging period $\tau$ ($M = 0.48$, $\Delta f_{\textrm {max}} = 0.45$, $\tilde {\nu } = 3447$ cm$^{-1}$). (b) log-log plot of experimental $A_{\textrm {min}}$ values at $\tau = 1~\mu$s versus light power $P_0$ ($M = 0.48$, $\Delta f_{\textrm {max}} = 0.45$, $\tilde {\nu } = 3447$ cm$^{-1}$). The theoretical shot-noise limit is shown for comparison ($\eta = 0.52$, $\Delta f_{\textrm {BW}} = 1~$MHz).

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E T ( t ) = E 0   exp ( i ω c t ) n = + T n ( ω )   J n ( M )   exp ( i n ω m t )
I FM = I 0 Δ f δ c G = I 0 2 Δ f α c l G
Δ f = [ A AC   cos ( θ ) + D AC   sin ( θ ) ] / δ c
A AC M ( δ 1 δ + 1 )
D AC M ( ϕ + 1 2 ϕ 0 + ϕ 1 )
Cl + CH 4 HCl + CH 3
(COCl) 2 + h ν 2   CO + 2   Cl .
H 2 O 2 + h ν 2   OH
OH + H 2 O 2 H 2 O + HO 2
σ A 2 ( τ ) = ( y ¯ i y ¯ i + 1 ) 2 2
σ A 2 ( τ ) = 1 2 ( K 1 ) i = 0 K 1 ( y ¯ i y ¯ i + 1 ) 2
A min SN = 4 Δ f max [ ( P 0 h ν c ) η Δ f BW ] 1 2

Metrics