Abstract

Herein, we demonstrate one of the highest terahertz group delay of 42.4 ps achieved experimentally at 0.23 THz, on a flexible planar metamaterial. The unit cell of metasurface is made up of a textured closed cavity and another experimentally concentric metallic arc. By tuning the central angle of the metallic arc, its intrinsic dipolar mode is in destructive interference with the spoof localized surface plasmon (SLSP) on textured closed cavity, which results in a plasmon-induced transparency phenomenon. The measured transmittances of as-fabricated samples using terahertz-time domain spectroscopy validate numerical results using extended coupled Lorentz oscillator model. It is found that the coupling coefficient and damping ratio of SLSP relies on the radius of the ring structure of textured closed cavity. As a consequence, the slow light maximum values become manoeuverable in strength at certain frequencies of induced transparency windows. To the best of our knowledge, our experimental result is currently the highest value demonstrated so far within metasurface at terahertz band.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

2018 (6)

J. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Zhang, P. Ma, M. Zheng, and Y. Li, “Extended coupled Lorentz oscillator model and analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled plasmonic structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(8), 1854–1860 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, Y. Chen, Z. Gu, and W. Shi, “Maximization of terahertz slow light by tuning the spoof localized surface plasmon induced transparency,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2345–2354 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baqir, A. Farmani, T. Fatima, M. R. Raza, S. F. Shaukat, and A. Mir, “Nanoscale, tunable, and highly sensitive biosensor utilizing hyperbolic metamaterials in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Opt. 57(31), 9447–9454 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Alipour, A. Farmani, and A. Mir, “High sensitivity and tunable nanoscale sensor based on plasmon-induced transparency in plasmonic metasurface,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(17), 7047–7054 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Farmani, A. Mir, and Z. Sharifpour, “Broadly tunable and bidirectional terahertz graphene plasmonic switch based on enhanced Goos-Hänchen effect,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 453, 358–364 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C.-W. Tan, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, E. Plum, and R. Singh, “Lattice induced strong coupling and line narrowing of split resonances in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201111 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photo switching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on nanoscale,” Science 358(6361), eaan5196 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, N. Papasimakis, S. Savo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Many-body subradiant excitation in metamaterial array: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(5), 053901 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, L. Shen, S. A. Schultz, X. Zheng, J. Upham, X. Deng, H. Altug, A. F. Vakakis, and R. W. Boyd, “Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering,” Science 356(6344), 1260–1264 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, Z. Zhao, W. Shi, and W. Peng, “Broadband terahertz plasmon-induced transparency via asymmetric coupling inside meta-molecules,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 1035–1057 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. L. F. Armani, M. E. M. Iri, and M. O. H. S. Heikhi, “Tunable resonant Goos–Hänchen and Imbert–Fedorov shifts in total reflection of terahertz beams from graphene plasmonic metasurfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6), 1097–1106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, X. Zheng, W. Peng, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Luo, and W. Shi, “Localized slow light phenomenon in symmetry broken terahertz metamolecule made of conductively coupled dark resonators,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1950–1961 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, X. Zheng, W. Peng, J. Zhang, H. Zhao, Z. Luo, and W. Shi, “Localized terahertz electromagnetically-induced transparency-like phenomenon in a conductively coupled trimer metamolecule,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24410–24424 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

Z. Zhao, Z. Song, W. Shi, and W. Peng, “Plasmon-induced transparency-like behavior at terahertz region via dipole oscillation detuning in a hybrid planar metamaterial,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2190–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Lattice-induced transparency in planar metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 94(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, Y. M. Wei, X.-F. Zang, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Gao, F. Gao, and B. Zhang, “High-order spoof localized surface plasmons supported on a complementary metallic spiral structure,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24447 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, B. Xu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Chen, C. Gu, and Y. Zhou, “Localized spoof surface plasmons based on closed subwavelength high contrast gratings: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liao, S. Liu, H. F. Ma, C. Li, B. Jin, and T.-J. Cui, “Electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial based on spoof localized surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27596 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

Z. Liao, Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Domínguez, X. Shen, S. A. Maier, and T.-J. Cui, “High-order localized spoof surface plasmon resonances and experimental verifications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9590 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhou, Q. X. Xiao, and B. J. Yang, “Spoof localized surface plasmons on ultrathin textured MIM ring resonator with enhanced resonances,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14819 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, S.-Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hokmabadi, E. Philip, E. Rivera, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Plasmon-induced transparency by hybridizing concentric-twisted double split ring resonators,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14373 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jenkins and J. Ruostekoski, “Metamaterial transparency induced by cooperative electromagnetic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(14), 147401 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Taubert, M. Hentschel, J. Kästel, and H. Giessen, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced absorption in plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1367–1371 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. Merbold, A. Bitzer, and T. Feurer, “Near-field investigation of induced transparency in similarly oriented double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1683–1685 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, M. S. Wartak, J. J. H. Cook, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Negative-permeability electromagnetically induced transparent and magnetically active metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 81(19), 195128 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

N. Papasimakis, Y. H. Fu, V. A. Fedotov, S. L. Prosrirnin, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Soljacic, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. V. Hau, “Ultra low-power all-optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 171101 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Superluminal and slow light propagation in a room-temperature solid,” Science 301(5630), 200–202 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref]

Agha, I.

Alipour, A.

A. Alipour, A. Farmani, and A. Mir, “High sensitivity and tunable nanoscale sensor based on plasmon-induced transparency in plasmonic metasurface,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(17), 7047–7054 (2018).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photo switching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

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M. Manjappa, S.-Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
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Merbold, H.

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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A. Farmani, A. Mir, and Z. Sharifpour, “Broadly tunable and bidirectional terahertz graphene plasmonic switch based on enhanced Goos-Hänchen effect,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 453, 358–364 (2018).
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R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
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S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, N. Papasimakis, S. Savo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Many-body subradiant excitation in metamaterial array: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(5), 053901 (2017).
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[Crossref]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref]

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J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
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Philip, E.

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T. C.-W. Tan, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, E. Plum, and R. Singh, “Lattice induced strong coupling and line narrowing of split resonances in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201111 (2018).
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N. Papasimakis, Y. H. Fu, V. A. Fedotov, S. L. Prosrirnin, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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[Crossref]

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R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, N. Papasimakis, S. Savo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Many-body subradiant excitation in metamaterial array: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(5), 053901 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jenkins and J. Ruostekoski, “Metamaterial transparency induced by cooperative electromagnetic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(14), 147401 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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K. L. Tsakmakidis, L. Shen, S. A. Schultz, X. Zheng, J. Upham, X. Deng, H. Altug, A. F. Vakakis, and R. W. Boyd, “Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering,” Science 356(6344), 1260–1264 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Shah, C. M.

S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. Farmani, A. Mir, and Z. Sharifpour, “Broadly tunable and bidirectional terahertz graphene plasmonic switch based on enhanced Goos-Hänchen effect,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 453, 358–364 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Shen, L.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, L. Shen, S. A. Schultz, X. Zheng, J. Upham, X. Deng, H. Altug, A. F. Vakakis, and R. W. Boyd, “Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering,” Science 356(6344), 1260–1264 (2017).
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Z. Liao, Y. Luo, A. I. Fernandez-Domínguez, X. Shen, S. A. Maier, and T.-J. Cui, “High-order localized spoof surface plasmon resonances and experimental verifications,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9590 (2015).
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T. C.-W. Tan, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, E. Plum, and R. Singh, “Lattice induced strong coupling and line narrowing of split resonances in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201111 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photo switching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Lattice-induced transparency in planar metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 94(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, S.-Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
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[Crossref]

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T. C.-W. Tan, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, E. Plum, and R. Singh, “Lattice induced strong coupling and line narrowing of split resonances in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201111 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photo switching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Lattice-induced transparency in planar metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 94(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

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T. C.-W. Tan, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, E. Plum, and R. Singh, “Lattice induced strong coupling and line narrowing of split resonances in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 201111 (2018).
[Crossref]

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W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

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N. Papasimakis, Y. H. Fu, V. A. Fedotov, S. L. Prosrirnin, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[Crossref]

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K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on nanoscale,” Science 358(6361), eaan5196 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, L. Shen, S. A. Schultz, X. Zheng, J. Upham, X. Deng, H. Altug, A. F. Vakakis, and R. W. Boyd, “Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering,” Science 356(6344), 1260–1264 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

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K. L. Tsakmakidis, M. S. Wartak, J. J. H. Cook, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Negative-permeability electromagnetically induced transparent and magnetically active metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 81(19), 195128 (2010).
[Crossref]

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L. Chen, Y. M. Wei, X.-F. Zang, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 175–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

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S. Walia, C. M. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 011303 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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Z. Li, B. Xu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Chen, C. Gu, and Y. Zhou, “Localized spoof surface plasmons based on closed subwavelength high contrast gratings: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27158 (2016).
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R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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L. Chen, Y. M. Wei, X.-F. Zang, Y. M. Zhu, and S. L. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
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W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Zhang, L.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

M. Manjappa, S.-Y. Chiam, L. Cong, A. A. Bettiol, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(18), 181101 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, R. Singh, C. Zhang, J. Han, M. Tonouchi, and W. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials: Active near field coupling between bright superconducting and dark metallic mode resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. R. Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “Coupling between a dark and a bright eigenmode in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on nanoscale,” Science 358(6361), eaan5196 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, Z.

Zheludev, N. I.

S. D. Jenkins, J. Ruostekoski, N. Papasimakis, S. Savo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Many-body subradiant excitation in metamaterial array: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(5), 053901 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Papasimakis, Y. H. Fu, V. A. Fedotov, S. L. Prosrirnin, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with polarization and direction insensitive resonant transmission response mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211902 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, M.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, Y.

Z. Li, B. Xu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Chen, C. Gu, and Y. Zhou, “Localized spoof surface plasmons based on closed subwavelength high contrast gratings: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y. J.

Y. J. Zhou, Q. X. Xiao, and B. J. Yang, “Spoof localized surface plasmons on ultrathin textured MIM ring resonator with enhanced resonances,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14819 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of a unit cell of proposed binary MM, in which p = 420 µm, r = 90 µm, w = 4 µm, h = 60 µm, g = 15 µm, respectively. l is the length of the metallic arc. (b) Microscopic images (VHX-500, Keyence Inc.) of unit cell of as-fabricated binary MM. (c) A schematic diagram showing terahertz transmission and group velocity delay through a periodic array of binary MM, as measured using a THz-TDS. KTHz refers to the wave vector of incident THz pulse. EX and HY refer to the electrical and magnetic component of the incident electromagnetic waves, respectively. XYZ are the coordinate axis in free space.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Terahertz transmittance against frequency for different central angles, θ = 60, 120, and 180 degree for (a) outer-ring, (b) middle-ring, (c) inner-ring MM. Blue solid line: simulated (S) results. Green solid line: ECLO model based theoretical (T) results. Red solid line: experimental (E) results.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Electrical field distribution and (b) magnetic field distribution of terahertz transparency window of the three types of MMs with θ = 120 degree at 0.23 THz. The color bar refers to the polarity as well as the relative strength of electromagnetic field.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The measured (red solid line) and simulated (blue solid line) of group delay of three types of MM at 120 degree (a) outer-ring (b) middle-ring and (c) inner-ring.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The simulated terahertz transmittance as functions of central angle of arc and frequency of three types of MM; (b) The group delay as functions of central angle of arc and frequency of three types of MM. The white dash line enclosed area denotes the coupling region.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The FOM as functions of central angle of arc and frequency of three types of MM.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. The fitted parameters for ECLO model.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The terahertz slow light maximum values of three types of MM shown in Fig. 5(b).

Tables Icon

Table 3. The progress on measured maximum value of terahertz group delay in MM.

Equations (11)

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T ( v ) = | E s a m p l e ( v ) / E s a m p l e ( v ) E r e f ( v ) E r e f ( v ) | ,
( a b ) = ( δ + 2 i γ κ e i φ / 2 κ e i φ / 2 δ ) 1 ( E 0 0 ) .
α = Re ( ( κ e i φ / 2 ) 2 γ 2 ) ,
a = E 0 ( χ 1 δ ω 1 + χ 2 δ + ω 2 ) ,
β = Im ( ( κ e i φ / 2 ) 2 γ 2 ) .
χ 1 = α i Γ 1 2 ( α + i β ) ,
χ 2 = α + i Γ 2 2 ( α + i β ) .
T = 1 [ | λ 1 | 2 | χ 1 | 2 + | λ 2 | 2 | χ 2 | 2 + ( λ 2 λ 1 χ 2 χ 1 + λ 1 λ 2 χ 1 χ 2 ) ] .
Δ τ = d ϕ 2 π d ν ,
F O M = Δ ν Δ τ ,
Δ ν = ν H ν L .

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